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    Bidirectional communication between the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and the microbiome tunes host metabolism.
    NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2016 24;2:16014. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The ligand-induced transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is known for its capacity to tune adaptive immunity and xenobiotic metabolism-biological properties subject to regulation by the indigenous microbiome. The objective of this study was to probe the postulated microbiome-AhR crosstalk and whether such an axis could influence metabolic homeostasis of the host. Utilising a systems-biology approach combining in-depth (1)H-NMR-based metabonomics (plasma, liver and skeletal muscle) with microbiome profiling (small intestine, colon and faeces) of AhR knockout (AhR(-/-)) and wild-type (AhR(+/+)) mice, we assessed AhR function in host metabolism. Read More

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces pancreatic β-cell mass through hypothalamic neural pathways in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 17;7(1):5578. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism, Rheumatology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu city, Oita, 879-5593, Japan.
    We examined whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affects β-cell mass and proliferation through neural pathways, from hepatic afferent nerves to pancreatic efferent nerves via the central nervous system, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The effects of chronic administration of GLP-1 (7-36) and liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on pancreatic morphological alterations, c-fos expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content in the hypothalamus, and glucose metabolism were investigated in HFD-induced obese rats that underwent hepatic afferent vagotomy (VgX) and/or pancreatic efferent sympathectomy (SpX). Chronic GLP-1 (7-36) administration to HFD-induced obese rats elevated c-fos expression and BDNF content in the hypothalamus, followed by a reduction in pancreatic β-cell hyperplasia and insulin content, thus resulting in improved glucose tolerance. Read More

    CF-related diabetes: Containing the metabolic miscreant of cystic fibrosis.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is associated with both an increase in morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). With increased screening and improved life expectancy of people with CF, the prevalence of CFRD is expected to rise further. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms causing glucose intolerance and diabetes in patients with CF are not well understood but both functional and structural abnormalities in islet cells are likely to have key roles. Read More

    Tartary buckwheat flavonoids ameliorate high fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress associated with the insulin signaling and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in mice.
    Food Funct 2017 Jul 17. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing 400067, China.
    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of a purified tartary buckwheat flavonoid fraction (TBF) on insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress in mice fed high fructose in drinking water (20%) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that continuous administration of TBF dose-dependently improved the insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in high fructose-fed mice. TBF treatment also reversed the reduced level of insulin action on the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the insulin-resistant liver. Read More

    Childhood Maltreatment Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prediabetic Disturbances in Glucose Regulation.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 30;8:151. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.
    Aims: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is shown to be associated with obesity and depression. However, the relationship of CM to prediabetic state is much less studied. We tested the hypothesis that CM increases the risk for prediabetic state due to glucose intolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function. Read More

    Disruption of Lipid Uptake in Astroglia Exacerbates Diet Induced Obesity.
    Diabetes 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Helmholtz Diabetes Center (HDC) & German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Helmholtz Zentrum München & Division of Metabolic Diseases, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Neuronal circuits in the brain help to control feeding behavior and systemic metabolism in response to afferent nutrient and hormonal signals. Although astrocytes have historically been assumed to be less relevant for such neuroendocrine control, we asked whether lipid uptake via lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in astrocytes is required for the central regulation of energy homeostasis. Ex vivo studies with hypothalamic-derived astrocytes showed that LPL expression is up-regulated by oleic acid; whereas it is decreased in response to palmitic acid or triglyceride. Read More

    Alantolactone Improves Prolonged Exposure of Interleukin-6-Induced Skeletal Muscle Inflammation Associated Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance.
    Front Pharmacol 2017 29;8:405. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National UniversitySeoul, South Korea.
    The pro-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been proposed to be one of the mediators that link chronic inflammation to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of IL-6 on insulin action in the skeletal muscle. However, few studies have investigated the effect of long-term treatment of IL-6, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Read More

    Transendothelial movement of adiponectin is restricted by glucocorticoids.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Aug;234(2):101-114
    Department of BiologyFaculty of Science York University, Toronto, Canada
    Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers elsewhere in the body is less well studied. Read More

    Transcription factor Hlx controls a systematic switch from white to brown fat through Prdm16-mediated co-activation.
    Nat Commun 2017 Jul 12;8(1):68. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.
    Browning of subcutaneous white fat (iWAT) involves several reprograming events, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Hlx is selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and iWAT, and is translationally upregulated by β3-adrenergic signaling-mediated suppression of the translational inhibitor 4E-BP1. Hlx interacts with and is co-activated by Prdm16 to control BAT-selective gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. Read More

    Non-diabetic Glucose levels and Cancer Mortality: A Literature Review.
    Curr Diabetes Rev 2017 Jul 11. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Division of Community and Family Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi. Japan.
    Background: Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for cancer, the relationship of an increased glucose concentration at a non-diabetic glucose level with cancer mortality is yet to be determined.

