419,533 results match your criteria Global heart[Journal]


T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
10 Reads

The appropriateness of coronary investigation in myocardial injury and type 2 myocardial infarction (ACT-2): A randomized trial design.

Am Heart J 2018 Oct 25;208:11-20. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Cardiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia; College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Elevated troponin level findings among patients presenting with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or another intercurrent illness undeniably identifies patients at increased risk of mortality. Whilst enhancing our capacity to discriminate risk, the use of high-sensitivity troponin assays frequently identifies patients with myocardial injury (i.e. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

The adoption of sustainable practices: A supplier's perspective.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:692-701. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning, Beijing, China.

Suppliers' adoption of sustainable practices plays a critical role for global companies to improve environmental performance. Based on the absorptive capacity theory, this study empirically explores how suppliers' knowledge bases and power relationships influence their adoption of sustainability practices. A longitudinal case study with eight suppliers has been conducted. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Longer schooling but not better off? A quasi-experimental study of the effect of compulsory schooling on biomarkers in France.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Nov 23;220:379-386. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, 205 East 42nd Street, New York, NY, 10017, USA.

Less schooling is associated with increased biological risks for chronic disease, but whether increasing years of schooling through policy interventions reduces these risks remains unclear. We examine the effect of a major education reform introduced in 1959 that raised the minimum school leaving age from 14 to 16 years in France, offering a unique natural experiment. We assess the causal impact of increased schooling duration on 16 biomarkers of cardiovascular, metabolic, organ and immune function in a large cohort of men and women born around 1953. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Neuroprotective effects of a novel carnosine-hydrazide derivative on hippocampal CA1 damage after transient cerebral ischemia.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 28;163:207-214. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kurume University, School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Ischemia-reperfusion injuries produce reactive oxygen species that promote the peroxide lipid oxidation process resulting in the production of an endogenic lipid peroxide, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a highly cytotoxic aldehyde that induces cell death. We synthesized a novel 4-HNE scavenger - a carnosine-hydrazide derivative, l-carnosine hydrazide (CNN) - and examined its neuroprotective effect in a model of transient ischemia. PC-12 cells were pre-incubated with various doses (0-50 mmol/L) of CNN for 30 min, followed by incubation with 4-HNE (250 μM). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Does exclusive breastfeeding relate to the longer duration of breastfeeding? A prospective cohort study.

Midwifery 2018 Nov 19;69:163-171. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Suboptimal breastfeeding contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Studies in high-income countries (HICs) show that exclusive-breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with longer breastfeeding duration. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal reports of EBF at six months are associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first two years of life in a low and middle-income country (LMIC) setting, and to identify determinants of breastfeeding duration. Read More

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November 2018

An environmental flow determination method for integrating multiple-scale ecohydrological and complex ecosystem processes in estuaries.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 22;656:482-494. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Nelson Mandela University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa. Electronic address:

This paper presents an environmental flow methodology that was developed to accommodate shallow, highly dynamic micro-tidal estuaries found along the wave-dominated coast of South Arica. This method differs to most other approaches that primarily focus on larger permanently open systems having unrestricted inlets. Following an adaptive, design science research approach, the 7-step method adopted both ecohydrological and ecosystem-based concepts, encapsulating key hydrologicalhydrodynamic-biogeochemical processes, as well as biotic responses. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Loricate choanoflagellates (Acanthoecidae) from warm water seas?A I. Conioeca gen. nov. and Nannoeca Thomsen.

Eur J Protistol 2018 Nov 14;67:77-88. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Nørrebrogade 52a 5th, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

The main outcome of this and subsequent papers is to provide a baseline survey of heterotrophic protist diversity from warm water marine ecosystems, exemplified by loricate choanoflagellates (Acanthoecida). Loricate choanoflagellates are heterotrophic, nano-sized protists that are ubiquitous in marine and brackish water habitats. They dwell in a lorica formed by silicified costal strips organized in species specific patterns. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Impact of short-term traffic-related air pollution on the metabolome - Results from two metabolome-wide experimental studies.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 3;123:124-131. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

MRC/PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine (IIGM), Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes but underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two randomized crossover trials were used here, the Oxford Street II (London) and the TAPAS II (Barcelona) studies, where volunteers were allocated to high or low air pollution exposures. The two locations represent different exposure scenarios, with Oxford Street characterized by diesel vehicles and Barcelona by normal mixed urban traffic. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Computational study of new 1,2,3-triazole derivative of lithocholic acid: Structural aspects, non-linear optical properties and molecular docking studies as potential PTP 1B enzyme inhibitor.

