159,024 results match your criteria Globalization and Health [Journal]
Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Aug 26;28:81-89. Epub 2018 May 26.
Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States; Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 United States. Electronic address:
Vector-borne diseases have increased worldwide, facilitated by globalization and variations in climate. Tick and tick-borne disease researchers, veterinarians, medical practitioners, and public health specialists are working to share their expertise on tick ecology, disease transmission, diagnostics, and treatment in order to control tick-borne epidemics and potential pandemics. This review will be a brief overview of the current status of tick-borne diseases, challenges on the scientific and public fronts, and the role of public engagement in improving citizen education within the context of ticks and tick-borne disease research. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0206819. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
Globalization is defined for individuals as their connectivity in global networks. Social identity is conceptualized as attachment and identification with a group. We measure individual involvement with global networks and local, national, and global social identity through a questionnaire. Read More
Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Dec 9;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 9.
School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.
Since the beginning of the 2000s, globalization has accelerated because of the development of transportation systems that allow for human and material exchanges throughout the world. However, this globalization has brought with it the rise of various pathogenic viral agents, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Zika virus, and Dengue virus. In particular, avian influenza virus (AIV) is highly infectious and causes economic, health, ethnical, and social problems to human beings, which has necessitated the development of an ultrasensitive and selective rapid-detection system of AIV. Read More
Glob Pediatr Health 2018 14;5:2333794X18811795. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
. To understand the perspectives of clinical providers and caregivers regarding early childhood development (ECD) in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Kenya. . Read More
Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston Texas; Baylor Global Health, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:
Malar J 2018 Dec 7;17(1):459. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Ifakara Health Institute, Kiko Avenue, Mikocheni, P.O. Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Background: In Tanzania, the roles of men and women are classified based on the local cultural context. While men are usually the breadwinners, women are traditionally responsible for most domestic chores. Particularly for malaria prevention, studies in Africa have revealed women as being responsible for daily up-keep of the net. Read More
Inflamm Intest Dis 2018 Nov 5;3(1):25-31. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Center for Advanced IBD Research and Treatment, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though historically common in the West, is now increasingly prevalent in industrializing countries. A simultaneous dramatic increase in IBD drug options has enabled most patients to achieve remission. Nevertheless, worldwide disparities in the approval of IBD drugs, or "drug lag", remain problematic. Read More
Georgian Med News 2018 Oct(283):175-179
Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs; Uzghorod National University, Ukraine.
The purpose of this study is to assess the current state of international legal regulation of cadaveric donation and determine the possibility of its further unification. Therefore, the subject of the study was the legal regulation of cadaveric donation as a certain part of medicine. In particular, the work examined the norms of international law, as well as the separate provisions of the national legislation of different countries, aimed at regulating relations in the field of cadaveric donation. Read More
Nutr Res Pract 2018 Dec 16;12(6):486-493. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342, Seongnam-daero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea.
Background/objectives: The honeysuckle berry (HB) contains ascorbic acid and phenolic components, especially anthocyanins, flavonoids, and low-molecular-weight phenolic acids. In order to examine the potential of HB as a hepatoprotective medicinal food, we evaluated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean HB (HBK) and Chinese HB (HBC).
Materials/methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were examined in HepG2 and RAW 264. Read More
Global Health 2018 11 29;14(1):121. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA, 6845, Australia.
Background: Supermarkets have unprecedented political and economic power in the food system and an inherent responsibility to demonstrate good corporate citizenship via corporate social responsibility (CSR). The aim of this study was to investigate the world's largest and most powerful supermarkets' publically available CSR commitments to determine their potential impact on public health.
