4,098 results match your criteria Glia [Journal]


Astrocyte-specific deletion of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease reveals glial contribution to neurodegeneration.

Glia 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Mitochondrial dysfunction causes neurodegeneration but whether impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis in astrocytes contributes to this pathological process remains largely unknown. The m-AAA protease exerts quality control and regulatory functions crucial for mitochondrial homeostasis. AFG3L2, which encodes one of the subunits of the m-AAA protease, is mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia SCA28 and in infantile syndromes characterized by spastic-ataxia, epilepsy and premature death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23626DOI Listing

Low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes the survival and maturation of newborn oligodendrocytes in the adult mouse brain.

Glia 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Neuronal activity is a potent extrinsic regulator of oligodendrocyte generation and central nervous system myelination. Clinically, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is delivered to noninvasively modulate neuronal activity; however, the ability of rTMS to facilitate adaptive myelination has not been explored. By performing cre-lox lineage tracing, to follow the fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the adult mouse brain, we determined that low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS), administered as an intermittent theta burst stimulation, but not as a continuous theta burst or 10 Hz stimulation, increased the number of newborn oligodendrocytes in the adult mouse cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23620DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

MIC-MAC: An automated pipeline for high-throughput characterization and classification of three-dimensional microglia morphologies in mouse and human postmortem brain samples.

Glia 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Belval, Luxembourg.

The phenotypic changes of microglia in brain diseases are particularly diverse and their role in disease progression, beneficial, or detrimental, is still elusive. High-throughput molecular approaches such as single-cell RNA-sequencing can now resolve the high heterogeneity in microglia population for a specific physiological condition, however, the relation between the different microglial signatures and their surrounding brain microenvironment is barely understood. Thus, better tools to characterize the phenotypic variations of microglia in situ are needed, particularly for human brain postmortem samples analysis. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23623
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23623DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Microglia damage precedes major myelin breakdown in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and metachromatic leukodystrophy.

Glia 2019 Jun 11;67(6):1196-1209. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) and metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) are two relatively common examples of hereditary demyelinating diseases caused by a dysfunction of peroxisomal or lysosomal lipid degradation. In both conditions, accumulation of nondegraded lipids leads to the destruction of cerebral white matter. Because of their high lipid content, oligodendrocytes are considered key to the pathophysiology of these leukodystrophies. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23598
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23598DOI Listing
June 2019
5 Reads

Sulfatase 2 promotes generation of a spinal cord astrocyte subtype that stands out through the expression of Olig2.

Glia 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Centre de Biologie du Développement (CBD) CNRS/UPS, Centre de Biologie Intégrative (CBI), Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Generation of glial cell diversity in the developing spinal cord is known to depend on spatio-temporal patterning programs. In particular, expression of the transcription factor Olig2 in neural progenitors of the pMN domain is recognized as critical to their fate choice decision to form oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) instead of astrocyte precursors (APs). However, generating some confusion, lineage-tracing studies of Olig2 progenitors in the spinal cord provided evidence that these progenitors also generate some astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23621DOI Listing

Diversity in the oligodendrocyte lineage: Plasticity or heterogeneity?

Glia 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Clifford Allbutt Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Heterogeneity is a widely recognized phenomenon within the majority of cell types in the body including cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The heterogeneity of neurons based on their distinct transmission modes and firing patterns has been recognized for decades, and is necessary to coordinate the immense variety of functions of the CNS. More recently, heterogeneity in glial cells has been identified, including heterogeneity in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23607DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Glutamate versus GABA in neuron-oligodendroglia communication.

Glia 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience of Paris (IPNP), INSERM U1266, Paris, France.

In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin sheaths around axons are formed by glial cells named oligodendrocytes (OLs). In turn, OLs are generated by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during postnatal development and in adults, according to a process that depends on the proliferation and differentiation of these progenitors. The maturation of OL lineage cells as well as myelination by OLs are complex and highly regulated processes in the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23618DOI Listing

RelB controls adaptive responses of astrocytes during sterile inflammation.

Glia 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine and the Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, Virginia.

In response to brain injury or infections, astrocytes become reactive, undergo striking morphological and functional changes, and secrete and respond to a spectrum of inflammatory mediators. We asked whether reactive astrocytes also display adaptive responses during sterile IL-1β-induced neuroinflammation, which may limit tissue injury associated with many disorders of the central nervous system. We found that astrocytes display days-to-weeks long specific tolerance of cytokine genes, which is coordinated by NF-κB family member, RelB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23619DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Glutamatergic signaling between neurons and oligodendrocyte lineage cells: Is it synaptic or non-synaptic?

