18,493 results match your criteria Glucose Intolerance

The goldilocks problem: Nutrition and its impact on glycaemic control.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3677-3687. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Intensive Care, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, 8011, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance manifest as hyperglycaemia in intensive care, which is associated with mortality and morbidities. Glycaemic control (GC) may improve outcomes, though safe and effective control has proven elusive. Nutritional glucose intake affects blood glucose (BG) outcomes, but few protocols actively control it. Read More

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The Insulin Response to Oral Glucose in GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Knockout Mice: Review of the Literature and Stepwise Glucose Dose Response Studies in Female Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 27;12:665537. Epub 2021 May 27.

Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

A key factor for the insulin response to oral glucose is the pro-glucagon derived incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), together with the companion incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Studies in GIP and GLP-1 receptor knockout (KO) mice have been undertaken in several studies to examine this role of the incretin hormones. In the present study, we reviewed the literature on glucose and insulin responses to oral glucose in these mice. Read More

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DNA methylation profile of liver of mice conceived by fertilization.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Jun 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA94143, USA.

Offspring generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) are believed to be healthy but display a possible predisposition to chronic diseases, like hypertension and glucose intolerance. Since epigenetic changes are believed to underlie such phenotype, this study aimed at describing global DNA methylation changes in the liver of adult mice generated by natural mating (FB group) or by IVF. Embryos were generated by IVF or natural mating. Read More

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Purified lactases versus whole-cell lactases-the winner takes it all.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Lactose-free dairy products are in great demand worldwide due to the high prevalence of lactose intolerance. To make lactose-free dairy products, commercially available β-galactosidase enzymes, also termed lactases, are used to break down lactose to its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and galactose. In this mini-review, the characteristics of lactase enzymes, their origin, and ways of use are discussed in light of their potential for hydrolyzing lactose. Read More

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Clinical utility of 1-month postpartum random plasma glucose and HbA1c combined with pre-pregnancy body mass index for detecting postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the Japanese Society of Diabetes and Pregnancy (JSDP) proposed the use of random plasma glucose and HbA1c measured 1 month after delivery combined with pre-pregnancy body mass index to detect postpartum glucose intolerance instead of performing oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with gestational diabetes. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical utility of this strategy to detect postpartum glucose intolerance evaluated by OGTT after delivery. Two hundred and seventy-five Japanese women with gestational diabetes were included in the present study. Read More

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Offspring of Obese Dams Exhibit Sex-Differences in Pancreatic Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans and Islet Insulin Secretion.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:658439. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Offspring of obese mothers suffer higher risks of type 2 diabetes due to increased adiposity and decreased β cell function. To date, the sex-differences in offspring islet insulin secretion during early life has not been evaluated extensively, particularly prior to weaning at postnatal day 21 (P21). To determine the role of maternal obesity on offspring islet insulin secretion, C57BL/6J female dams were fed chow or western diet from 4 weeks prior to mating to induce maternal obesity. Read More

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Closed-loop artificial endocrine pancreas from Japan.

Artif Organs 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan.

The development of a closed-loop artificial pancreas (AP) in the Western countries and Japan is different. In Western countries, wearable AP with a closed-loop glycemic control system has been developed as a treatment for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. On the contrary, in Japan, bedside closed-loop AP explored by a Japanese company (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan) has developed as perioperative glycemic control device in surgical patients and acute care patients with emergency. Read More

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Glucokinase activation or inactivation: Which will lead to the treatment of type 2 diabetes?

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Japan.

Glucokinase, which phosphorylates glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate, plays a critical role in regulating the blood glucose levels. On the basis of data of glucokinase-knockout and transgenic mice and humans with glucokinase mutations, glucokinase was targeted for drug development aiming to augment its activity, and thereby reduce hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. In fact, various small molecule compounds have been developed and clinically tested as glucokinase activators. Read More

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Visceral obesity and insulin resistance associate with CD36 deletion in lymphatic endothelial cells.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3350. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.

Disruption of lymphatic lipid transport is linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but regulation of lymphatic vessel function and its link to disease remain unclear. Here we show that intestinal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have an increasing CD36 expression from lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) to collecting vessels, and that LEC CD36 regulates lymphatic integrity and optimizes lipid transport. Inducible deletion of CD36 in LECs in adult mice (Cd36) increases discontinuity of LEC VE-cadherin junctions in lacteals and collecting vessels. Read More

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[High-fat diet promotes the impact of periodontitis on gut microbiota and glucose metabolism].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;56(6):539-548

Department of Periodontology, Nangjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China.

To study whether high-fat diet could aggravate the effect of periodontitis on gut microbiota and glucose metabolism. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups based on table of random numbers (=6 in each group): control group, in which rats were given normal chow diet; periodontitis group, in which periodontitis was induced by ligating bilateral maxillary second molars with 5-0 silk thread; high-fat diet group, in which rats were given high-fat diet; high-fat diet+periodontitis group, in which rats were given high-fat diet and periodontitis was induced at the end of the 8th week. Fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the 12th week. Read More

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extract attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity in pancreatic beta cells.

Nutr Res Pract 2021 Jun 15;15(3):294-308. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Food Nutrition, College of Bio Convergence, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea.

Backgroud/objectives: larva (ADL), one of the many edible insects recognized as future food resources, has a range of pharmacological activities. In a previous study, an ADL extract (ADLE) reduced the hepatic insulin resistance of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. On the other hand, the associated molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction remain unclear. Read More

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The metabesity factor HMG20A potentiates astrocyte survival and reactive astrogliosis preserving neuronal integrity.

Theranostics 2021 12;11(14):6983-7004. Epub 2021 May 12.

Andalusian Center of Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine-CABIMER, Junta de Andalucía-University of Pablo de Olavide-University of Seville-CSIC, Seville, Spain.

We recently demonstrated that the 'Metabesity' factor HMG20A regulates islet beta-cell functional maturity and adaptation to physiological stress such as pregnancy and pre-diabetes. HMG20A also dictates central nervous system (CNS) development via inhibition of the LSD1-CoREST complex but its expression pattern and function in adult brain remains unknown. Herein we sought to determine whether HMG20A is expressed in the adult CNS, specifically in hypothalamic astrocytes that are key in glucose homeostasis and whether similar to islets, HMG20A potentiates astrocyte function in response to environmental cues. Read More

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Non-Coding RNAs and Extracellular Vehicles: Their Role in the Pathogenesis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:664287. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. GDM has a considerable impact on health outcomes of the mother and offspring during pregnancy, delivery, and beyond. Although the exact mechanism regarding GDM remains unclear, numerous studies have suggested that non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding (lnc)RNAs, microRNAs, and circular RNAs, were involved in the pathogenesis of GDM in which they played vital regulatory roles. Read More

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Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) serum level and gene rs10247158 polymorphism with anthropometric, biochemical parameters and food consumption in overweight/obese patients.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 6:e14436. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Aydin University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a role in xenobiotic metabolism, which can be also activated by dietary patterns and components. AhR ligands in circulation are reported to inducing weight gain, glucose intolerance, and suggested to contribute to the development of obesity. In this study we aimed to examine the relationship of the AhR gene and its polymorphisms with obesity and food consumption. Read More

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Regulation of adipogenic differentiation and adipose tissue inflammation by interferon regulatory factor 3.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, and NUSMED Immunology Translational Research Programme,Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Dysfunction of adipocytes and adipose tissue is a primary defect in obesity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) has been implicated in adipogenesis. However, the role of IRF3 in obesity and obesity-associated disorders remains unclear. Read More

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Gsα-dependent signaling is required for postnatal establishment of a functional β-cell mass.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 4:101264. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Diabetes and Obesity Research Laboratory, August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Rosselló 149-153, 08036, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: Early postnatal life is a critical period for the establishment of the functional β-cell mass that will sustain whole-body glucose homeostasis during the lifetime. β cells are formed from progenitors during embryonic development but undergo significant expansion in quantity and attain functional maturity after birth. The signals and pathways involved in these processes are not fully elucidated. Read More

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4-Phenylbutyrate (PBA) treatment reduces hyperglycemia and islet amyloid in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 4;11(1):11878. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diabetes Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), C. Rossello 149-153, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.

Amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets, mainly formed by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) aggregation, have been associated with loss of β-cell mass and function, and are a pathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Treatment with chaperones has been associated with a decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to improved glucose metabolism. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) prevents glucose metabolism abnormalities and amyloid deposition in obese agouti viable yellow (A) mice that overexpress hIAPP in β cells (A hIAPP mice), which exhibit overt diabetes. Read More

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Decreased Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila Leads to the Impairment of Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Lean Type 2 Diabetes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 4:e2100536. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Although obesity occurs in most of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a fraction of patients with T2D are underweight or have normal weight. Several studies have linked the gut microbiome to obesity and T2D, but the role of gut microbiota in lean individuals with T2D having unique clinical characteristics remains unclear. A metagenomic and targeted metabolomic analysis is conducted in 182 lean and abdominally obese individuals with and without newly diagnosed T2D. Read More

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Apoptotic vesicles restore liver macrophage homeostasis to counteract type 2 diabetes.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 May 24;10(7):e12109. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi International Joint Research Center for Oral Diseases Center for Tissue Engineering School of Stomatology The Fourth Military Medical University Xi'an Shaanxi China.

Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process generating plenty of apoptotic vesicles (apoVs), but the feature, fate and function of apoVs remain largely unknown. Notably, as an appealing source for cell therapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergo necessary apoptosis and release apoVs during therapeutic application. In this study, we characterized and used MSC-derived apoVs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice, and we found that apoVs were efferocytosed by macrophages and functionally modulated liver macrophage homeostasis to counteract T2D. Read More

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Novel Nutritional and Dietary Approaches to Weight Loss for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Ketogenic Diet, Intermittent Fasting, and Bariatric Surgery.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Jun 3;23(7):85. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly associated with obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction. This review will focus on three novel therapies that have been identified for potential treatment of obesity and its associated CVD risk factors.

Recent Findings: Intermittent fasting (IF) studies in animal models have shown improvements in cardiometabolic factors, including improved glucose metabolism, reduced inflammation, and reduced blood pressure. Read More

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Effects of a novel polyphenol-rich plant extract on body composition, inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis in obese mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background/objectives: The worldwide prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions that urge the development of new management strategies. Totum-63 is a novel, plant-based polyphenol-rich active principle that has been shown to reduce body weight, fasting glycemia, glucose intolerance, and fatty liver index in obese subjects with prediabetes. Here, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism(s) of Totum-63 on metabolic homeostasis in insulin-resistant obese mice. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome in women with previous gestational diabetes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11558. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Sygehus Sønderjylland, Aabenraa, Denmark.

To evaluate the incidence and timing of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a cohort of Danish women after a pregnancy with gestational diabetes (GDM) to estimate the optimum time for preventative actions in relation to metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this follow-up study, 435 women were included from a consecutive cohort with prior history of GDM. Data on dyslipidemia, hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders (CVD) were extracted from the electronic patient journal. Read More

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Diabetes outbreak during COVID19 lock-down in a prediabetic patient with cystic fibrosis long treated with glargine.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 Jun 2;47(1):121. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Regional Center of Cystic Fibrosis, Department of Translational Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Background: Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a frequent comorbidity of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). A worsening of clinical conditions appears before CFRD. It has been demonstrated a decline in pulmonary function and nutritional status also in patients with prediabetes. Read More

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[New-onset diabetes and novel targeted therapies against cancer].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Jun;17(741):1067-1071

Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et métabolisme, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

New systemic cancer therapies are increasingly oriented towards specific signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. However, these new treatments may lead to disorders of glycemic homeostasis ranging from glucose intolerance, diabetes or the occurrence of severe acute hyperglycemic syndrome due to blockade of certain pathways common to glucose metabolism. This article discusses the estimated frequency of new-onset diabetes, the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the diagnostic, therapeutic, monitoring and prognostic management of glycemic dysfunction in patients treated with these novel systemic cancer therapies. Read More

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PS-341 alleviates chronic low-grade inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity through the inhibition of TM4 (UBAC2) degradation.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jun 1;18(1):54. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital Fudan University, 12 Middle Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: The TM4 (UBAC2) protein, which contains 4 transmembrane domains and one ubiquitin binding domain, is mainly expressed in cell and nuclear membranes. The current research aimed to explore the role of TM4 in metabolic inflammation and to examine whether the ubiquitin-proteasome inhibitor PS-341 could regulate the function of TM4.

Methods: The metabolic phenotypes of TM4 knockout (KO) mice were studied. Read More

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Erythritol Ameliorates Small Intestinal Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diets and Improves Glucose Tolerance.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

Background: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity.

Methods: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity.

Results: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) ( = 6). Read More

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Development of a New Risk Score for Stratification of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at High Risk of Persisting Postpartum Glucose Intolerance Using Routinely Assessed Parameters.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 23;11(6). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The aims of the study were (i) to find predictive factors for early postpartum conversion of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) into persisting glucose intolerance (PGI), (ii) to evaluate potential differences in adverse perinatal outcomes in GDM women with and without early postpartum PGI and, finally, (iii) to establish a risk score to predict postpartum PGI. A cross-sectional study comprised 244 GDM patients with known age, parity, positive family history of diabetes, pre-gestational BMI, comorbidities, smoking history, results of mid-trimester oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c, obstetric complications, neonatal outcomes and mode of delivery. A risk score was calculated using parameters with highest odds ratios in a statistic scoring model. Read More

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Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in South Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 30;18(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa.

Synthesis of existing prevalence data using rigorous systematic review methods is considered an effective strategy to generate representative and robust prevalence figures to inform health planning and policy. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify, collate, and synthesise all studies reporting the prevalence of total and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in South Africa. Four databases, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and African Index Medicus were searched for articles published between January 1997 and June 2020. Read More

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Distinct Effects of a High Fat Diet on Bone in Skeletally Mature and Developing Male C57BL/6J Mice.

Nutrients 2021 May 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia.

Increased risks of skeletal fractures are common in patients with impaired glucose handling and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients remains ill-defined as patients present with normal to high bone mineral density. With increasing cases of glucose intolerance and T2DM it is imperative that we develop an accurate rodent model for further investigation. Read More

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Blinded Oral Challenges with Lactose and Placebo Accurately Diagnose Lactose Intolerance: A Real-Life Study.

Nutrients 2021 May 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Gastroenterology, University Federico II of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Lactose intolerance (LI) is characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, or bloating occurring after lactose consumption in patients with lactose malabsorption. The National Institute of Health (NIH) proposed a double-blind placebo testing to identify LI individuals correctly. However, until now, no study used this approach in a real-life setting. Read More

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