Methods: The world's largest 100 retailers were identified using the Global Powers of Retailing report. Read More
BMC Med 2018 Nov 30;16(1):221. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
UCL Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
By the end of 2017, an estimated 68.5 million people were displaced from their homes worldwide, of whom 25.4 million were refugees. Read More
PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0208227. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Habitat Research Center, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Scholarly studies and common accounts of national politics enjoy pointing out the resilience of ideological divides among populations. Building on the image of political cleavages and geographic polarization, the regionalization of politics has become a truism across Northern democracies. Left unquestioned, this geography plays a central role in shaping electoral and referendum campaigns. Read More
PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0207554. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
National Microbiology Laboratory at Guelph, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused several major epidemics globally over the last two decades and is quickly expanding into new areas. Although this mosquito-borne disease is self-limiting and is not associated with high mortality, it can lead to severe, chronic and disabling arthritis, thereby posing a heavy burden to healthcare systems. The two main vectors for CHIKV are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito); however, many other mosquito species have been described as competent CHIKV vectors in scientific literature. Read More
Hu Li Za Zhi 2018 Dec;65(6)
PhD, RN Department of Allied Health Education and Digital Learning, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taiwan, ROC.
The 21st century is an era of information, technology, knowledge application, innovation, and globalization. The purpose of education is not only to provide knowledge but also to extend knowledge across many disciplines and national and ethnic boundaries. Education requires teachers to guide students to expand the depth and breadth of their learning and to make global connections. Read More
J Eval Clin Pract 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Public Health and Statistics, The Graduate School, University of West London, London, UK.
Rationale, Aims, And Objectives: This article aims to examine global population ageing and to evaluate the likely risks and dilemmas of demographic ageing within the context of the health and well-being of individuals.
Methods: This paper is based on the author's research in the field of social gerontology, demography, and public health. In addition, a literature review has been carried out focused on the objectives of the research. Read More
J Nat Prod 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
SIMM-CUHK Joint Research Laboratory for Promoting Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines , Shanghai 201203 , People's Republic of China.
(±)-Cryptomeriolide, a pair of racemic bis- seco-abietane diterpenoids, were isolated from the bark of Cryptomeria fortunei. The separation of enantiomers was achieved by using chiral stationary phase HPLC. Their structures including the absolute configuration and conformations in solution and solid state were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and comparison of calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism data. Read More
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.
Ecological modernization theories suggest that it is hard to determine a priori the environmental effects of urbanization, while neoliberal doctrine advocates a positive role of globalization in developing economies especially in terms of reducing poverty and inequality. Yet, the environmental effect of globalization is not unanimous. This study employs second-generation panel regression techniques that account for heterogeneous slope coefficients and cross-sectional dependence to estimate the impacts that urbanization and globalization have on CO emissions for a panel of 44 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries for the period 1984-2016. Read More
Front Psychol 2018 13;9:2186. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Human Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
In this paper, we are going to address job satisfaction and perceived self-efficacy withinthe context of residential child-care. A joint report from the European Foundation for the Improvement on Living and Working Conditions and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work revealed that managers in the field of health and education were the most concerned about the psychosocial risk of their employees, although concern is not automatically translated into tools to face the risk and to manage it. So, measuring and improving employees' job satisfaction and self-efficacy can be an important means for organizations to prevent the outcomes of psychosocial risk, and supporting high quality performance of workers. Read More
Chin Med 2018 16;13:57. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
3Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 151 Malianwa North Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193 People's Republic of China.
Modern studies have shown that adaptogens can non-specifically enhance the resistance of human body under a wide range of external stress conditions with a multi-targeted and multi-channel network-like manner, especially by affect the immune-neuro-endocrine system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This review article draws the attention to the relationships of adaptogens, tonics from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and ginseng-like herbs worldwide, which all have similar plant sources and clinical applications. To clarify the sources and pharmacological mechanisms of these plant-originated adaptogens, which will provide useful information for the utilization of adaptogens to improve the human health. Read More
EJIFCC 2018 Nov 7;29(3):175-179. Epub 2018 Nov 7.
Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Groupe hospitalier Paris-Seine-Saint-Denis, Avicenne Universitary Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bobigny, France.
