614 results match your criteria Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Aug 10:9922818793345. Epub 2018 Aug 10.
2 West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.
Perit Dial Int 2018 Jul 31. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
Paediatrics and Child Healt, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
Background: In a resource-limited setting, acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) is the modality of choice as a form of renal replacement therapy in children with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is a high risk of peritonitis that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Data on PD and peritonitis in developing countries are scarce. Read More
BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 18;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 18.
Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA.
Infection-related glomerulonephritis results from glomerular immune complex deposition due to a variety of potential pathogens. Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis is the best known example. We present a case of acute infection-related glomerulonephritis associated with disseminated gonococcal infection in a sexually active 13-year-old girl, the first report of such an association in the absence of endocarditis. Read More
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 May-Jun;29(3):728-731
Department of Nephrology, Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital, Nadiad, Gujarat, India.
A 14-year-old female presented with oliguric dialysis requiring kidney injury due to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) with hypertension strongly suggestive of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and elevated factor H antibody levels. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis with typical subepithelial, intramembranous and mesangial electron-dense deposits (humps) on electron microscopy. She was treated with glucocorticoids following which she recovered, remained dialysis free and her Factor H antibody levels and depressed complement 3 levels normalized. Read More
Case Rep Transplant 2018 31;2018:2695178. Epub 2018 May 31.
Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
Acute kidney injury is common among kidney transplant recipients. Postinfectious glomerulonephritis secondary to nephritogenic streptococci is one of the oldest known etiologies of acute kidney injury in native kidneys but rarely reported among kidney transplant recipients. This report is of a biopsy-proven case of acute kidney injury in a renal allograft recipient caused by de novo poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Read More
Am Fam Physician 2018 Apr;97(8):517-522
University of Tennessee Family Medicine Residency Program, Jackson, TN, USA.
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can cause several postinfectious, nonsuppurative immune- mediated diseases including acute rheumatic fever, poststreptococcal reactive arthritis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Except for sporadic outbreaks, poststreptococcal autoimmune syndromes occur most commonly in sub-Saharan Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand. Children younger than three years are rarely affected by group A streptococcus pharyngitis or rheumatic fever, and usually do not require testing. Read More
J Clin Rheumatol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
Department of Rheumatology University Hospital Basel Basel, Switzerland Department of Laboratory Medicine University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Department of Pathology University Hospital Basel Basel, Switzerland Department of Radiology University Hospital Basel Basel, Switzerland Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine University Hospital Basel Basel, Switzerland Department of Rheumatology University Hospital Basel Basel, Switzerland.
Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Apr;116(2):e288-e291
Department of Pedi-Nephrology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
We present a case of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Along with the classic findings of APSGN, the patient had a positive direct antiglobulin test and an anticardiolipin antibody without any typical clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This case raises questions of the relationship between Streptococcus and the development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children. Read More
Case Rep Crit Care 2017 20;2017:1050284. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
Division of Pediatric Respirology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
This report summarizes a case of a 4-year-old girl with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an atypical presentation in this age group and type of vasculitic disease. We propose that her rapid improvement in clinical status was due to her treatment, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This mechanism would have impacted recovery by removing factors such as endothelial microparticles, superantigens, and immune complexes that have been postulated as the pulmonary-renal link. Read More
BMC Pediatr 2018 02 5;18(1):28. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
American International Medical University, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia.
Background: Earthquakes impact child health in many ways. Diseases occurring immediately following an earthquake have been studied in field based hospitals but studies on the inpatient disease pattern among children without trauma in a permanent hospital setup is lacking.