Glia 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Group of Neuron Glia Interaction, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Fast chemical synaptic transmission is a major form of neuronal communication in the nervous system of mammals. Another important, but very different, form of intercellular communication is volume transmission, which is a slower non-synaptic signaling. The amino acid glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, which mediates both synaptic and non-synaptic signaling via ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23617DOI Listing

Genetic control of cellular morphogenesis in Müller glia.

Glia 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Cell shape is critical for the proper function of every cell in every tissue in the body. This is especially true for the highly morphologically diverse neural and glia cells of the central nervous system. The molecular processes by which these, or indeed any, cells gain their particular cell-specific morphology remain largely unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23615DOI Listing
March 2019
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Stress-induced structural and functional modifications of astrocytes-Further implicating glia in the central response to stress.

Glia 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

An organism's response to stress requires activation of multiple brain regions. This can have long-lasting effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity that likely provide adaptive benefits. Recent evidence implicates not only neurones, but also glial cells in the regulation of the central response to stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23610DOI Listing

WNT signaling represses astrogliogenesis via Ngn2-dependent direct suppression of astrocyte gene expression.

Glia 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Institute of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration of Zhejiang Province, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, PR China.

Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are sequentially specified into neurons and glia during the development of central nervous system. WNT/β-catenin signaling is known to regulate the balance between the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs during neurogenesis. However, the function of WNT/β-catenin signaling during gliogenesis remains poorly defined. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23608
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23608DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

Panglial gap junctions between astrocytes and olfactory ensheathing cells mediate transmission of Ca transients and neurovascular coupling.

Glia 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Neurophysiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Astrocytes are arranged in highly organized gap junction-coupled networks, communicating via the propagation of Ca waves. Astrocytes are gap junction-coupled not only to neighboring astrocytes, but also to oligodendrocytes, forming so-called panglial syncytia. It is not known, however, whether glial cells in panglial syncytia transmit information using Ca signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23613DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Vascular endothelial growth factor increases the function of calcium-impermeable AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit in astrocytes via activation of protein kinase C signaling pathway.

Glia 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurobiology and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

Astrocytic calcium signaling plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of neural functions and neurovascular coupling in the brain. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an original biological substance of vessels, regulates the movement of calcium and potassium ions across neuronal membrane. In this study, we investigated whether and how VEGF regulates glutamate-induced calcium influx in astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23609DOI Listing

Knockdown of circulating C1 inhibitor induces neurovascular impairment, glial cell activation, neuroinflammation, and behavioral deficits.

Glia 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Patricia and John Rosenwald Laboratory of Neurobiology and Genetics, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York.

The cross-talk between blood proteins, immune cells, and brain function involves complex mechanisms. Plasma protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is an inhibitor of vascular inflammation that is induced by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) and the complement system. Knockout of C1INH was previously correlated with peripheral vascular permeability via the bradykinin pathway, yet there was no evidence of its correlation with blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and brain function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23611DOI Listing

Transforming growth factor-beta renders ageing microglia inhibitory to oligodendrocyte generation by CNS progenitors.

Glia 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Wellcome-MRC Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

It is now well-established that the macrophage and microglial response to CNS demyelination influences remyelination by removing myelin debris and secreting a variety of signaling molecules that influence the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have shown that changes in microglia contribute to the age-related decline in the efficiency of remyelination. In this study, we show that microglia increase their expression of the proteoglycan NG2 with age, and that this is associated with an altered micro-niche generated by aged, but not young, microglia that can divert the differentiation OPCs from oligodendrocytes into astrocytes in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23612DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Grey matter myelination.

Glia 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.

There is now increasing evidence that myelin is not only generated early in development, but also during adulthood possibly contributing to lifelong plasticity of the brain. In particular, human cortical areas responsible for the highest cognitive functions seem to require decades until they have reached their maximal amount of myelination. Currently, we know very little about the mechanisms and the functions of grey matter myelination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23614DOI Listing

Inhibition of MAPK/ERK pathway promotes oligodendrocytes generation and recovery of demyelinating diseases.

Glia 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, the National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system. Injury to OLs causes myelin loss. In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, the remyelination is hindered principally due to a failure of the oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate into mature OLs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23606DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Targeted deletion of β1-syntrophin causes a loss of K 4.1 from Müller cell endfeet in mouse retina.

