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    Differential actions of PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ on beige adipocyte formation: A study in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese male mice.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0191365. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background And Aims: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Read More

    Distinct roles of TRAF6 and TAK1 in the regulation of adipocyte survival, thermogenesis program, and high-fat diet-induced obesity.
    Oncotarget 2017 Dec 3;8(68):112565-112583. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA.
    Chronic low-grade inflammation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and glucose intolerance are common features of obesity and a risk factor for cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein that also possesses a non-conventional E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. In response to receptor-mediated events, TRAF6 activates transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which leads to activation of the MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. Read More

    Ethanolic Extract of the Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Agaricomycetes), Alleviates Metabolic Syndrome in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.
    Int J Med Mushrooms 2017 ;19(11):1001-1008
    Department of Food and Bioengineering, Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Pleurotus citrinopileatus is an edible medicinal mushroom rich in biomolecules and thus has a high potential for use in formulating pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. To test its effect on body weight and glucose control, we generated diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice by feeding the mice a high-fat diet (60% fat) for 8 weeks and treating them with an ethanolic P. citrinopileatus extract (PCE) at either 200 or 500 mg/kg body weight for 12 additional weeks. Read More

    The Pharmacological Management of Metabolic Syndrome.
    Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jan 18. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    d Department of Psychiatry , Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine , Hempstead , NY , USA.
    Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Read More

    The Root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi Prevents Obesity and Glucose Intolerance and Increases Energy Metabolism in Mice.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 17;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Donggukro 27, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si 10326, Korea.
    Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. Read More

    Deletion of the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) promotes insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation during high fat feeding.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, United States; Medicine, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, United States. Electronic address:
    Objective: Inflammation in adipose tissues in obesity promotes insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a promiscuous non-signaling receptor expressed on erythrocytes and other cell types that modulates tissue inflammation by binding chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and by acting as a chemokine reservoir. DARC allelic variants are common in humans, but the role of DARC in modulating obesity-related metabolic disease is unknown. Read More

    Lipidized prolactin-releasing peptide improved glucose tolerance in metabolic syndrome: Koletsky and spontaneously hypertensive rat study.
    Nutr Diabetes 2018 Jan 16;8(1). Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Background/objectives: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) has a potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but is ineffective after peripheral administration. We have previously shown that our novel lipidized analogs PrRP enhances its stability in the circulation and enables its central effect after peripheral application. The purpose of this study was to explore if sub-chronic administration of novel PrRP analog palmitoylated in position 11 (palm11-PrRP31) to Koletsky-spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB) could lower body weight and glucose intolerance as well as other metabolic parameters. Read More

    Atorvastatin Impaired Glucose Metabolism in C2C12 Cells Partly via Inhibiting Cholesterol-dependent Glucose Transporter 4 Translocation.
    Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:
    Skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of glucose disposal in body and statins impair glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on glucose metabolism in C2C12 cells. Glucose metabolism and expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hexokinase II (HXKII) were measured following incubation with atorvastatin or pravastatin. Read More

    RAGE binds preamyloid IAPP intermediates and mediates pancreatic β cell proteotoxicity.
    J Clin Invest 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Diabetes Research Program, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
    Islet amyloidosis is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in pancreatic islets, resulting in β cell toxicity, which exacerbates type 2 diabetes and islet transplant failure. It is not fully clear how IAPP induces cellular stress or how IAPP-induced toxicity can be prevented or treated. We recently defined the properties of toxic IAPP species. Read More

    Circulating adipokines and mRNA expression in adipose tissue and the placenta in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Peptides 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute and Diabetes Center, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, University General Hospital Attikon, Rimini 1, 12462 Haidari, Athens, Greece.
    Maternal adipose tissue and the placenta secrete various molecules commonly called adipokines such as chemerin, omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and leptin that are important players in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a state of glucose intolerance characterized by β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. To examine whether circulating adipokines and their mRNA expression in the adipose tissue and the placenta are altered in GDM pregnancy, we compared 15 GDM women [obese (BMI > 30) and non-obese (BMI < 30)] to 23 NGT (normal glucose tolerance) women [obese and non-obese], at the time of the Cesarean section. Read More