Methods: We examined the diagnoses of all children without trauma, admitted to Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu for fifteen-week duration (from 4th week to end of the 18th week) following the 7. Read More
J Med Case Rep 2018 Feb 1;12(1):24. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
Prince Sultan Oncology Center, King Salman Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, 100, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurotoxic condition that occurs as a result of the failure of posterior circulatory autoregulation in response to acute changes in blood pressure. Overperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood-brain barrier results in vasogenic edema, but not infarction. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can be the presenting feature of postinfectious glomerulonephritis, which has been reported in approximately 5% of hospitalized children, and it has been reported in very few cases of adult patients with sickle cell anemia. Read More
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Jan;28(1):80-81
Department of Pediatric Medicine Unit-1, Nishtar Hospital, Multan.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 Nov-Dec;28(6):1421-1426
Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN) is an immune-mediated glomerulo-nephritis, most commonly caused by bacterial infections. Although there is an increased incidence of infectious episodes in renal transplant recipients, IRGN as a cause of de novo glomerulonephritis is rarely seen probably due to impaired immunity. We hereby report a 28-year-old male renal transplant recipient, who developed IRGN following impetigenous skin lesions after six years of transplant. Read More
Korean J Pediatr 2017 Aug 14;60(8):266-271. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed. Read More
J Leukoc Biol 2018 Feb 29;103(2):193-213. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. Read More
J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jul 1;11(7):SD13-SD14. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
Professor, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pt B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
Postinfectious Glomerulonephritis (PIGN) usually follows 1-2 weeks after respiratory tract infection and 4-6 weeks after skin infection. Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) is uncommon with simultaneous severe throat infections. We describe a 10-year-old boy who was presented with high grade fever, dysphagia and tender swelling over left side of neck. Read More
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):830-835
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is the most common type of glomerulonephritis seen in children. It can affect multiple organs with heart being frequently involved. Yet, there are very few studies on cardiac status in children with PSGN and hence this study was conducted. Read More
CEN Case Rep 2017 May 27;6(1):118-123. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University Faculty of Medicine, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga, Saga, 849-8501, Japan.
Retropharyngeal abscess is an infection involving the retropharyngeal space which is posterior to the pharynx and oesophagus, and it results as a complication of a primary infection elsewhere in the head and neck including the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, or middle ear, which drain lymph to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Their lymph nodes are prominent in children and atrophy with age. Therefore, retropharyngeal abscess is most frequently encountered in children, with 75% of cases occurring before the age of 5 years, and often in the first year of life. Read More
BMJ Case Rep 2017 Apr 17;2017. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York, New York, USA.
Med Princ Pract 2017 7;26(3):292-295. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia.
Objective: To present a case with 4 different potential causes of hyponatremia.
Clinical Presentation And Intervention: The patient presented with the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dark urine after drinking large amounts of fluids that included alcohol and caffeine. Laboratory, microbiological, and morphological examinations revealed the existence of severe hyponatremia and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Read More
Turk Pediatri Ars 2016 Dec 1;51(4):217-220. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
Division of Pediatric Hematology, Necmettin Erbakan University Meram School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is characterized by hypertension, seizure, headache, clouding of consciousness, and visual disturbance, and is diagnosed in the presence of typical lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. We retrospectively evaluated five patients who were diagnosed as having posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and followed up in Meram Medical Faculty, Pediatric Intensive Care and Hematology wards, between January 2010 and January 2014. We reviewed the demographic and clinical data, and neuroimaging findings. Read More
Case Rep Pediatr 2016 27;2016:7192359. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and Department of Pediatric Nephrology, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, 3415 Bainbridge Ave., Bronx, NY 10467, USA.
Thyroid storm has a high mortality rate and is often associated with a precipitating factor such as intercurrent illness or infection. It is rare in pediatric patients. Cardiac disease in hyperthyroidism mostly manifests itself as tachycardia but more serious cardiac findings have also been described. Read More
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2016 Sep;12(3):175-176
Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, Virginia; Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.
Pericarditis in conjunction with nephritis is an uncommon clinical scenario with a broad differential diagnosis. We present the case of a 58-year-old male who developed nephritis and pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. In the following, we discuss the differential diagnosis for concomitant nephritis and pericarditis and discuss the work-up performed on our patient. Read More
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Jan 7;12(1):39-49. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
Department of Pathology, and.
Background And Objectives: Staphylococcus infection-associated GN (SAGN) is a well recognized disease entity, particularly because of the frequent IgA-dominant glomerular immunoglobulin staining on kidney biopsy. Biopsy features can resemble two other disease entities - primary IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis - posing a diagnostic pitfall. This is clinically relevant because of the crucial difference in the therapeutic approach. Read More
Pediatr Int 2016 Oct 26;58(10):998-1002. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
Department of Pediatrics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan.