Glia 2019 Jun 25;67(6):1138-1149. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Division of Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Proper function of the retina depends heavily on a specialized form of retinal glia called Müller cells. These cells carry out important homeostatic functions that are contingent on their polarized nature. Specifically, the Müller cell endfeet that contact retinal microvessels and the corpus vitreum show a tenfold higher concentration of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel K 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462228PMC
June 2019
2 Reads
6.031 Impact Factor

G protein-coupled receptors inhibit neurons but activate astrocytes and stimulate gliotransmission.

Glia 2019 Jun 23;67(6):1076-1093. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play key roles in intercellular signaling in the brain. Their effects on cellular function have been largely studied in neurons, but their functional consequences on astrocytes are less known. Using both endogenous and chemogenetic approaches with DREADDs, we have investigated the effects of G and G GPCR activation on astroglial Ca -based activity, gliotransmitter release, and the functional consequences on neuronal electrical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462242PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression alters astrocytic chemokine release and protects mice from cuprizone-induced demyelination.

Glia 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression occurs in most diseases of the central nervous system. Thus far, little is known about the effect that GFAP exerts on astrocyte cell signaling. In the present study, we observed that silencing GFAP expression in isolated astrocytes leads to enhanced CCL2 and CXCL10 release, whereas overexpression of GFAP in astrocytes results in a significantly reduced CXCL10 release in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23605DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Nitric oxide as a messenger between neurons and satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia.

Glia 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Abnormal neuronal activity in sensory ganglia contributes to chronic pain. There is evidence that signals can spread between cells in these ganglia, which may contribute to this activity. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia undergo activation following peripheral injury and participate in cellular communication via gap junctions and chemical signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23603DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Astroglial Cx30 sustains neuronal population bursts independently of gap-junction mediated biochemical coupling.

Glia 2019 Jun 22;67(6):1104-1112. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, Collège de France, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 7241, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1050, Labex Memolife, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

Astroglial networks mediated by gap junction channels contribute to neurotransmission and promote neuronal coordination. Connexin 30, one of the two main astroglial gap junction forming protein, alters at the behavioral level the reactivity of mice to novel environment and at the synaptic level excitatory transmission. However, the role and function of Cx30 at the neuronal network level remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23591DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Retinal microglia signaling affects Müller cell behavior in the zebrafish following laser injury induction.

Glia 2019 Jun 22;67(6):1150-1166. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Microglia are the resident tissue macrophages of the central nervous system including the retina. Under pathophysiological conditions, microglia can signal to Müller cells, the major glial component of the retina, affecting their morphological, molecular, and functional responses. Microglia-Müller cell interactions appear to be bidirectional shaping the overall injury response in the retina. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23601
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23601DOI Listing
June 2019
7 Reads

Differential roles of epigenetic regulators in the survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Glia 2019 04 28;67(4):718-728. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts.

During development or after brain injury, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiate into oligodendrocytes to supplement the number of oligodendrocytes. Although mechanisms of OPC differentiation have been extensively examined, the role of epigenetic regulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferase enzymes (DNMTs), in this process is still mostly unknown. Here, we report the differential roles of epigenetic regulators in OPC differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23567DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Aquaporin-4-independent volume dynamics of astroglial endfeet during cortical spreading depression.

Glia 2019 Jun 21;67(6):1113-1121. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

GliaLab and Letten Centre, Division of Physiology, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly propagating wave of depolarization of gray matter. This phenomenon is believed to underlie the migraine aura and similar waves of depolarization may exacerbate injury in a number of neurological disease states. CSD is characterized by massive ion dyshomeostasis, cell swelling, and multiphasic blood flow changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23604DOI Listing

Independent and cooperative roles of the Mek/ERK1/2-MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways during developmental myelination and in adulthood.

Glia 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Medical School, Farmington, Connecticut, USA.