Comput Biol Chem 2018 Nov 22;78:144-152. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, India. Electronic address:

We have reported synthesis of a novel 1,2,3-triazole conjugate of lithocholic acid by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. The molecular properties such as geometry, conformations, bond lengths and dihedral angles were investigated theoretically. The bond order analysis was performed using Wiberg bond order (WBO), Fuzzy bond order (FBO) and Laplacian bond order (MBO) method. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Dirhodium (II) complex interferes with iron-transport system to exert antibacterial action against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Institute of Life and Health Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Drug resistance in bacteria is becoming a significant threat to global public health, and the development of novel and efficient antibacterial compounds is urgently needed. Recently, rhodium complexes have attracted attention as antimicrobial agents, yet their antibacterial mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we observed that the dirhodium (II) complex RhAc inhibited Streptococcus. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Early impact of pulmonary stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) on Quality of Life (QoL): Benefit for patients with low initial scores (STRIPE trial).

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Partner Site Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Quality of life (QoL) of comorbid patients with pulmonary malignancies is a key issue in considering stereotactic fractionated body radiotherapy (SBRT) indication. This study investigates the early impact of SBRT on QoL.

Methods: 100 patients with pulmonary lesions were treated with SBRT from 02/2011 to 11/2014 within the prospective, monocenter, phase II STRIPE trial. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Mechanistic role of the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 in cardiac hypertrophy.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiovascular Research Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Hamburg, Kiel, Lübeck, Germany; Institute of Pharmacy, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 45, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The sympathetic nervous system is the main stimulator of cardiac function. While acute activation of the β-adrenoceptors exerts positive inotropic and lusitropic effects by increasing cAMP and Ca, chronically enhanced sympathetic tone with changed β-adrenergic signaling leads to alterations of gene expression and remodeling. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is activated by cAMP and Ca. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Cardiovascular development and survival require Mef2c function in the myocardial but not the endothelial lineage.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA. Electronic address:

MEF2C is a member of the highly conserved MEF2 family of transcription factors and is a key regulator of cardiovascular development. In mice, Mef2c is expressed in the developing heart and vasculature, including the endothelium. Loss of Mef2c function in germline knockout mice leads to early embryonic demise and profound developmental abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of spinal mobilization with leg movement in patients with lumbar radiculopathy - A double blind randomized controlled trial.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Professorand Head, Department of Orthopaedics, Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospintal, Pune, Maharashatra, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of spinal mobilization with leg movement (SMWLM) on low back and leg pain intensity, disability, pain centralization and patient satisfaction in subjects with lumbar radiculopathy.

Design: A double blind randomized controlled trial.

Setting: General Hospital PARTICIPANTS: Sixty adults (mean age 44 years) with sub-acute lumbar radiculopathy INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly allocated to receive SMWLM, exercise and electrotherapy (n = 30) or exercise and electrotherapy alone (n = 30). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Solriamfetol for Excessive Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (TONES 3): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

Rationale: Primary treatment of obstructive sleep apnea can be accompanied by a persistence of excessive sleepiness despite adherence. Furthermore, effectiveness of sleep apnea treatment is limited by poor adherence. Currently available pharmacologic options for the treatment of sleepiness in this population are limited. Read More

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December 2018

Acupuncture and related interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 2;12:CD011215. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eu, Meulgeum, Yangsan, Korea, South, 626-870.

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a compressive neuropathic disorder at the level of the wrist. Acupuncture and other methods that stimulate acupuncture points, such as electroacupuncture, auricular acupuncture, laser acupuncture, moxibustion, and acupressure, are used in treating CTS. Acupuncture has been recommended as a potentially useful treatment for CTS, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Comparison of Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Implant Impressions: Effect of Interimplant Distance in an Edentulous Arch.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: This study compared the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of conventional impressions with digital impression systems (intraoral scanners and dental laboratory scanners) for two different interimplant distances in maxillary edentulous arches.