Background: Myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) forms stable heterodimers and is the major calcium-binding protein secreted by activated granulocytes and monocytes. We evaluated whether serum MRP8/14 level is a useful indicator for a differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis (GN)- and minimal change disease (MC)- related nephrotic syndrome (NS).
Methods: Serum MRP8/14 complex was evaluated in 37 NS patients with MC or GN. Read More
Int J Nephrol 2016 23;2016:5163065. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.
The most common acute glomerulonephritis in children is poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) usually occurring between 3 and 12 years old. Hypertension and gross hematuria are common presenting symptoms. Most PSGN patients do not experience complications, but rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and hypertensive encephalopathy have been reported. Read More
Ann Pediatr Cardiol 2016 Sep-Dec;9(3):268-9
Center of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Affiliate of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, Vilnius, Lithuania; Clinic of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania E-mail:
Clin Kidney J 2016 Feb 26;9(1):90-6. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
Division of Nephrology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
A 7-year-old male with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) developed hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and achieved remission. He was treated with eculizumab for 1 year. The eculizumab was discontinued and the patient remained in remission. Read More
Croat Med J 2015 Dec;56(6):567-72
Rina R. Rus, Division of Nephrology, University Children's Hospital, Bohoričeva 20, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia,
There are only a few reports of the co-occurrence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APGN) and acute rheumatic fever. We report an unusual case of a 3-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure with the transitional need for peritoneal dialysis, biopsy-proven atypical IgA-dominant APGN, and concomitant acute rheumatic fever, successfully treated by steroids. Aggressive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone proved to be successful and we recommend its use in this type of cases. Read More
Minerva Pediatr 2015 Dec;67(6):531-3
Department of Pediatrics, S. Chiara University Hospital, Pisa, Italy -
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2015 18;32(7):495-504. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
b Department of Biochemistry , Dr. Sami Ulus Research and Training Hospital of Women's and Children's Health and Diseases , Ankara , Turkey.
The presence of lupus anticoagulants (LAs) is an important cause of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) prolongation found in children after an infection or during screening tests before surgical intervention. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 68 patients who have been consulted from surgery departments with prolonged aPTT. These patients were reevaluated with aPTT analysis after 1 week. Read More
Ren Fail 2015 3;37(9):1440-3. Epub 2015 Sep 3.
b Department of General and Transplant Surgery , University Hospital Heidelberg , Heidelberg , Germany.
Background: The objective of this study was to assess clinical course and outcome of children with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) who had an attack of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN).
Method: Renal status including blood pressure, proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate was retrospectively analyzed in five children with CAKUT and PSGN at the presentation and during the follow up.
Results: In the period 2004-2013, 678 patients were diagnosed and recruited in our CAKUT cohort. Read More
Intern Med 2015 1;54(15):1885-9. Epub 2015 Aug 1.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Japan.
Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is a well-established disease. Although various immune responses are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of APSGN, the disease has a self-limiting nature in clinical practice, despite the presence of severe acute symptoms. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old woman with APSGN who developed primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) after achieving remission of renal manifestations, including anasarca and elevation of serum creatinine, indicating that persistent alterations in the immune system can cause extrarenal disorders. Read More
Hosp Pediatr 2015 Jun;5(6):348-51
Departments of Pediatrics, and Internal Medicine, Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(2):1826-9. Epub 2015 Feb 1.
Department of Nephrology, Nanjing Children's Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University Nanjing, China.
An eight-year-old girl, presenting with palpebral edema, gross hematuria, and foam in urine, was admitted to our hospital. Investigations indicated increased serum antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-mycoplasma antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed crescentic poststreptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (CPAGN) with isolated C3 deposition in the glomeruli. Read More
Am J Kidney Dis 2015 Jun 15;65(6):826-32. Epub 2015 Apr 15.
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:
A spate of recent publications describes a newly recognized form of glomerulonephritis associated with active staphylococcal infection. The key kidney biopsy findings, glomerular immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits dominant or codominant with IgG deposits, resemble those of IgA nephritis. Many authors describe this condition as "postinfectious" and have termed it "poststaphylococcal glomerulonephritis. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2015 Feb 7;15:50. Epub 2015 Feb 7.