    Objective: To observe whether an increased glucose concentration and/or glucose intolerance at the non-diabetic glucose level can predict cancer mortality.

    Methods: Population-based prospective cohort studies evaluating cancer mortality at the non-diabetic level (defined as fasting plasma glucose <7. Read More

    Are We Using Slow-Acting Symptomatic Chondroprotective Drugs Conscious Enough?
    Open Orthop J 2017 31;11:533-540. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Memorial Health Group, 34750Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Osteochondral injuries constitute an entity that is widespread and can be seen in patients of all ages. Actual treatment modalities aim to relieve pain, obtain full range of movement of the joint, and improve the quality of life. There are many slow-acting chondroprotective agents prevalently used in the United States that are classified as nutritional support but not as medicines . Read More

    Vasopressin and metabolic disorders: translation from experimental models to clinical use.
    J Intern Med 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    INSERM U 1138, Centre de Recherches des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Vasopressin has many physiological actions in addition to its well-defined role in the control of fluid homeostasis and urine concentration. An increasing body of evidence suggests that the vasopressin-hydration axis plays a role in glucose homeostasis. This review summarizes the knowledge accumulated over the last decades about the influence of vasopressin in the short-term regulation of glycemia. Read More

    Neu-P11, a novel MT1/MT2 agonist, reverses diabetes by suppressing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats.
    Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Jul 4. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    College of Pharmacy, LanZhou university, Lanzhou 730000, PR China; Department of Pharmacy, Lanzhou General Hospital of PLA, Lanzhou 730050, PR China. Electronic address:
    Excessive glucocorticoid (GC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) reduces insulin sensitivity, impairs β-cell function, increases gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, impairs glucose uptake and metabolism, and reduces the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. Melatonin, which serves as a physiological regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MT1/MT2 melatonin agonist Neu-P11 on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats induced by a high fat diet combined with low doses of streptozotocin. Read More

    MicroRNAs Mediated MMP Regulation: Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies for Metabolic Syndrome.
    Curr Gene Ther 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida -201307, U.P. India.
    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a global socioeconomic problem rapidly progressing in accordance with increasing body mass index (BMI) and age. It is a consortium of risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, leptin resistance, reduced adiponectin, glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. Collectively, these factors accelerate the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain cancers such as breast, liver pancreatic, and colon cancer. Read More

    GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, ameliorates hepatosteatosis induced by anti-CD3 antibody in female mice.
    J Diabetes Complications 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nephrology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
    Aims: Hepatosteatosis is mainly induced by obesity and metabolic disorders, but various medications also induce hepatosteatosis. The administration of anti-CD3 antibody was shown to induce hepatosteatosis, but changes in lipid and glucose metabolism remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of hepatosteatosis induced by anti-CD3 antibody and the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that was recently shown to affect immune function in metabolic disorders. Read More

    Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 5;7(1):4716. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Departamento de Fisiología de la Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No 15, Ciudad de Mexico, 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). Read More

    Determinants of Incident Metabolic Syndrome in a Middle Eastern Population: Isfahan Cohort Study.
    Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    1 Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan, Iran .
    Background: To identify the associated risk factors with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a longitudinal prospective cohort study in an Iranian population.