Materials And Methods: Six impression systems comprising one conventional impression material(Impregum), two intraoral scanners (TRIOS and True Definition), and three dental laboratory scanners (Ceramill Map400, inEos X5, and D900) were evaluated on two completely edentulous maxillary arch master models (A and B) with six and eight implants, respectively. Centroid positions at the implant platform level were derived using either physical or virtual probe hits with a coordinate measuring machine. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1007392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Evolutionary and Computational Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dynamics of dog-to-dog and dog-to-human transmission. Phylogeographic analyses reveal a lower diffusion coefficient than previously estimated for dog RABV dissemination in northern Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) genotype update and proposal of a new genotyping methodology.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208585. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CRESA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is one of the most widespread viral infections of swine, causing a remarkable economic impact because of direct losses and indirect costs for its control. As other ssDNA viruses, PCV-2 is characterized by a high evolutionary rate, leading to the emergence of a plethora of variants with different biological and epidemiological features. Over time, several attempts have been made to organize PCV-2 genetic heterogeneity in recognized genotypes. Read More

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December 2018

Modelling Toxoplasma gondii infection in a 3D cell culture system In Vitro: Comparison with infection in 2D cell monolayers.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208558. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models bridge the gap between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. Physiologically relevant, 3D culture models have significantly advanced basic cell science and provide unique insights into host-pathogen interactions intrinsically linked to cell morphology. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intravacuolar parasite that chronically infects a large portion of the global human population. Read More

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December 2018

Global analysis of erythroid cells redox status reveals the involvement of Prdx1 and Prdx2 in the severity of beta thalassemia.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208316. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Genética e Evolução, São Carlos, Brazil.

β-thalassemia is a worldwide distributed monogenic red cell disorder, characterized by an absent or reduced beta globin chain synthesis. The unbalance of alpha-gamma chain and the presence of pathological free iron promote severe oxidative damage, playing crucial a role in erythrocyte hemolysis, exacerbating ineffective erythropoiesis and decreasing the lifespan of red blood cells (RBC). Catalase, glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxins act together to protect RBCs from hydrogen peroxide insult. Read More

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December 2018

Climatic factors shaping intraspecific leaf trait variation of a neotropical tree along a rainfall gradient.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208512. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, ICB-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Intraspecific trait variation has been singled out as an important mechanism by which individuals can cope with environmental variations and avoid local extinctions. Here we evaluate variation in metamer traits (i.e. Read More

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December 2018

The burden of stroke in China: Results from a nationwide population-based epidemiological survey.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208398. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neuroepidemiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Stroke is a serious threat to human health that often leads to severe complications, and currently ranks first as leading cause of death in China. However, reliable data on stroke burden in China in the 21st century are lacking. We used the data from NESS-China (National Epidemiological Survey of Stroke in China) for assessing the adverse health effects of stroke in Chinese population. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A comparison of maternal and newborn health services costs in Sindh Pakistan.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208299. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Women & Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Pakistani women suffer the highest rate of maternal mortality in South Asia. A lack of comprehensive knowledge about maternal and newborn health (MNH) services costs impedes policy decisions to maximize the benefit from existing, as well as emerging, MNH interventions in Pakistan. We compared MNH service costs at different levels of care. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Performance of GPS units for deployment on semiaquatic animals.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207938. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences, and Maritime Sciences, Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø i Telemark, Norway.

Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is widely used in wildlife research to study animal movement and habitat use. In order to evaluate the quality and reliability of GPS data, the factors influencing the performance of these devices must be known, especially for semiaquatic species, because terrestrial and aquatic habitat might affect GPS performance differently. We evaluated the location error and fix success rate of three GPS receiver models in stationary tests and on a semi-aquatic mammal, the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber). Read More

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December 2018

Bacterial microbiome of the chigger mite Leptotrombidium imphalum varies by life stage and infection with the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208327. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

Scrub typhus is a mites-borne rickettsiosis caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is potentially life threatening and is prevalent in tropical Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean and northern Australia where an estimated one million cases occur annually. Orientia tsutsugamushi is transmitted by the bite of larval mites in the genus Leptotrombidium. Read More

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December 2018

An improved power loss model of full-bridge converter under light load condition.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208239. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

When the full-bridge converter works under the light load condition, the power efficiency obtained by the theoretical model is much different from that of the actual converter. Facing with this situation, an improved power loss model based on the typical power loss model is proposed. In this paper, the typical power loss model is called typical model for short and the improved power loss model is called proposed model for short. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Screening for osteoporosis: A systematic assessment of the quality and content of clinical practice guidelines, using the AGREE II instrument and the IOM Standards for Trustworthy Guidelines.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208251. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Numerous clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are published to guide management of osteoporosis. Little is known about their quality or how recommendations have changed over time.

Objective: To systematically assess the quality and content of the guidelines on screening for osteoporosis, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) tool, and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for trustworthy guidelines. Read More

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December 2018

'I should not feed such a weak woman'. Intimate partner violence among women living with podoconiosis: A qualitative study in northern Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207571. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Research indicates that adults suffering from long term, disabling conditions are more likely to be victims of IPV due to the intersection of disease-associated stigma and discrimination. IPV in turn is known to worsen the overall health and wellbeing of those affected by it. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads
3.230 Impact Factor

Pain characterization and response to palliative care in dogs with naturally-occurring appendicular osteosarcoma: An open label clinical trial.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207200. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

GREPAQ (Groupe de recherche en pharmacologie animale du Québec), Department of biomedical sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada.

This study aimed to characterize bone cancer pain (quantitative sensory testing (QST), stance asymmetry index, actimetry, scores of pain and quality of life (QoL)) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA), and to evaluate a stepwise palliative analgesic treatment. The pain profile of thirteen client-owned dogs with OSA was compared with seven healthy dogs. Dogs with OSA were then enrolled in a prospective, open-label, clinical trial. Read More

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December 2018

Temporal changes in the viromes of Swedish Varroa-resistant and Varroa-susceptible honeybee populations.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0206938. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in combination with the viruses it vectors, is the main cause for global colony losses of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, an isolated honeybee population established in 1999 on the Island of Gotland, Sweden has naturally acquired resistance to the mite, and has survived without mite control treatment for more than 18 years. A recent study has shown that this mite resistant (MR) population also appears to be resistant to Black queen cell virus (BQCV) and Sacbrood virus (SBV) and tolerant to Deformed wing virus (DWV), relative to nearby mite susceptible (MS) honeybee populations. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Using time series analysis approaches for improved prediction of pain outcomes in subgroups of patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207120. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pfizer Inc, New York, New York, United States of America.

Prior work applied hierarchical clustering, coarsened exact matching (CEM), time series regressions with lagged variables as inputs, and microsimulation to data from three randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a large German observational study (OS) to predict pregabalin pain reduction outcomes for patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, data were added from six RCTs to reduce covariate bias of the same OS and improve accuracy and/or increase the variety of patients for pain response prediction. Using hierarchical cluster analysis and CEM, a matched dataset was created from the OS (N = 2642) and nine total RCTs (N = 1320). Read More

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December 2018

Cluster randomized trial of comprehensive gender-based violence programming delivered through the HIV/AIDS program platform in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: Tathmini GBV study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0206074. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, United States of America.

The Tathmini GBV study was a cluster randomized trial to assess the impact of a comprehensive health facility- and community-based program delivered through the HIV/AIDS program platform on reduction in gender-based violence and improved care for survivors. Twelve health facilities and surrounding communities in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Population-level effects were measured through two cross-sectional household surveys of women ages 15-49, at baseline (n = 1,299) and at 28 months following program scale-out (n = 1,250). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Visceral leishmaniasis: Spatiotemporal heterogeneity and drivers underlying the hotspots in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006888. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Background: Despite the overall decrease in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) incidence on the Indian subcontinent, there remain spatiotemporal clusters or 'hotspots' of new cases. The characteristics of these hotspots, underlying transmission dynamics, and their importance for shaping control strategies are not yet fully understood and are investigated in this study for a VL endemic area of ~100,000 inhabitants in Bihar, India between 2007-2015.