    Heterogeneity of autophagic status in pancreatic β cells under metabolic stress.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Center for Identification of Diabetic Therapeutic Targets, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Autophagy in β cells has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis and the progression of glucose intolerance. Although autophagic activity is affected by metabolic stress both in vivo and in vitro, it remains unclear as to what extent the autophagic status in each β cell is different from its neighboring cells. To address this question, GFP-LC3 reporter mice, which can visualize the autophagic status of each β cell as green-fluorescent puncta, were crossed with obese diabetic db/db mice. Read More

    Bioelectronic modulation of carotid sinus nerve activity in the rat: a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 2018 Jan 14. Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Rua Camara Pestana, no. 6, 6A, edificio II, piso 3, 1150-082, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Aims/hypothesis: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function. Herein we characterise the ability of a novel bioelectronic application, classified as kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) modulation, to suppress neural signals within the CSN of rodents. Read More

    A post-translational balancing act: the good and the bad of SUMOylation in pancreatic islets.
    Diabetologia 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Post-translational modification of proteins contributes to the control of cell function and survival. The balance of these in insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells is important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Protection from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species is required for beta cell survival, but if this happens at the expense of insulin secretory function then the ability of islets to respond to changing metabolic conditions may be compromised. Read More

    SIRT6-mediated transcriptional suppression of Txnip is critical for pancreatic beta cell function and survival in mice.
    Diabetologia 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Cell Systems & Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Centre at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX, 78229-3900, USA.
    Aims/hypothesis: Better understanding of how genetic and epigenetic components control beta cell differentiation and function is key to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to prevent beta cell dysfunction and failure in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Our goal was to elucidate the role of histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) in beta cell development and homeostasis.

    Methods: Sirt6 endocrine progenitor cell conditional knockout and beta cell-specific knockout mice were generated using the Cre-loxP system. Read More

    Modest Decreases in Endogenous All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Produced by a Mouse Rdh10 Heterozygote Provoke Major Abnormalities in Adipogenesis and Lipid Metabolism.
    Diabetes 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Graduate Program in Metabolic Biology,
    Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Read More

    GLP-1 release and vagal afferent activation mediate the beneficial metabolic and chronotherapeutic effects of D-allulose.
    Nat Commun 2018 Jan 9;9(1):113. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Division of Integrative Physiology, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
    Overeating and arrhythmic feeding promote obesity and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are effective anti-obesity drugs but their use is limited by side effects. Here we show that oral administration of the non-calorie sweetener, rare sugar D-allulose (D-psicose), induces GLP-1 release, activates vagal afferent signaling, reduces food intake and promotes glucose tolerance in healthy and obese-diabetic animal models. Read More

    The Diabetes Gene and Wnt Pathway Effector TCF7L2 Regulates Adipocyte Development and Function.
    Diabetes 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Diabetes Division, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX;
    The gene encoding for transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is the strongest type 2 diabetes (T2DM) candidate gene discovered to date. The TCF7L2 protein is a key transcriptional effector of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is an important developmental pathway that negatively regulates adipogenesis. However, the precise role that TCF7L2 plays in the development and function of adipocytes remains largely unknown. Read More

    Development and Characterization of a Novel Congenic Rat Strain for Obesity and Cancer Research.
    Nutr Cancer 2018 Jan 9:1-10. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    b Department of Nutrition, Auburn University , Auburn , Alabama , USA.
    The association between a Western Diet and colon cancer suggests that dietary factors and/or obesity may contribute to cancer progression. Our objective was to develop a new animal model of obesity and the associated pathophysiology to investigate human cancer independent of dietary components that induce obesity. A novel congenic rat strain was established by introducing the fa allele from the Zucker rat into the Rowett Nude rat to generate a "fatty nude rat". Read More

    Activation of nuclear receptor PXR impairs glucose tolerance and dysregulates GLUT2 expression and subcellular localization in liver.
    Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Jan 5;148:253-264. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Research Unit of Biomedicine, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Electronic address:
    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that senses chemical environment and is activated by numerous clinically used drugs and environmental contaminants. Previous studies have indicated that several drugs known to activate PXR appear to induce glucose intolerance. We now aimed to reveal the role of PXR in drug-induced glucose intolerance and characterize the mechanisms involved. Read More

    Intergenerational Influence of Paternal Obesity on Metabolic and Reproductive Health Parameters of the Offspring: Male-Preferential Impact and Involvement of Kiss1-Mediated Pathways.
    Endocrinology 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), Cordoba, Spain.
    Obesity and its comorbidities are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Maternal obesity is known to predispose the offspring to metabolic disorders, independently of genetic inheritance. This intergenerational transmission has also been suggested for paternal obesity, with a potential negative impact on the metabolic and, eventually, reproductive health of the offspring, likely via epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. Read More

    Diabetes Mellitus and Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.
    Am J Cardiol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Diabetes mellitus is associated with left-sided myocardial remodeling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Little is known about the impact of diabetes mellitus on right ventricular (RV) function in HFpEF. We therefore studied the relation between diabetes mellitus and RV dysfunction in HFpEF. Read More

    Human Malformation Syndromes of Defective GLI: Opposite Phenotypes of 2q14.2 (GLI2) and 7p14.2 (GLI3) Microdeletions and a GLIA/R Balance Model.
    Cytogenet Genome Res 2017 4;153(2):56-65. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Division of Clinical Genetics, Multidisciplinary Medical Center, Kanazawa Medical University Hospital, Uchinada, Japan.
    GLI family zinc finger proteins are transcriptional effectors of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. GLI regulates gene expression and repression at various phases of embryonic morphogenesis. In humans, 4 GLI genes are known, and GLI2 (2q14. Read More

    mGluR2/3 activation of the SIRT1 axis preserves mitochondrial function in diabetic neuropathy.
    Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2017 Dec 1;4(12):844-858. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of NeurologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreMaryland21201.
    Objectives: There is a critical need to develop effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy. This study determined if a selective mGluR2/3 receptor agonist prevented or treated experimental diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) through glutamate recycling and improved mitochondrial function.

    Methods: Adult male streptozotocin treated Sprague-Dawley rats with features of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Low Capacity Running (LCR) rats with insulin resistance or glucose intolerance were treated with 3 or 10 mg/kg/day LY379268. Read More

    Early postpartum metabolic syndrome in women with or without gestational diabetes: Results from Life after Gestational Diabetes Ahvaz cohort study.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Midwifery, Ardabil University of medical sciences, Ardabil, Iran. Electronic address:
    Aims: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome and its potential risk factors, 6-12 weeks postpartum in women with GDM compared to women with normal glucose tolerance.

    Methods: LAGAs is an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study that started in March 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. During 11 months of study progression, 176 women with GDM pregnancy and 86 healthy women underwent a fasting glucose test, 75-g OGTT and fasting lipid tests at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Read More

    Chronic sleep disorder induced by psychophysiological stress induces glucose intolerance without adipose inflammation in mice.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Jan 28;495(4):2616-2621. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Sleep disturbances are associated with various metabolic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. We had previously established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by disrupted circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, core body temperature, and sleep-wake cycles. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders induced by CSD, we created mice with CSD for six weeks and fed them with a high-fat diet. Read More

    High prevalence of obesity among nursing personnel working in tertiary care hospital.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Endocrinology, Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology & Metabolism, University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) & GTB Hospital, Delhi 110095, India. Electronic address:
    Aim: To find out the prevalence of obesity and glucose intolerance among nurses working in tertiary care hospital.