Emerging infectious diseases (EID) threaten public health and are sustained by increasing global commerce, travel and disruption of ecological systems. Travelers could play a role in importing EIDs and could be a sentinel of major epidemics. In connection with the extension of poverty, urbanization, extensive livestock rearing and globalization, we could be exposed to a third epidemiological transition characterized by zoonotic diseases and infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Read More
Biomed Instrum Technol 2018 Nov./Dec.;52(6):442-450
To address the demands of worldwide demographic and epidemiologic changes and globalization, as well as their effects on population health, the Ministry of Health in Oman developed a long-term plan for its health system called Health Vision 2050. The plan was shaped by international consultants, who sought to augment the vision with up-to-date evidence and achieve alignment with international standards. The Health Vision 2050 main document was anchored by 24 separate strategic studies covering different dimensions and pillars of the health system, one of which was the strategic study of medical equipment and healthcare technology (MEHT). Read More
Alzheimers Res Ther 2018 Nov 24;10(1):116. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Background: Globalization of clinical trials has important consequences for trial planning and interpretation. This study investigated heterogeneity in patient characteristics and outcomes among world regions in the global idalopirdine Phase 3 clinical program.
Methods: Data were pooled from three 24-week randomized controlled trials in patients aged ≥ 50 years with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 2506). Read More
Biosci Trends 2018 ;12(5):507-509
Scientific Research Center, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University.
China has made substantial progress in tackling its Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, however, the number of people living with HIV / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continues to increase, with the number of all-cause deaths rising. There are a total 75.6 million people living with HIV and 2. Read More
Phys Med 2018 Nov 22;55:33-39. Epub 2018 Oct 22.
Global Outreach for Radiation Protection, Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Adjunct Professor of Radiology & Medical Physics, Duke University, Ex-IAEA, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
Purpose: The International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) performed a detailed study following the first survey published in 2015 with the particular objectives: 1) gather data on global medical physicists (MPs) workforce, 2) identify differences between geographical regions and, 3) investigate whether there is a gender dimension in higher hierarchy positions.
Methods: An online questionnaire was send to IOMP members and contact points in countries where no professional MPs society existed. Information requested: total number (N) of MPs (men and women), N of current elected executive board (EB) of societies and women proportion in the board, president gender and number of women presidents for the last 10 years. Read More
Psychogeriatrics 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
Aim: As the population ages, mental health issues among the elderly are becoming a major concern worldwide, including in Sri Lanka. With rapid globalization, the coping and adapting skills of elderly individuals are tested, potentially revealing predisposition to psychological disturbances. Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of depression among the elderly. Read More
JAMA 2018 Nov;320(19):1965-1966
Chief Executive Officer, Primary Care Development Corporation.
Pan Afr Med J 2018 27;30:177. Epub 2018 Jun 27.
Haramaya University College of Health and Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Harar, Ethiopia.
Introduction: In developing countries, approximately sixteen hundred people die every day from all types of injuries, making injury the third most common cause of all mortalities in the region. The objective of this study was to examine the magnitude, causes and types of traumatic injuries in patients visiting Dilchora Hospital in Dire Dawa Administration of Eastern Ethiopia.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study which was supplemented with qualitative data. Read More
Pan Afr Med J 2018 25;30:170. Epub 2018 Jun 25.
Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Box 414, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common and disabling public health complication of the postpartum period in women. It is believed to occur three times more commonly in developing countries than in the developed world and is more prevalent among women in the first six weeks after birth. Research suggests that postpartum depression is more commonly diagnosed among adolescents and may be a risk factor for poor growth and development in children born to these mothers. Read More
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Groningen, The Netherlands
M/XDR-TB has become an increasing threat in high burden countries but also in affluent regions due to increased international travel and globalization. Carbapenems are earmarked as potentially active drugs for the treatment of To better understand the potential of carbapenems for the treatment of M/XDR-TB, the aim of this review was to evaluate the literature on currently available , and clinical data on carbapenems in the treatment of and detection of knowledge gaps, in order to target future research.In February 2018, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was performed. Read More
Global Health 2018 11 19;14(1):111. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Blusson Hall, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.