Methodology/principal Findings: VL incidence (cases/10,000/year) dropped from 12. Read More

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December 2018

Integrated Aedes management for the control of Aedes-borne diseases.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006845. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

MIVEGEC, IRD, CNRS, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Diseases caused by Aedes-borne viruses, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever, are emerging and reemerging globally. The causes are multifactorial and include global trade, international travel, urbanisation, water storage practices, lack of resources for intervention, and an inadequate evidence base for the public health impact of Aedes control tools. National authorities need comprehensive evidence-based guidance on how and when to implement Aedes control measures tailored to local entomological and epidemiological conditions. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a tailored intervention to improve the initial management of suspected encephalitis.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0202257. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Objective: To determine whether a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy improves the initial management of patients with suspected encephalitis.

Design: Pragmatic two arm cluster randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Hospitals within the United Kingdom. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

Letter to The Editor: Access to Opioids, A Global Challenge - Impressions of The Brazilian Scenario.

Authors:
Carolina Neiva

Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):698. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Serviço de Cuidados Paliativos. Instituto de Assistência ao Servidor Público Estadual. São Paulo. Brazil.

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November 2018
2 Reads

[The Role of Testosterone in The Improvement of Sexual Desire in Postmenopausal Women: An Evidence-Based Clinical Review].

Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):680-690. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Unidade de Saúde Familiar S. Julião. Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Ocidental e Oeiras. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem, affecting more than 1/3 of women during their lives. The aim of this review is to review the evidence for the effectiveness of testosterone in sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women, particularly in the improvement of sexual desire.

Material And Methods: The authors searched in international databases National Guidelines Clearinghouse, Guidelines Finder, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE/PubMed, for guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials, published between January 2005 and February 2017, using the MeSH terms 'testosterone', 'androgens', 'libido', 'sexual dysfunctions' and 'menopause'. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

[Morbidity in Prematurity Associated with Fetal Growth Restriction: Experience of a Tertiary Care Center].

Acta Med Port 2018 Nov 30;31(11):648-655. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Serviço de Neonatologia. Departamento de Pediatria. Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria. Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte. Lisboa. Clínica Universitária de Pediatria. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate possible risk factors for prematurity associated with fetal growth restriction and being small for gestational age and to determine the incidence of morbidity in these two groups of infants.

Material And Methods: Retrospective case-control study of newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, with obstetric diagnosis of fetal growth restriction and with the clinical diagnosis of small for gestational age, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital for a period of six years. Read More

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November 2018

The MJA-Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Australian policy inaction threatens lives.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):474

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

Climate plays an important role in human health and it is well established that climate change can have very significant impacts in this regard. In partnership with The Lancet and the MJA, we present the inaugural Australian Countdown assessment of progress on climate change and health. This comprehensive assessment examines 41 indicators across five broad sections: climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability; adaptation, planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Global Development of Anticancer Therapies for Rare Cancers, Pediatric Cancers, and Molecular Subtypes of Common Cancers.

J Glob Oncol 2018 Dec(4):1-11

H. Kim Lyerly, Duke University, Durham, NC; Jun Ren, Capital University Medical Center; Zhimin Yang, China Food and Drug Administration, Beijing, People's Republic of China; Gi Hyun Kim, Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Seoul, South Korea; Sumimasa Nagai, University of Tokyo; Sumimasa Nagai, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, and Ken Hatogai, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency; Hiroshi Katayama, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; Silvy Da Rocha Dias, European Medicines Agency, London, United Kingdom; Daniel McManus and Kathy Soltys, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Olufumilayo Olopade, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Nancy Goodman, Kids V Cancer, Washington, DC; Greg Reaman, US Food and Drug Administration; Thomas Gross, US National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, and Renzo Canetta, Independent Consultant.