Medical Microbiology Department, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Chodźki 1, 20-093, Lublin, Poland.
Background: Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for 5-15% and 20-30% of acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis in adults and children, respectively. It not only causes acute illness but also can give rise to local suppurative complications such as peritonsillar abscess as well as trigger the postinfectious syndromes of glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. Here, we report a case of a young healthy adult in whom both peritonsillar abscess and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis developed as a complication of acute streptococcal tonsillitis. Read More
Intern Med 2015 15;54(8):961-4. Epub 2015 Apr 15.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Kashiwa Hospital, Japan.
We herein report a case of pulmonary renal syndrome with nephritis in a 17-year-old boy with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). The patient exhibited hemoptysis two weeks after developing impetigo, and DAH was diagnosed on bronchoscopy. Respiratory failure progressed, and high-dose methylprednisolone therapy was administered; the respiratory failure regressed immediately after the onset of therapy. Read More
J Nippon Med Sch 2015 ;82(1):59-63
Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University.
In addition to being the main cause of glomerulonephritis in children, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) has recently been shown in older patients, especially those with malignancy or diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of PSGN has been ascribed to activation of complement 3 (C3) of the alternative complement cascade which, along with immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM deposits, is observed in renal tissue. Our aim here is to discuss the probable causes of PSGN developing with isolated IgM deposition in a 52-year-old patient with essential thrombocytosis followed-up over the previous 3. Read More
Ther Umsch 2015 Mar;72(3):141-7
Abteilung für Nephrologie, Departement Medizin, Kantonsspital, Luzern.
Postinfectious glomerulonephritis is an immune-mediated disease occurring as a result of the host response to an extrarenal infection. The classical form of poststreptococcal disease is decreasing worldwide but remains a significant health care problem in developing countries, especially in children. In industrialised countries postinfectious glomerulonephritis is now primarily due to non-streptococcal disease. Read More
Pediatr Rev 2015 Jan;36(1):3-12; quiz 13
Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
On the basis of strong research evidence, the prevalence of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) is decreasing worldwide, although it still remains the leading cause of glomerulonephritis in children. The overall decrease in prevalence of PSGN has been mainly driven by a significant decrease in pyoderma seen in the last half-century, such that postpharyngitic PSGN is most commonly seen in developed nations. On the basis of primarily consensus because of a lack of relevant clinical studies, the latency period between streptococcal infection and the development of nephritis is a hallmark of PSGN, with this period lasting 1 to 2 weeks with pharyngeal infections or 2 to 6 weeks with skin infections. Read More
Am Fam Physician 2014 Aug;90(4):229-35
West Virginia University Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV, USA.
Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Read More
Nephrol Dial Transplant 2016 06 24;31(6):971-7. Epub 2014 Jul 24.
Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Background: Australian Aborigines in remote areas have very high rates of kidney disease, which is marked by albuminuria. We describe a 'multihit' model of albuminuria in young adults in one remote Aboriginal community.
Methods: Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) were measured in 655 subjects aged 15-39 years and evaluated in the context of birthweights, a history of 'remote' poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN; ≥5 years earlier) and current body mass index (BMI). Read More
Am J Med 2014 Sep 10;127(9):e15-7. Epub 2014 Jun 10.
Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Renal Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
J Pediatr Neurosci 2014 Jan;9(1):42-4
Department of Pediatrics, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare clinicoradiologic condition manifesting with headache, seizures, altered sensorium, visual disturbances, and characteristic lesions on neuroimaging predominantly affecting the posterior regions of the brain. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, presenting as PRES. A magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions in bilateral frontal and parietooccipital parenchyma on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2-weighted images, suggestive of "PRES. Read More
Clin Microbiol Rev 2014 Apr;27(2):264-301
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and the Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Read More
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2014 Dec 30;99(6):231-8. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol, UK.
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the cause of a wide range of acute suppurative and, following a latent period, non-suppurative diseases such as rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of the latter group requires evidence of preceding GAS infection. The bacteria produce a range of extracellular antigens, including streptolysin O, which induce an antibody response in the host. Read More