Background: Paraguay has reportedly been a major transit hub for illicit tobacco products since the 1960s, initially to supply markets in Argentina and Brazil and, more recently, other regional markets and beyond. However, to date there has been no systematic analysis, notably independent of the tobacco industry, of this trade including the roles of domestic production and transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). This article fills that gap by detailing the history of Paraguay's illicit cigarette trade to Brazil and Argentina of TTC products and Paraguayan production between 1960 and 2003. Read More
BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 20;18(1):1277. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Public Health and Primary care, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 33, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
Background: This realist review was conducted to understand how stigma is reduced in relation to HIV test uptake in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Methods: A systematic search of eight databases resulted in 34 articles considered for synthesis. Data synthesis was guided by a preliminary programme theory and included coding the meaning units to develop themes or intervention pathways that corresponded to context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Read More
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Oct;39(10):1291-1297
Department of Education and Training, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
The process of globalization increases the risk of global transmission of infectious diseases, resulting in pressure for country's prevention and control of imported infectious disease. Based on the risk assessment of disease importation and local transmission, a strategy that conducting importation prevention and routine prevention and control before the importation of disease and taking emergency control measures after the importation of disease was developed. In addition, it is important to take part in global infectious disease response action, aid the countries with outbreak or epidemic to actively decrease the risk of disease importation. Read More
Global Health 2018 11 16;14(1):108. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Globalization and Health Equity Research Unit, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, 600 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1G 5Z3, Canada.
Background: Global health diplomacy (GHD) has become an important field of investigation due to health concerns increasingly entering the foreign policy domain. Much of the existing academic writing focuses on North-South cooperation in global health, and emphasizes the role of security and economic interests by Northern countries as drivers of GHD. Chile presents a favourable environment for an expanded involvement in future GHD activities. Read More
Clin Trials 2018 Nov 16:1740774518813573. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
1 Department of Health, Social and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea.
Background: With the recent publication of the International Conference on Harmonisation E17 guideline and major reforms in China underway, the platform for clinical trial conduct is expected to change. This study aims to assess the strategic inclusion of regions in clinical trials and its change in trends over the past decade.
Methods: The ClinicalTrials. Read More
Swiss J Econ Stat 2018 5;154(1):10. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Basel, Peter Merian-Weg 6, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.
The topic of this paper has been motivated by the rising unemployment rate of low-skilled relative to high-skilled labour in Switzerland. Between 1991 and 2014, Switzerland experienced the highest relative increase in the low-skilled unemployment rate among all OECD countries. A natural culprit for this development is "globalization" as indicated by some mass layoffs in Switzerland and as commonly voiced in public debates all over the world. Read More
JAMA 2018 Sep;320(10):971-972
Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Cell Tissue Bank 2018 Dec 12;19(4):791-798. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Human Molecular Cytogenetics and Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641046, India.
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells, the heart of regenerative medicine. As the globalization and population of the world continues to increase, we are faced with an inundation of new diseases, affecting millions of people. Research work considering stem cells is essential for developing therapy for various conditions. Read More
Niger J Clin Pract 2018 Nov;21(11):1508-1513
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey.
Background: The total fertility rate is 2.1 children per women in Turkey. The population is expected to increase to 84 million by 2023. Read More
Niger J Clin Pract 2018 Nov;21(11):1422-1429
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir, Turkey.