Multiple extracellular and intracellular signals regulate the functions of oligodendrocytes as they progress through the complex process of developmental myelination and then maintain a functionally intact myelin sheath throughout adult life, preserving the integrity of the axons. Recent studies suggest that Mek/ERK1/2-MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR intracellular signaling pathways play important, often overlapping roles in the regulation of myelination. However, it remains poorly understood whether they function independently, sequentially, or converge using a common mechanism to facilitate oligodendrocyte differentiation, myelin growth, and maintenance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23602DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

A core transcriptional signature of human microglia: Derivation and utility in describing region-dependent alterations associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Glia 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Growing recognition of the pivotal role microglia play in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders has accentuated the need to characterize their function in health and disease. Studies in mouse have applied transcriptome-wide profiling of microglia to reveal key features of microglial ontogeny, functional profile, and phenotypic diversity. While similar, human microglia exhibit clear differences to their mouse counterparts, underlining the need to develop a better understanding of the human microglial profile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23572DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

LRP1 deficiency in microglia blocks neuro-inflammation in the spinal dorsal horn and neuropathic pain processing.

Glia 2019 Jun 11;67(6):1210-1224. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Following injury to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), microglia in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) become activated and contribute to the development of local neuro-inflammation, which may regulate neuropathic pain processing. The molecular mechanisms that control microglial activation and its effects on neuropathic pain remain incompletely understood. We deleted the gene encoding the plasma membrane receptor, LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1), conditionally in microglia using two distinct promoter-Cre recombinase systems in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462253PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Mechano-modulation of nuclear events regulating oligodendrocyte progenitor gene expression.

Glia 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Oligodendrocytes differentiate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in response to distinct extracellular signals. This process requires changes in gene expression resulting from the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic modulators. Extracellular signals include chemical and physical stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23595DOI Listing
February 2019

A gene regulatory architecture that controls region-independent dynamics of oligodendrocyte differentiation.

Glia 2019 05 7;67(5):825-843. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Systems Tumor Immunology, Hautklinik, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) facilitate information processing in the vertebrate central nervous system via axonal ensheathment. The structure and dynamics of the regulatory network that mediates oligodendrogenesis are poorly understood. We employed bioinformatics and meta-analysis of high-throughput datasets to reconstruct a regulatory network underpinning OL differentiation. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23569
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23569DOI Listing
May 2019
9 Reads

Structurally defined signaling in neuro-glia units in the enteric nervous system.

Glia 2019 Jun 7;67(6):1167-1178. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory for Enteric NeuroScience (LENS), Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Coordination of gastrointestinal function relies on joint efforts of enteric neurons and glia, whose crosstalk is vital for the integration of their activity. To investigate the signaling mechanisms and to delineate the spatial aspects of enteric neuron-to-glia communication within enteric ganglia we developed a method to stimulate single enteric neurons while monitoring the activity of neighboring enteric glial cells. We combined cytosolic calcium uncaging of individual enteric neurons with calcium imaging of enteric glial cells expressing a genetically encoded calcium indicator and demonstrate that enteric neurons signal to enteric glial cells through pannexins using paracrine purinergic pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23596DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Early embryonic NG2 glia are exclusively gliogenic and do not generate neurons in the brain.

Glia 2019 Jun 6;67(6):1094-1103. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Molecular Physiology, Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine (CIPMM), University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany.

In the central nervous system, the type I transmembrane glycoprotein NG2 (nerve-glia antigen 2) is only expressed by pericytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Therefore, OPCs are also termed NG2 glia. Their fate during development has been investigated systematically in several genetically modified mouse models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23590DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Glial TLR2-driven innate immune responses and CD8 T cell activation against brain tumor.

Glia 2019 Jun 5;67(6):1179-1195. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Immunotherapeutics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.

Growing interest has been focused on the roles of microglia as sentinels and effector cells that guard diverse pathological milieu in the brain. Here, it has been reported that microglial TLR2 is a crucial molecule that confers innate and adaptive immunity against brain tumor. TLR2 is preferentially expressed on microglia, brain-resident immune cells, in the tumor-bearing cerebral hemisphere of mouse and rat intracranial tumor models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23597DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads
6.031 Impact Factor

Gap junction mediated signaling between satellite glia and neurons in trigeminal ganglia.

Glia 2019 05 4;67(5):791-801. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Peripheral sensory ganglia contain the somata of neurons mediating mechanical, thermal, and painful sensations from somatic, visceral, and oro-facial organs. Each neuronal cell body is closely surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs) that have properties and functions similar to those of central astrocytes, including expression of gap junction proteins and functional dye coupling. As shown in other pain models, after systemic pain induction by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, dye coupling among SGCs in intact trigeminal ganglion was enhanced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23554DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Chronic neurodegeneration induces type I interferon synthesis via STING, shaping microglial phenotype and accelerating disease progression.