    Methods: Study was conducted in 496 apparently healthy females comprising two groups. Group B had 290 nurses and control group A had 206 age matched female subjects of general population. Read More

    Maternal chromium restriction induces insulin resistance in adult mice offspring through miRNA.
    Int J Mol Med 2018 Mar 18;41(3):1547-1559. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Translational Medicine Centre, Ministry of Health, Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, P.R. China.
    Increasing evidence suggests that undernutrition during the fetal period may lead to glucose intolerance, impair the insulin response and induce insulin resistance (IR). Considering the importance of chromium (Cr) in maintaining carbohydrate metabolism, the present study aimed to determine the effects of maternal low Cr (LC) on glucose metabolism in C57BL mice offspring, and the involved mechanisms. Weaned C57BL mice were born from mothers fed a control diet or LC diet, and were then fed a control or LC diet for 13 weeks. Read More

    Clinical significance of neuregulin 4 (NRG4) in gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Dec 28:1-4. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    f Department of Biochemistry , Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine , Aydin , Turkey.
    Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance detected during pregnancy. GDM is increasing worldwide and is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Neuregulin 4 (NGR4) is epidermal growth factor like signaling molecule. Read More

    Diet-induced glucose homeostasis dysregulation is enhanced by taurine supplementation in ovariectomized mice.
    Amino Acids 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Obesity and Comorbidities Research Center (OCRC), Institute of Biology, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Low levels of estrogens are associated with obesity-related comorbidities. Mice with lower levels of estrogens are thereby more sensitive to the effects of a high-fat-diet (HFD) for the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Studies in vivo have demonstrated that taurine (TAU) supplementation prevents glucose and insulin resistance. Read More

    The effects of a high-protein, high-calorie, fiber- and fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched enteral formula on nutritional status, bowel habits and tolerance: Safety and Effectiveness of Enteral Nutrition in elderly Spanish patients (SENS Study).
    Nutr Hosp 2017 Oct 27;34(5):1267-1274. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Hospital Clínico San Carlos.
    Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) is an effective nutritional intervention for patients at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. However, complications such as gastrointestinal intolerance, hyperglycemia or refeeding syndrome can be triggered by EN.

    Aim: To investigate the effects of a tube feeding formula (TFF) on patients' nutritional status, biochemical status, bowel habits and safety. Read More

    Dual CCR2/5 Antagonist Attenuates Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance by Regulating Macrophage Recruitment and M1/M2 Status.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: Adipose tissue inflammation induced by macrophage infiltration through the C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 or CCR5 pathway has a pivotal role in obesity-related disease and insulin resistance. Here, the effect of PF4178903, a dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist, on obesity and insulin resistance was evaluated.

    Methods: Forty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups as follows: (1) regular diet (RD), (2) RD with PF4178903, (3) high-fat diet (HFD), and (4) HFD with PF4178903. Read More

    International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology CIII: Chemerin Receptors CMKLR1 (Chemerin1) and GPR1 (Chemerin2) Nomenclature, Pharmacology, and Function.
    Pharmacol Rev 2018 01 26;70(1):174-196. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Experimental Medicine and Immunotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Centre for Clinical Investigation, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein and adipokine, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene CMKLR1 (also known as ChemR23), and as a consequence the receptor protein was renamed the chemerin receptor in 2013. Since then, chemerin has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a second G protein-coupled receptor, encoded by the gene GPR1 Therefore, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name of the receptor protein for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) is chemerin receptor 1, and G protein-coupled receptor 1 is chemerin receptor 2 to follow the convention of naming the receptor protein after the endogenous ligand. Chemerin receptor 1 and chemerin receptor 2 can be abbreviated to Chemerin1 and Chemerin2, respectively. Read More

    The adrenal gland microenvironment in health, disease and during regeneration.
    Hormones (Athens) 2017 Jul;16(3):251-265
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, King's College London, London, UK.
    The adrenal gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the adrenal gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Read More