    Methods: A total of 1994 participants, aged ≥35 years, free of MetS, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed up for 7 years. Physical examination, laboratory studies, and interview about lifestyle factors were performed, and MetS was defined based on harmonized definition at both time points. Read More

    Is there a connection between postprandial hyperglycemia and IGT related sensory nerve dysfunction?
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Jul 11;27(7):609-614. Epub 2017 May 11.
    1st Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Background And Aims: To assess the risk factors for sensory nerve dysfunction in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

    Methods And Results: Seventy-two people with isolated IGT (WHO 1999 criteria) and 39 gender and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent detailed clinical and neurological assessment including quantitative sensory testing using the Neurometer device (current perception threshold measurement on four limbs at three different frequencies). Sensory nerve dysfunction was defined as at least two abnormalities on any frequencies on the upper or lower limbs. Read More

    Linking Chronic Inflammation with Cardiovascular Disease: From Normal Aging to the Metabolic Syndrome.
    J Nat Sci 2017 Apr;3(4)
    Division of Cardiovascular Health and Disease, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH, USA.
    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of clinical disorders including an unhealthy body habitus with a large waistline, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. It is known that these disorders not only increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, the co-occurrence of all these risk factors known as the MetS is linked to pathways sharing common underlying mediators and mechanisms. Read More

    Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Glucose Tolerance.
    Cell J 2017 Jul-Sep;19(2):184-193. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves' disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Read More

    Phenotype heterogeneity in Glucokinase - Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (GCK-MODY) patients - single pediatric centre observation.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical phenotypes of Glucokinase - Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (GCK-MODY) pediatric patients from South-West Poland and to search for phenotype-genotype correlations.

    Methods: We performed retrospective analysis of data of all 37 CGK-MODY patients, 21 girls, age 1.9-20. Read More

    Deficiency in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and type I interferon signalling prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.
    Diabetologia 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Lund University, Biomedical Center, CRC, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.
    Aims/hypothesis: Obesity is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and is closely linked to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes, an increased fat intake results in adipose tissue expansion and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The innate immune system not only plays a crucial role in obesity-associated chronic low-grade inflammation but it is also proposed to play a role in modulating energy metabolism. Read More

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with Altered Neutrophil Activity.
    Front Immunol 2017 14;8:702. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a unique form of glucose intolerance, in that it is transient and solely occurs in pregnancy. Pregnancies with GDM are at high risk of developing preeclampsia (PE), a leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity or mortality. Since PE is associated with excessive activation of circulatory neutrophils and occurrence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in affected placentae, we examined these features in cases with GDM, as this could be a feature linking the two conditions. Read More

    A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(26):e7378
    Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, China.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Read More

    Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 2017 Jun 28:W1-W8. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    1 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube-Yamaguchi 7558505, Japan.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis.

    Materials And Methods: Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. Read More

    Combination SGLT2 inhibitor and GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy: a complementary approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Postgrad Med 2017 Jun 28:1-12. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    b Department of Pharmacy Practice , Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences , Albany , NY , USA.
    Among persons with type 2 diabetes (t2d), the development of glucose intolerance involves dysfunction in several organs and tissues, including the muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue, and brain. individuals with t2d typically have a number of comorbidities, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and being overweight or obese, and are, consequently, at high cardiovascular risk. guidelines recommend a comprehensive care strategy that includes treatment of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities beyond those related to hyperglycemia. Read More

    Caffeine inhibits hypothalamic A1R to excite oxytocin neuron and ameliorate dietary obesity in mice.
    Nat Commun 2017 Jun 27;8:15904. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Key Laboratory of Environmental Health, Ministry of Education, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.
    Caffeine, an antagonist of the adenosine receptor A1R, is used as a dietary supplement to reduce body weight, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that adenosine level in the cerebrospinal fluid, and hypothalamic expression of A1R, are increased in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse. We find that mice with overexpression of A1R in the neurons of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus are hyperphagic, have glucose intolerance and high body weight. Read More

    Determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Jul 9:1-6. Epub 2017 Jul 9.
    a Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics , University of Bahir Dar , Bahir Dar , Ethiopia.
    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to identify the determinant factors of GDM.

    Methods: An unmatched case-control study was conducted. Read More

    Changes in Visceral Adiposity, Subcutaneous Adiposity, and Sex Hormones in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA.
    Context: The degree to which changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) relate to corresponding changes in plasma sex steroids is not known.

    Objective: We examined whether changes in VAT and SAT areas assessed by computed tomography were associated with changes in sex hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEAS], testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG]) among Diabetes Prevention Program participants.

    Design: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Read More

    Synergistic modulation of inflammatory but not metabolic effects of high-fat feeding by CCR2 and CX3CR1.
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the impact of dual targeting of C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) on the metabolic and inflammatory consequences of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).

    Methods: C57BL/6J wild-type, Cx3cr1(-/-) , Ccr2(-/-) , and Cx3cr1(-/-) Ccr2(-/-) double-knockout male and female mice were fed a 45% HFD for up to 25 weeks starting at 12 weeks of age.

    Results: All groups gained weight at a similar rate and developed a similar degree of adiposity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and impairment of insulin sensitivity in response to HFD. Read More

    Oral application of a periodontal pathogen impacts SerpinE1 expression and pancreatic islet architecture in prediabetes.
    J Periodontal Res 2017 Jun 23. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background And Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest a close association between periodontitis and prediabetes/insulin resistance (IR) but whether periodontitis causes prediabetes in humans is not known. Using various animal models, we have recently established that periodontitis can be an initiator of prediabetes, which is characterized by glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. In addition, our in vitro studies indicated that Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) induced insulin secretion in MIN6 β cells and this induction was in part SerpinE1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, PAI1) dependent. Read More

    Social jet-lag potentiates obesity and metabolic syndrome when combined with cafeteria diet in rats.
    Metabolism 2017 Jul 18;72:83-93. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Anatomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, DF 04510, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Background/objectives: Modern lifestyle promotes shifted sleep onset and shifted wake up time between weekdays and weekends, producing a condition termed "social-jet lag." Disrupted sleep promotes increased appetite for carbohydrate and fat-rich food, which in long term leads to overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. In order to mimic the human situation we produced an experimental model of social-jet lag (Sj-l). Read More

    Glucose dysregulation and response to common anti-diabetic agents in the FATZO/Pco mouse.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(6):e0179856. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America.
    The FATZO/Pco mouse is the result of a cross of the C57BL/6J and AKR/J strains. The crossing of these two strains and the selective inbreeding for obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia has resulted in an inbred strain exhibiting obesity in the presumed presence of an intact leptin pathway. Routinely used rodent models for obesity and diabetes research have a monogenic defect in leptin signaling that initiates obesity. Read More

    [Diabetes mellitus secondary to an endocrine pathology : when to think about it ?]
    Rev Med Suisse 2017 May;13(565):1158-1162
    Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie, hypertension et nutrition, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.
    An endocrine disease can be associated with glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus, and the latter can falsely be considered as type 2 diabetes. Glycemic imbalance can be a direct or indirect consequence of excessive hormone production. Endocrine diseases such as acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma can increase glucose production and cause insulin resistance. Read More

    Autophagy activation, not PGC-1α, may mediate exercise-induced improvements in glucose handling during diet-induced obesity.
    Exp Physiol 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Integrative Muscle Metabolism Laboratory, Exercise Science Research Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Arkansas.
    Prevalence of glucose intolerance is at alarming levels. Efforts to promote mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC-1α to mitigate glucose intolerance have been controversial. However, physical activity remains a primary means to alleviate the condition. Read More

    Combination of a high-fat diet with sweetened condensed milk exacerbates inflammation and insulin resistance induced by each separately in mice.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 21;7(1):3937. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Interdisciplinary Post-graduate Program in Health Sciences, Cruzeiro of Sul University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Obesogenic diets increase body weight and cause insulin resistance (IR), however, the association of these changes with the main macronutrient in the diet remains to be elucidated. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with: control (CD), CD and sweetened condensed milk (HS), high-fat (HF), and HF and condensed milk (HSHF). After 2 months, increased body weight, glucose intolerance, adipocyte size and cholesterol levels were observed. Read More

    Treatment of sarcopenia and glucose intolerance through mitochondrial activation by 5-aminolevulinic acid.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 21;7(1):4013. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nephrology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Read More

    Pivotal Role of O-GlcNAc Modification in Cold-Induced Thermogenesis by Brown Adipose Tissue Through Mitochondrial Biogenesis.
    Diabetes 2017 Jun 21. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan.
    Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc modification is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O-GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Read More

    Attenuated effects of bile acids on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in a male mouse model of prenatal undernutrition.
    Endocrinology 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Read More

    Insulin resistance increases the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Hepatol Res 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto.
    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major complication of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this retrospective study is to determine the risk factor for development of T2DM in patients with biopsy proven NAFLD.

    Methods: Consecutive 162 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD patients who received 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were enrolled as the total cohort. Read More

    MicroRNA-21 regulates hepatic glucose metabolism by targeting FOXO1.
    Gene 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Transformation of Bio-resources, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China. Electronic address:
    Abnormal activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes; however, the potential role of microRNAs in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that hepatic expression levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) were decreased in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-21 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and inhibited glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes. Read More

    Estimation of insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and liver handling of glucose using a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis in lean and obese mice.
    Heliyon 2017 Jun 7;3(6):e00310. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    School of Pharmacy, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62026, United States.
    Destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells is the key determinant of diabetes mellitus regardless of their types. Due to their anatomical location within the islets of Langerhans scattered throughout the pancreas, it is difficult to monitor β-cell function and mass clinically. To this end, we propose to use a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis to estimate insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and hepatic handling of glucose. Read More

    A human glucagon-like peptide-1-albumin recombinant protein with prolonged hypoglycemic effect provides efficient and beneficial control of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.
    Biol Pharm Bull 2017 Jun 17. Epub 2017 Jun 17.
    State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College.
    GW002 is a recombinant protein engineered by fusing the C-terminal region of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) to the N-terminal region of human serum albumin (HSA) with a peptide linker. This study aims to evaluate its anti-diabetic effects both in vitro and vivo. The GLP-1 receptor-dependent luciferase reporter plasmid was transiently transfected in NIT-1 cells to calculate the half-maximal concentration (EC50) for GLP-1 receptor activation, and normal ICR mice and diabetic KKAy mice were acutely injected with GW002 (1, 3 and 9 mg/kg) subcutaneously to evaluate the hypoglycemic action, while the diabetic KKAy and db/db mice were treated with GW002 once daily for 7 weeks to evaluate the effects on glucose metabolism. Read More

    Continuous glucose monitoring in a cystic fibrosis patient to predict pulmonary exacerbation?
    J Cyst Fibros 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, 3020 Children's Way, San Diego, CA 89123, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, University of California San Diego, 3020 Children's Way, San Diego, CA 89123, USA. Electronic address:
    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience a significant decline in pulmonary status before the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD). We hypothesized that hyperglycemia may be a factor in the decline of pulmonary function and increased frequency of pulmonary exacerbations. Long term continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has not been reported in patients with CF and impaired glucose tolerance. Read More

    New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Jun 15;471:248-253. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, United States. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Read More

    Postprandial metabolic response of breast-fed infants and infants fed lactose-free vs regular infant formula: A randomized controlled trial.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3640. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, SE 901 85 Umeå University, Umea, Sweden.
    Lactose intolerance is a major concern driving the growth of lactose-free foods including lactose-free infant formula. It is unknown what the metabolic consequence is of consumption of a formula where lactose has been replaced with corn syrup solids (CSS). Here, a randomized double-blinded intervention study was conducted where exclusively formula-fed infants were fed formula containing either lactose or CSS-based infant formula and compared with an equal number of exclusively breast-fed infants. Read More

    Hepatokines: linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.
    Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Metabolic Disease and Obesity Program and the Department of Physiology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Hepatic steatosis is an underlying feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most common form of liver disease and is present in up to ∼70% of individuals who are overweight. NAFLD is also associated with hypertriglyceridaemia and low levels of HDL, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hepatic steatosis is a strong predictor of the development of insulin resistance and often precedes the onset of other known mediators of insulin resistance. Read More

    Cardiometabolic correlates of sleep disordered breathing in Andean highlanders.
    Eur Respir J 2017 Jun 15;49(6). Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Dept of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Associations between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiometabolic outcomes have not been examined in highlanders.We performed nocturnal polygraphy in Peruvian highlanders (3825 m). Multivariable linear regression models examined associations between SDB metrics and haemoglobin, glucose tolerance (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)), fasting glucose, homeostatic model-based assessments of insulin resistance and β-cell function (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectively), blood pressure, and lipids, while adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and wake oxygenation. Read More

    Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2017 Aug 10;92:935-941. Epub 2017 Jun 10.
    Laboratório de Biomarcadores, Centro de Ciências Químicas, Farmacêuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitário s/n, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p. Read More

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