Advances in genetic sequencing and other diagnostic technologies have enabled the use of precision medicine in clinical cancer care, as well as the development of novel therapies that are targeted to specific molecular drivers of cancer. Developing these new agents and making them accessible to patients requires global clinical studies and regulatory review and approval by different national regulatory agencies. Whereas these global trials present challenges for drug developers who conduct them and regulatory agencies who oversee them, they also raise practical issues about patients with low-frequency cancers who need these therapies. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Building the evidence base for dengue vector control: searching for certainty in an uncertain world.

Pathog Glob Health 2018 Dec 6:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Heidelberg Institute of Global Health , University of Heidelberg , Germany.

This review discusses biological and chemical methods for dengue vector control, using recently emerging summary evidence, meta-analyses and systematic reviews to conclude on practical public health recommendations for Aedes control, which is increasingly relevant in an era of widespread Chikungunya, yellow feer and Zika outbreaks. The analysis follows an a priori framework of systematic reviews by the authors on vector control methods, distinguishing vector control methods into biological, chemical and environmental methods. Findings of each published systematic review by the authors, following each individual vector control method, are summarised and compared in the discussion against the findings of existing meta-analyses covering all vector control methods. Read More

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December 2018
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Global Tudor-SN transgenic mice are protected from obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801253RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

In the current study, we explored the impact of Tudor-staphylococcal nuclease (SN) on obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, because the functional involvement of Tudor-SN in lipid metabolism in vivo is unknown. HFD-transgenic (Tg) mice exhibited reductions in hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. There was no difference in hepatic lipid accumulation between chow-fed wild-type (WT) and chow-fed Tg mice; consistently, no difference in activation of the lipogenic pathway was detected. Read More

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December 2018

Obstetric Racism: The Racial Politics of Pregnancy, Labor, and Birthing.

Authors:
Dána-Ain Davis

Med Anthropol 2018 Dec 6:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Center for the Study of Women and Society, Graduate Center , City University of New York , New York , USA.

In this article, I analyze the birth stories of Black women living in the United States. Their birth stories describe various forms of racism during medical encounters while they were pregnant or during labor and delivery. In the global women's health arena, the issues raised are viewed as obstetric violence. Read More

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December 2018

microRNA-129-5p is regulated by choline availability and controls EGF receptor synthesis and neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801094RR. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, North Carolina, USA.

Choline availability modulates neurogenesis and cerebral cortex development through the regulation of neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferative and differentiation capacity. In this study, we demonstrated that cortical NPC self-renewal is controlled by choline via the expression of a microRNA (miR-129-5p), whose role in the developing brain has not been examined, and which, in turn, inhibits synthesis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein. Specifically, we found that low choline (LC) availability led to the upregulation of miR-129-5p expression in cortical NPCs in vitro and in vivo, causing the downregulation of EGFR and thereby disrupting NPC self-renewal and cortical neurogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Interplay of Cysteine Exposure and Global Protein Dynamics in Small-molecule Recognition by a Regulator of G-protein Signaling Protein.

Proteins 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins play a pivotal role in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling and are therefore becoming an increasingly important therapeutic target. Recently discovered thiadiazolidinone (TDZD) compounds that target cysteine residues have shown different levels of specificities and potencies for the RGS4 protein, thereby suggesting intrinsic differences in dynamics of this protein upon binding of these compounds. In this work, we investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the effect of binding of several small-molecule inhibitors on perturbations and dynamical motions in RGS4. Read More

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December 2018
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Particle Size and Gastrointestinal Absorption Influence Tiotropium Pharmacokinetics: A Pilot Bioequivalence Study of PUR0200 and Spiriva HandiHaler.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Pulmatrix Inc, 99 Hayden Ave, Suite 390, Lexington, MA, 02421.

Aims: Plasma pharmacokinetics permits the assessment of efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs, and possibly their bioequivalence to other inhaled products. Correlating drug product attributes to lung deposited dose is important to achieving equivalence. PUR0200 is a spray-dried formulation of tiotropium that enables more efficient lung delivery than Spiriva® HandiHaler® (HH). Read More

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December 2018
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Reply to "Cognitive Health and Incarceration among Older Adults".

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

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December 2018
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