Glia 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience & Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.

Type I interferons (IFN-I) are the principal antiviral molecules of the innate immune system and can be made by most cell types, including central nervous system cells. IFN-I has been implicated in neuroinflammation during neurodegeneration, but its mechanism of induction and its consequences remain unclear. In the current study, we assessed expression of IFN-I in murine prion disease (ME7) and examined the contribution of the IFN-I receptor IFNAR1 to disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23592DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read
6.031 Impact Factor

Importance of GFAP isoform-specific analyses in astrocytoma.

Glia 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Gliomas are a heterogenous group of malignant primary brain tumors that arise from glia cells or their progenitors and rely on accurate diagnosis for prognosis and treatment strategies. Although recent developments in the molecular biology of glioma have improved diagnosis, classical histological methods and biomarkers are still being used. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a classical marker of astrocytoma, both in clinical and experimental settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23594DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The PTN-PTPRZ signal activates the AFAP1L2-dependent PI3K-AKT pathway for oligodendrocyte differentiation: Targeted inactivation of PTPRZ activity in mice.

Glia 2019 05 22;67(5):967-984. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Molecular Neurobiology, National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB), Okazaki, Aichi, Japan.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) maintains oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in an undifferentiated state. The inhibition of PTPase by its ligand pleiotrophin (PTN) promotes OPC differentiation; however, the substrate molecules of PTPRZ involved in the differentiation have not yet been elucidated in detail. We herein demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of AFAP1L2, paxillin, ERBB4, GIT1, p190RhoGAP, and NYAP2 was enhanced in OPC-like OL1 cells by a treatment with PTN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23583DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Blockade of microglial adenosine A receptor suppresses elevated pressure-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death in retinal cells.

Glia 2019 05 22;67(5):896-914. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Glaucoma is a retinal degenerative disease characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells and damage of the optic nerve. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonists of adenosine A receptor (A R) control retinal inflammation and afford protection to rat retinal cells in glaucoma models. However, the precise contribution of microglia to retinal injury was not addressed, as well as the effect of A R blockade directly in microglia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23579DOI Listing
May 2019
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In vivo Ca imaging of astrocytic microdomains reveals a critical role of the amyloid precursor protein for mitochondria.

Glia 2019 05 22;67(5):985-998. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Division of Translational Brain Research, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany.

The investigation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been mainly confined to its neuronal functions, whereas very little is known about its physiological role in astrocytes. Astrocytes exhibit a particular morphology with slender extensions protruding from somata and primary branches. Along these fine extensions, spontaneous calcium transients occur in spatially restricted microdomains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23584DOI Listing

Chronic pain induces nociceptive neurogenesis in dorsal root ganglia from Sox2-positive satellite cells.

Glia 2019 Jun 16;67(6):1062-1075. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Neurosciences, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world. The plastic changes of sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been extensively studied as the underlying periphery mechanism. Recent studies revealed that satellite cells, the major glial cells in DRG, also played important roles in the development/modulation of chronic pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23588DOI Listing
June 2019
6 Reads

Lysophosphatidic acid activates satellite glia cells and Schwann cells.

Glia 2019 05 13;67(5):999-1012. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Pruritus is a common and disabling symptom in patients with hepatobiliary disorders, particularly in those with cholestatic features. Serum levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its forming enzyme autotaxin were increased in patients suffering from hepatic pruritus, correlated with itch severity and response to treatment. Here we show that in a culture of dorsal root ganglia LPA 18:1 surprisingly activated a large fraction of satellite glia cells, and responses to LPA 18:1 correlated inversely with responses to neuronal expressed transient receptor potential channels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23585DOI Listing
May 2019
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Lipopolysaccharide-induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology induces a metabolic shift in microglia modulating the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.

Glia 2019 Jun 13;67(6):1047-1061. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Centre of Perinatal Medicine and Health, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Accumulating evidence suggests that changes in the metabolic signature of microglia underlie their response to inflammation. We sought to increase our knowledge of how pro-inflammatory stimuli induce metabolic changes. Primary microglia exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-expressed excessive fission leading to more fragmented mitochondria than tubular mitochondria. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23587
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23587DOI Listing
June 2019
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Direct conversion of adult human skin fibroblasts into functional Schwann cells that achieve robust recovery of the severed peripheral nerve in rats.