Context: The importance of labor that contributes to the economy and economic power of the country is increasing recently. There is a strong link between health and economy. People are happier, more productive, and provide more contribution to the economy in communities of healthy individuals. Read More
Semin Pediatr Surg 2018 Oct 5;27(5):321-326. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Paediatric Surgery Department, King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
There is great global disparity in the outcome of infants born with gastroschisis. Mortality approaches 100% in many low income countries. Barriers to better outcomes include lack of antenatal diagnosis, deficient pre-hospital care, ineffective neonatal resuscitation and venous access, limited intensive care facilities, poor access to the operating theatre and safe neonatal anesthesia, and lack of neonatal parenteral nutrition. Read More
J Glob Health 2019 Jun;9(1):010403
International Centre for Equity in Health, University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
Background: Stimulating home environments that have children's books, pictures and play toys facilitate caregiver-child interactions and enhance children's development. Although this has been demonstrated in small-scale intervention studies, it is important to document whether book ownership is beneficial at large scale in low and middle-income settings.
Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis using data from the multiple-indicator cluster survey, covering 100 012 children aged 36-59 months, from 35 countries. Read More
J Glob Health 2018 Dec;8(2):021101
Centre for Global Health Research and World Health Organization's Collaborating Centre for Population Health, Research and Training, The Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, UK.
Background: Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among children aged 0-4 years globally is not well understood. We aim to assess the incidence of T1DM in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) by conducting a systematic review of previous reports. We also aim to address possible contribution to child mortality and to identify any temporal trends. Read More
J Glob Health 2018 Dec;8(2):020416
Department for Health Security, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.
Background: The Joint External Evaluation (JEE) is part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) new process to help countries assess their ability to prevent, detect and respond to public health threats such as infectious disease outbreaks, as specified by the International Health Regulations (IHR). How countries are faring on these evaluations is not well known and neither is there any previous assessment of the performance characteristics of the JEE process itself.
Methods: We obtained JEE data for 48 indicators collectively across 19 technical areas of preparedness for 55 countries. Read More
Global Health 2018 11 8;14(1):106. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
Department of Physiology, Pharmacology/Toxicology, Division of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
Background: Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. It is also a serious threat to global health and security. Globalization has made human trafficking an easier task for the criminal organizations. Read More
Seizure 2018 Dec 23;63:52-61. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
ENyS, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Epilepsy Centre, Ramos Mejía and El Cruce Hospital, Argentina.
Purpose: To understand the experience of drug-resistant epilepsy in patients from Argentina, a developing nation.
Method: A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used to gain an in-depth and contextual understanding of the perspectives of 20 patients with DRE. Data collection and analysis were followed by an inductive and interpretive approach informed by the principles of thematic analysis. Read More
New Microbes New Infect 2018 Nov 30;26:S65-S73. Epub 2018 Aug 30.
Scientific Direction, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, 'L. Spallanzani', Rome, Italy.
Epidemics such as viral haemorrhagic fevers, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or yet unknown ones have few chances of disappearing. Globalization, worldwide travel, climate change, social conflicts and wars, among others, are likely to favor the emergence of epidemics. Preparedness of hospitals to prevent the spread of these outbreaks is among the prioritized political programmes of many countries. Read More
Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2018 Nov 6;22(5):599-603. Epub 2018 Nov 6.
Department of Radiology, University College Dublin, Ireland.
This article provides an overview of the philosophy, mechanisms, and difficulties involved in the establishment of integrated training programs in medicine, radiology, and specifically musculoskeletal radiology across the European Union. Read More
JAMA 2018 Nov;320(17):1743-1744
University Professor and Faculty Director, O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law, Georgetown University Law Center.
Croat Med J 2018 Oct;59(5):267-273
Ines Potočnjak, Vinogradska street 29, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia,
Aim: To investigate international medical students' attitudes toward the impact of 6-year longitudinal course, Fundamentals of Medical Skills (FMS), at Medical Studies in English at the University of Zagreb on the development of their practical, clinical, and communication skills.
Methods: This cross-sectional study used a 23-item online survey to collect data from five generations of students attending the FMS course from January 31 to February 3, 2017. First-year students were not included. Read More