    Lactose intolerance and gastrointestinal cow's milk allergy in infants and children - common misconceptions revisited.
    World Allergy Organ J 2017 12;10(1):41. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    University of the Philippines, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines.
    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in human and mammalian milk. Lactose requires enzymatic hydrolysis by lactase into D-glucose and D-galactose before it can be absorbed. Term infants express sufficient lactase to digest about one liter of breast milk daily. Read More

    The monounsaturated fatty acid oleate is the major physiological toxic free fatty acid for human beta cells.
    Nutr Diabetes 2017 Dec 21;7(12):305. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can cause glucose intolerance and diabetes. Lipotoxicity to the pancreatic beta cells is considered to be a major underlying cause for this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to analyse the toxicity profile of FFAs in the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line and to compare the results with isolated rat and human islets with special reference to the physiologically most prevalent FFAs palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). Read More

    Coordinated regulation of hepatic FoxO1, PGC-1α and SREBP-1c facilitates insulin action and resistance.
    Cell Signal 2018 Mar 18;43:62-70. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Medical and Research Services, James A. Haley Veterans Administration Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33704, USA. Electronic address:
    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic overproduction of glucose and lipids. Insulin increases lipogenic enzyme expression by activating Akt and aPKC which activate SREBP-1c; this pathway is hyperactivated in insulin-resistant states. Insulin suppresses gluconeogenic enzyme expression by Akt-dependent phosphorylation/inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC-1α; this pathway is impaired in insulin-resistant states by aPKC excess, which displaces Akt from scaffolding-protein WD40/ProF, where Akt phosphorylates/inhibits FoxO1. Read More

    Pharmacological management of cystic fibrosis related diabetes.
    Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Feb 5;11(2):185-191. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    b Department of Pediatrics , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , MN , USA.
    Introduction: There are limited data from randomized clinical trials to guide optimal options for pharmacological treatment of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). Current guidelines recommend insulin as the only treatment option for CFRD. Areas covered: Current guidelines for screening, diagnosis and pharmacological agents for treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and CFRD in patients with cystic fibrosis are reviewed. Read More

    Diagnosis and Clinical Implications of Diabetes in Liver Cirrhosis: A Focus on the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Jul 23;1(7):886-896. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8565 Japan.
    The liver and skeletal muscles are responsible for maintaining glucose metabolism. As chronic liver disease progresses to cirrhosis, the loss of liver function is exacerbated and leads to the deterioration of skeletal muscle. Consequently, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance are often observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. Read More

    High Prevalence of Diabetes-Predisposing Variants in MODY Genes Among Danish Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Jun 27;1(6):681-690. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Context: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with first recognition during pregnancy, is a heterogeneous form of diabetes characterized by various degrees of β-cell dysfunction.

    Objectives: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of possibly pathogenic variants in the maturity-onset diabetes of the young genes GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, and INS among women with GDM. Furthermore, we examined the glucose tolerance status in variant carriers vs noncarriers at follow-up. Read More

    EGFR Induces E2F1-Mediated Corticotroph Tumorigenesis.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Feb 20;1(2):127-143. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Pituitary Center, Department of Medicine and.
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), expressed in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas causing Cushing disease, regulates ACTH production and corticotroph proliferation. To elucidate the utility of EGFR as a therapeutic target for Cushing disease, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice with corticotroph-specific human EGFR expression (corti-EGFR-Tg) using a newly constructed corticotroph-specific promoter. Pituitary-specific EGFR expression was observed by 2. Read More

    Somatotroph-Specific Aip-Deficient Mice Display Pretumorigenic Alterations in Cell-Cycle Signaling.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Feb 13;1(2):78-95. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine and.
    Patients with familial isolated pituitary adenoma are predisposed to pituitary adenomas, which in a subset of cases is due to germline inactivating mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Using Cre/lox and Flp/Frt technology, a conditional mouse model was generated to examine the loss of the mouse homolog, Aip, in pituitary somatotrophs. By 40 weeks of age, >80% of somatotroph specific Aip knockout mice develop growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas. Read More

    Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Receptor Gene Mutation in Nonobese Healthy Subjects in Japan.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Nov 12;1(11):1351-1361. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.
    Context: Hyperinsulinemia is often observed in obese people, owing to their insulin resistance accompanied by visceral fat accumulation, but the frequency of hyperinsulinemia in nonobese people is not well known. Mutations in the insulin receptor gene are known to cause insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Donohue syndrome. However, insulin receptor gene abnormalities have not been investigated in asymptomatic hyperinsulinemic subjects. Read More

    Astrocyte-Specific Deletion of Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ Impairs Glucose Metabolism and Estrous Cycling in Female Mice.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Nov 27;1(11):1332-1350. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093.
    Mice lacking peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in neurons do not become leptin resistant when placed on a high-fat diet (HFD). In male mice, this results in decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, causing reduced body weight, but this difference in body weight is not observed in female mice. In addition, estrous cycles are disturbed and the ovaries present with hemorrhagic follicles. Read More

    [Analysis of clinical features of 23 patients with POEMS syndrome].
    Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 Dec;49(6):985-989
    Department of Endocrinology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.
    Objective: To describe the endocrine abnormalities in patients with POEMS syndrome in order to identify more patients with POEMS syndrome among those who have endocrine dysfunctions.

    Methods: We searched the inpatient medical record system of Peking University People's Hospital with "POEMS syndrome". Finally the data from 23 patients were analyzed. Read More

    GATA6 Controls Insulin Biosynthesis and Secretion in Adult ß cell.
    Diabetes 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa-CABIMER, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Seville, Spain.
    GATA4 and GATA6 play essential, but redundant, roles in pancreas formation in mice and GATA6 mutations cause pancreatic agenesis in humans. Recently, GATA6 mutations have also been linked to adult-onset diabetes with subclinical or no exocrine insufficiency suggesting an important role for GATA6 in human ß cell physiology. To investigate the role of GATA6 in adult endocrine pancreas, we generated mice in which Gata6 is specifically inactivated in the pancreas. Read More

    Determinants of glucose metabolism and the role of NPY in the progression of insulin resistance in chronic migraine.
    Cephalalgia 2017 Jan 1:333102417748928. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    2 Department of Neurology, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background Chronic migraine has a well-documented association with increased insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The hypothalamus may play a role in the progression of insulin resistance in chronic migraine through the regulation of orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y. Insulin resistance may lead to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic migraine, which is more likely to occur if other pathogenetic defects of type 2 diabetes mellitus, such as impaired pancreatic β-cell functions and defects in intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion after meals. Read More

    Astragalus membranaceus-Polysaccharides Ameliorates Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, Neuroinflammation and Cognition Impairment without Affecting Amyloid Deposition in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Dec 18;18(12). Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei 11221, Taiwan.
    Astragalus membranaceus is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for strengthening the host defense system. Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides is an effective component with various important bioactivities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection. In the present study, we determine the effects of Astragalus membranaceus-polysaccharides on metabolically stressed transgenic mice in order to develop this macromolecules for treatment of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disease with metabolic risk factors. Read More

    Targeting viperin improves diet-induced glucose intolerance but not adipose tissue inflammation.
    Oncotarget 2017 Nov 8;8(60):101418-101436. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    The Key Laboratory of Adolescent Health Assessment and Exercise Intervention, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.
    Viperin is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein, responsible for antiviral response to a variety of viral infections. Here, we show that silencing viperin by antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) protects against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and yet exacerbates adipose tissue inflammation. In high-fat diet-fed mice, viperin ASO improves glucose homeostasis, reduces plasma triglyceride concentrations and ameliorates diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Read More

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