Glia 2019 05 13;67(5):950-966. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Histology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Direct conversion is considered a promising approach to obtain tissue-specific cells for cell therapies; however, this strategy depends on exogenous gene expression that may cause undesired adverse effects such as tumorigenesis. By optimizing the Schwann cell induction system, which was originally developed for trans-differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann cells, we established a system to directly convert adult human skin fibroblasts into cells comparable to authentic human Schwann cells without gene introduction. Serial treatments with beta-mercaptoethanol, retinoic acid, and finally a cocktail of basic fibroblast growth factor, forskolin, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, and heregulin-β1 (EGF domain) converted fibroblasts into cells expressing authentic Schwann cell markers at an efficiency of approximately 75%. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23582
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23582DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Maintenance of high proteolipid protein level in adult central nervous system myelin is required to preserve the integrity of myelin and axons.

Glia 2019 04 14;67(4):634-649. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Göttingen, Germany.

Proteolipid protein (PLP) is the most abundant integral membrane protein in central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Expression of the Plp-gene in oligodendrocytes is not essential for the biosynthesis of myelin membranes but required to prevent axonal pathology. This raises the question whether the exceptionally high level of PLP in myelin is required later in life, or whether high-level PLP expression becomes dispensable once myelin has been assembled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23549DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

ErbB receptor signaling directly controls oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transformation and spontaneous remyelination after spinal cord injury.

Glia 2019 Jun 13;67(6):1036-1046. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

King's College London, Regeneration Group, The Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), London, United Kingdom.

We recently discovered a novel role for neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) signaling in mediating spontaneous regenerative processes and functional repair after spinal cord injury (SCI). We revealed that Nrg1 is the molecular signal responsible for spontaneous functional remyelination of dorsal column axons by peripheral nervous system (PNS)-like Schwann cells after SCI. Here, we investigate whether Nrg1/ErbB signaling controls the unusual transformation of centrally derived progenitor cells into these functional myelinating Schwann cells after SCI using a fate-mapping/lineage tracing approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23586DOI Listing
June 2019
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Regionally selective knockdown of astroglial glutamate transporters in infralimbic cortex induces a depressive phenotype in mice.

Glia 2019 Jun 11;67(6):1122-1137. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Barcelona (IIBB - CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.

Elevation of energy metabolism and disturbance of astrocyte number/function in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) contributes to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Functional hyperactivity of vACC may result from reduced astrocytic glutamate uptake and increased neuronal excitation. Here we tested this hypothesis by knocking-down astrocytic glutamate transporter GLAST/GLT-1 expression in mouse infralimbic (IL, rodent equivalent of vACC) or prelimbic (PrL) cortices using RNAi strategies. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23593
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23593DOI Listing
June 2019
8 Reads

Repair Schwann cell update: Adaptive reprogramming, EMT, and stemness in regenerating nerves.

Glia 2019 03 11;67(3):421-437. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Schwann cells respond to nerve injury by cellular reprogramming that generates cells specialized for promoting regeneration and repair. These repair cells clear redundant myelin, attract macrophages, support survival of damaged neurons, encourage axonal growth, and guide axons back to their targets. There are interesting parallels between this response and that found in other tissues. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23532DOI Listing
March 2019
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Melanopsin for precise optogenetic activation of astrocyte-neuron networks.

Glia 2019 05 11;67(5):915-934. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Optogenetics has been widely expanded to enhance or suppress neuronal activity and it has been recently applied to glial cells. Here, we have used a new approach based on selective expression of melanopsin, a G-protein-coupled photopigment, in astrocytes to trigger Ca signaling. Using the genetically encoded Ca indicator GCaMP6f and two-photon imaging, we show that melanopsin is both competent to stimulate robust IP3-dependent Ca signals in astrocyte fine processes, and to evoke an ATP/Adenosine-dependent transient boost of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23580
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23580DOI Listing
May 2019
36 Reads
6.031 Impact Factor

Extracellular ATP and glutamate drive pyruvate production and energy demand to regulate mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes.

Glia 2019 04 9;67(4):759-774. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain.

Astrocytes respond to energetic demands by upregulating glycolysis, lactate production, and respiration. This study addresses the role of respiration and calcium regulation of respiration as part of the astrocyte response to the workloads caused by extracellular ATP and glutamate. Extracellular ATP (100 μM to 1 mM) causes a Ca -dependent workload and fall of the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio which acutely increases astrocytes respiration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23574DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads