107,000 results match your criteria Glia [Journal]


The LKB1-AMPK and mTORC1 Metabolic Signaling Networks in Schwann Cells Control Axon Integrity and Myelination: Assembling and upholding nerves by metabolic signaling in Schwann cells.

Authors:
Bogdan Beirowski

Bioessays 2018 Dec 11:e1800075. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Hunter James Kelly Research Institute, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 14203, USA.

The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1-AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell-specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support and myelination of axons. Read More

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December 2018

Acute Toxoplasma gondii infection alters the number of neurons and the proportion of enteric glial cells in the duodenum in Wistar rats.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Dec 10:e13523. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.

Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection can occur through the ingestion of raw meat that contains tissue cysts or food that contains oocysts. Through the ingestion of oocysts, the parasite crosses the intestinal barrier, where the enteric nervous system is located. The objective was to investigate the kinetics of neuronal and glial responses during acute T. Read More

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December 2018

Connexin-43 Gap Junctions Are Responsible for the Hypothalamic Tanycyte-Coupled Network.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 26;12:406. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion Concepcion, Chile.

Tanycytes are hypothalamic radial glia-like cells that form the basal wall of the third ventricle (3V) where they sense glucose and modulate neighboring neuronal activity to control feeding behavior. This role requires the coupling of hypothalamic cells since transient decreased hypothalamic Cx43 expression inhibits the increase of brain glucose-induced insulin secretion. Tanycytes have been postulated as possible hypothalamic neuronal precursors due to their privileged position in the hypothalamus that allows them to detect mitogenic signals and because they share the markers and characteristics of neuronal precursors located in other neurogenic niches, including the formation of coupled networks through connexins. Read More

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November 2018

[Epileptogenesis mediated by glial cells].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2018 ;152(6):268-274

Department of Pediatrics, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi.

Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system. Many epilepsies are controllable because of the existence of different antiepileptic drugs with multiple mechanisms of action. However, about 30% of epilepsy is so-called refractory epilepsy in which existing drugs do not show enough therapeutic effects. Read More

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January 2018

Neurolin expression in the optic nerve and immunoreactivity of Pax6-positive niches in the brain of rainbow trout () after unilateral eye injury.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Jan;14(1):156-171

National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

In contrast to astrocytes in mammals, fish astrocytes promote axon regeneration after brain injury and actively participate in the regeneration process. Neurolin, a regeneration-associated, Zn8-labeled protein, is involved in the repair of damaged optic nerve in goldfish. At 1 week after unilateral eye injury, the expression of neurolin in the optic nerve and chiasm, and the expression of Pax6 that influences nervous system development in various brain regions in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were detected. Read More

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January 2019
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Contactins in the central nervous system: role in health and disease.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):206-216

Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Contactins are a group of cell adhesion molecules that are mainly expressed in the brain and play pivotal roles in the organization of axonal domains, axonal guidance, neuritogenesis, neuronal development, synapse formation and plasticity, axo-glia interactions and neural regeneration. Contactins comprise a family of six members. Their absence leads to malformed axons and impaired nerve conduction. Read More

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February 2019

Astrocyte identity: evolutionary perspectives on astrocyte functions and heterogeneity.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 5;56:40-46. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States; Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 145 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States. Electronic address:

The development of new animal models, in vivo isolation approaches, and improvements in genome-wide RNA expression methods have greatly propelled molecular profiling of astrocytes and the characterization of astrocyte heterogeneity in the central nervous system (CNS). Several recent reviews have comprehensively discussed the molecular and functional diversity of mammalian astrocytes. In this brief review, we emphasize interspecies comparisons and an evolutionary perspective regarding the astro(glia) of vertebrates and invertebrates which are similar in form and function. Read More

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December 2018

Melanocortin 4 receptor activation protects striatal neurons and glial cells from 3-nitropropionic acid toxicity.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (INBIOMED) UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a melanocortin which exerts potent anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are abundantly expressed in the brain and we previously demonstrated that [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), an α-MSH analogue, increased expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). We hypothesized that melanocortins could affect striatal cell survival through BDNF and PPAR-γ. Read More

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December 2018

Naringenin targets on astroglial Nrf2 to support dopaminergic neurons.

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

Astroglia serve as a critical role in metabolic and neurotrophic support to neurons. The loss of astroglia-derived neurotrophic effects could be a primary contributor to Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, understanding astroglia functions is an important strategy for enhancing neuronal survival. Read More

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December 2018
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Therapeutic effect of a novel fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor PF04457845 in the repetitive closed head injury mouse model.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics , 4301 Jones Bridge Road , Bethesda, Maryland, United States , 20814 ;

Concussive traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the predominant type of brain injury in young adults and is a risk factor for the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases late in life. Using a repetitive closed head injury mouse model, we found that treatment with PF04457845, a novel fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor that selectively elevated the brain levels of anandamide, improved locomotor function, learning and memory in TBI mice examined by beam-walk, Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. The accumulation of microglia, astrocytes and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the ipsilateral TBI mouse cortex and hippocampus were significantly reduced by drug treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Extensive branching of radially-migrating neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas & Universidad Miguel Hernández, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex migrate radially from their place of birth to their final position in the cortical plate during development. Radially-migrating neurons display a single leading process that establishes the direction of movement. This leading process has been described as being unbranched, and the occurrence of branches proposed to impair radial migration. Read More

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December 2018
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Astrocyte HIF-2α supports learning in a passive avoidance paradigm under hypoxic stress.

Hypoxia (Auckl) 2018 8;6:35-56. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA,

Background: The brain is extensively vascularized, useŝ20% of the body's oxygen, and is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen. While synaptic plasticity and memory are impaired in healthy individuals by exposure to mild hypoxia, aged individuals appear to be even more sensitive. Aging is associated with progressive failure in pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, exposing the aged to both chronic and superimposed acute hypoxia. Read More

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November 2018
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Curative Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Chinese Optimized Yinxieling Formula in Models of Parkinson's Disease.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 4;2018:6142065. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 232 Waihuan Road E, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DAN) accompanied by glial activation. Thus, inhibiting glial activation that occurs during this disease could be an effective method for treating PD. Optimized Yinxieling Formula (OYF), a Chinese medicinal formula, which is used to efficiently treat autoimmune disease psoriasis, has been proved to display potential immunomodulatory effects in inflammation-associated diseases. Read More

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November 2018

White Matter Plasticity Keeps the Brain in Tune: Axons Conduct While Glia Wrap.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 16;12:428. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Precise timing of neuronal inputs is crucial for brain circuit function and development, where it contributes critically to experience-dependent plasticity. Myelination therefore provides an important adaptation mechanism for vertebrate circuits. Despite its importance to circuit activity, the interplay between neuronal activity and myelination has yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
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Ryanodine Receptor to Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Pathway Plays an Important Role in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120MN-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

Anesth Analg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

From the Departments of Anesthesiology.

Background: Chronic pain is one of the most common complaints in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and mitochondrial oxidative stress are involved in neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. Here, we investigated the role of RyR and mitochondrial superoxide in neuropathic pain induced by repeated intrathecal HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) injection. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Oxytocin receptor agonist reduces perinatal brain damage by targeting microglia.

Glia 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

PROTECT, Inserm U1141, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.

Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Oncogenic dependence of glioma cells on kish/TMEM167A regulation of vesicular trafficking.

Glia 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Genetic lesions in glioblastoma (GB) include constitutive activation of PI3K and EGFR pathways to drive cellular proliferation and tumor malignancy. An RNAi genetic screen, performed in Drosophila melanogaster to discover new modulators of GB development, identified a member of the secretory pathway: kish/TMEM167A. Downregulation of kish/TMEM167A impaired fly and human glioma formation and growth, with no effect on normal glia. Read More

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December 2018

Testosterone Deprivation Intensifies Cognitive Decline in Obese Male Rats Via Glial Hyperactivity, Increased Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Both Hippocampus and Cortex.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2018 Dec 3:e13229. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Neurophysiology Unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Aim: The study hypothesized that testosterone deprivation aggravates cognitive decline in obesity through increasing oxidative stress, glial activation and apoptosis.

Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=24) were fed with either normal-diet (ND) or HFD for 24 weeks. At week 13, ND-fed rats and HFD-fed rats were randomly assigned to two subgroups to receive either a sham-operation or bilateral-orchiectomy (ORX). Read More

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December 2018

Augmented astrocyte microdomain Ca dynamics and parenchymal arteriole tone in angiotensin II-infused hypertensive mice.

Glia 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Physiology, Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.

Hypertension is an important contributor to cognitive decline but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Although much focus has been placed on the effect of hypertension on vascular function, less is understood of its effects on nonvascular cells. Because astrocytes and parenchymal arterioles (PA) form a functional unit (neurovascular unit), we tested the hypothesis that hypertension-induced changes in PA tone concomitantly increases astrocyte Ca . Read More

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December 2018
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Amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 have distinct roles in modulating myelination, demyelination, and remyelination of axons.

Glia 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

The identification of factors that regulate myelination provides important insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate nervous system development and myelin regeneration after injury. In this study, we investigated the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogue amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) in myelination using APP and APLP2 knockout (KO) mice. Given that BACE1 regulates myelination and myelin sheath thickness in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, we sought to determine if APP and APLP2, as alternate BACE1 substrates, also modulate myelination, and therefore provide a better understanding of the events regulating axonal myelination. Read More

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December 2018

Glial responses to implanted electrodes in the brain.

Nat Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 10;1(11):862-877. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

The use of implants that can electrically stimulate or record electrophysiological or neurochemical activity in nervous tissue is rapidly expanding. Despite remarkable results in clinical studies and increasing market approvals, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of neuroprosthetic and neuromodulation devices, as well as their side effects and reasons for their failure, remain poorly understood. A major assumption has been that the signal-generating neurons are the only important target cells of neural-interface technologies. Read More

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November 2017

Dysfunction of Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells: Prelude to Vascular Dementia.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 16;10:376. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive cognitive impairment, memory loss, and thinking or speech problems. VaD is usually caused by cerebrovascular disease, during which, cerebrovascular endothelial cells (CECs) are vulnerable. CEC dysfunction occurs before the onset of VaD and can eventually lead to dysregulation of cerebral blood flow and blood-brain barrier damage, followed by the activation of glia and inflammatory environment in the brain. Read More

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November 2018

Immune cells and CNS physiology: Microglia and beyond.

J Exp Med 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

Recent advances have directed our knowledge of the immune system from a narrative of "self" versus "nonself" to one in which immune function is critical for homeostasis of organs throughout the body. This is also the case with respect to the central nervous system (CNS). CNS immunity exists in a segregated state, with a marked partition occurring between the brain parenchyma and meningeal spaces. Read More

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November 2018
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The Repo homeodomain transcription factor suppresses hematopoiesis in and preserves the glial fate.

J Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 67400 Illkirch, France

Despite their different origins, glia and hemocytes are related cell populations that provide an immune function. hemocytes patrol the body cavity and act as macrophages outside the nervous system whereas glia originate from the neuroepithelium and provide the scavenger population of the nervous system. glia are hence the functional orthologs of vertebrate microglia, even though the latter are cells of immune origin that subsequently move into the brain during development. Read More

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November 2018
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Molecular basis for increased lactate formation in the Müller glial cells of retina.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 29;144:158-163. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, United States.

Müller glial cells are highly metabolic active cells that compensate for the high energy demand of retinal neurons. It has been believed that glucose provides the energy needs by the complete oxidation within Müller cells. However, numerous studies indicated that glial cells convert the majority of glucose to lactate, which may serve as an energy source for neurons. Read More

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November 2018

Spatiotemporal Control of CNS Myelination by Oligodendrocyte Programmed Cell Death through the TFEB-PUMA Axis.

Cell 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Nervous system function depends on proper myelination for insulation and critical trophic support for axons. Myelination is tightly regulated spatially and temporally, but how it is controlled molecularly remains largely unknown. Here, we identified key molecular mechanisms governing the regional and temporal specificity of CNS myelination. Read More

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November 2018

Clinical and experimental aspects of breathing modulation by inflammation.

Auton Neurosci 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Departamento de Neurobiología del Desarrollo y Neurofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, QRO 76230, México. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation is produced by local or systemic alterations and mediated mainly by glia, affecting the activity of various neural circuits including those involved in breathing rhythm generation and control. Several pathological conditions, such as sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and asthma exert an inflammatory influence on breathing-related circuits. Consequently breathing (both resting and ventilatory responses to physiological challenges), is affected; e. Read More

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November 2018
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Altered trajectories of neurodevelopment and behavior in mouse models of Rett syndrome.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; The Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Inc., Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the x-linked gene coding for methyl-CpG-biding-protein 2 (MECP2) and that mainly affects females. Male and female transgenic mouse models of RTT have been studied extensively, and we have learned a great deal regarding RTT neuropathology and how MeCP2 deficiency may be influencing brain function and maturation. In this manuscript we review what is known concerning structural and coinciding functional and behavioral deficits in RTT and in mouse models of MeCP2 deficiency. Read More

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November 2018

Decreased Neuron Density and Increased Glia Density in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (Brodmann Area 25) in Williams Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2018 Nov 29;8(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Anthropology, Social Sciences Building Rm. 210, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0532, USA.

Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a deletion of 25⁻28 genes on chromosome 7 and characterized by a specific behavioral phenotype, which includes hypersociability and anxiety. Here, we examined the density of neurons and glia in fourteen human brains in Brodmann area 25 (BA 25), in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), using a postmortem sample of five adult and two infant WS brains and seven age-, sex- and hemisphere-matched typically developing control (TD) brains. We found decreased neuron density, which reached statistical significance in the supragranular layers, and increased glia density and glia to neuron ratio, which reached statistical significance in both supra- and infragranular layers. Read More

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November 2018
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A Primate-Specific Isoform of PLEKHG6 Regulates Neurogenesis and Neuronal Migration.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(10):2729-2741.e6

Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The mammalian neocortex has undergone remarkable changes through evolution. A consequence of such rapid evolutionary events could be a trade-off that has rendered the brain susceptible to certain neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed the exomes of 65 patients with the structural brain malformation periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH). Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Oncotic Cell Death in Stroke.

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Oncotic cell death or oncosis represents a major mechanism of cell death in ischaemic stroke, occurring in many central nervous system (CNS) cell types including neurons, glia and vascular endothelial cells. In stroke, energy depletion causes ionic pump failure and disrupts ionic homeostasis. Imbalance between the influx of Na and Cl ions and the efflux of K ions through various channel proteins and transporters creates a transmembrane osmotic gradient, with ensuing movement of water into the cells, resulting in cell swelling and oncosis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cuprizone-induced graded oligodendrocyte vulnerability is regulated by the transcription factor DNA damage-inducible transcript 3.

Glia 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Chair of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Anatomy, Munich, Germany.

Oligodendrocytes are integral to efficient neuronal signaling. Loss of myelinating oligodendrocytes is a central feature of many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). The results of neuropathological studies suggest that oligodendrocytes react with differing sensitivity to toxic insults, with some cells dying early during lesion development and some cells being resistant for weeks. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Gene transfer to rat cerebral cortex mediated by polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 188 nonionic surfactant vesicles.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 16;12:3937-3949. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

NanoBioCel Group, Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain,

Background: Gene therapy can be an intriguing therapeutic option in wide-ranging neurological disorders. Though nonviral gene carriers represent a safer delivery system to their viral counterparts, a thorough design of such vehicles is crucial to enhance their transfection properties.

Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of combined use of two nonionic surfactants, poloxamer 188 (P) and polysorbate 80 (P80) into nanovesicles - based on 2,3-di(tetradecyloxy)propan-1-amine cationic lipid (D) - destined for gene delivery to central nervous system cells. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Tissue engineered hydrogels supporting 3D neural networks.

Acta Biomater 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Promoting nerve regeneration requires engineering cellular carriers to physically and biochemically support neuronal growth into a long lasting functional tissue. This study systematically evaluated the capacity of a biosynthetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel to support growth and differentiation of co-encapsulated neurons and glia. A significant challenge is to understand the role of the dynamic degradable hydrogel mechanical properties on expression of relevant cellular morphologies and function. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Ras activation in retinal progenitor cells induces tumor formation in the eye.

Exp Eye Res 2018 Nov 27;180:39-42. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

The RAS gene family members, H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS, are frequently mutated in human cancer. A subset of retinal tumors displays K-RAS mutations; however, the specific role of RAS activation on retinal tumor formation is unclear. To examine the role of RAS in retinal development, we overexpressed the mutant H-RAS gene (G12V) in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), a multipotent progenitor cell population that gives rise to all six neuron types in the retina and to the Muller glia. Read More

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November 2018

Activated T cells induce proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells via release of vascular endothelial cell growth factor-A.

Glia 2018 11;66(11):2503-2513

Translational Neuroscience Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis are characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system followed by demyelination and axonal degeneration. While evidence suggests that activated T lymphocytes induce neurotoxicity and impair function of neural stem cells, the effect of T cells on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is still uncertain, partly due to the difficulty in obtaining human OPCs. Here we studied the effect of activated T cells on OPCs using OPCs derived from human hematopoietic stem cells or from human fetal brain. Read More

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November 2018

Inhibition of astrocyte FAK-JNK signaling promotes subventricular zone neurogenesis through CNTF.

Glia 2018 11;66(11):2456-2469

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee.

Astrocyte-derived ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis. We found that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and JNK, but not ERK or P38, repress CNTF in vitro. Here, we defined the FAK-JNK pathway and its regulation of CNTF in mice, and the related leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which promote stem cell renewal at the expense of neurogenesis. Read More

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November 2018

Differences in Intercellular Communication During Clinical Relapse and Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Study of the Composition of Extracellular Vesicles in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 15;12:418. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

This study was designed based on the hypothesis that changes in both the levels and surface marker expression of extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be associated with the clinical form, disease activity, and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS). The analyzes were performed on subjects affected by MS or other neurological disorders. EVs, which were isolated by ultracentrifugation of CSF samples, were characterized by flow cytometry. Read More

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November 2018
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Methods to Cultivate Spiral Ganglion Cells, and Purification of Cellular Subtypes for Induced Neuronal Reprogramming.

Front Neurosci 2018 13;12:822. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Hearing loss can develop as a consequence of primary auditory neuron degeneration. These neurons are present within the spiral ganglion of the inner ear and co-exist with glial cells that assist in neuronal maintenance and function. There are limited interventions for individuals with hearing impairment, hence novel biological solutions must be explored. Read More

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November 2018

Olfactory ensheathing cells in facial nerve regeneration.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Aug 7. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Soochow University, The First Affiliated Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Olfactory ensheathing cell is a unique kind of glia cells, which can promote axon growth. Little is known about the differences between olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb-olfactory ensheathing cells in the capability to promote nerve regeneration.

Objective: To study the recovery of the rat facial nerve after olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation, and to compare the differences between the facial nerve regeneration of olfactory mucosa-olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory bulb olfactory bulb-olfactory ensheathing cells transplantation. Read More

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Immunohistochemical analysis of histone H3 acetylation in the trigeminal root entry zone in an animal model of trigeminal neuralgia.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 1:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

OBJECTIVEThe trigeminal root entry zone (TREZ) is a transitional zone between the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), adjacent to the brainstem. Microvascular compression of the TREZ has been considered to be the primary etiology in most cases of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), but whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of TN is still unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of histone H3 acetylation in the TREZ in an animal model of TN. Read More

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November 2018

Blue light exposure in vitro causes toxicity to trigeminal neurons and glia through increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Nov 27;131:27-39. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, CNRS, Institut de la Vision, Paris, France.

Today the noxiousness of blue light from natural and particularly artificial (fluorescent tubes, LED panels, visual displays) sources is actively discussed in the context of various ocular diseases. Many of them have an important neurologic component and are associated with ocular pain. This neuropathic signal is provided by nociceptive neurons from trigeminal ganglia. Read More

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November 2018

Fractalkine/CX3CR1 is involved in the cross-talk between neuron and glia in neurological diseases.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, People's Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica & Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Fractalkine (CX3C chemokine ligand 1, CX3CL1) is an essential chemokine, for regulating adhesion and chemotaxis through binding to CX3CR1, which plays a critical role in the crosstalk between glial cells and neurons by direct or indirect ways in the central nervous system (CNS). Fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis regulates microglial activation and function, neuronal survival and synaptic function by controlling the release of inflammatory cytokines and synaptic plasticity in the course of the neurological disease. The multiple functions of fractalkine/CX3CR1 make it exert neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects, which determines the pathogenesis. Read More

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November 2018

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist Rosiglitazone Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Following Diffuse Axonal Injury by Decreasing the Levels of Inflammatory Mediators Through a Caveolin-1-Dependent Pathway.

Inflammation 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Orthopedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 157 Xiwu Road, Xi'an, 710004, People's Republic of China.

Our early experiments confirmed that rosiglitazone (RSG), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, had therapeutic potential for the treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by inhibiting the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and reducing the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau, but the underlying mechanisms were not fully defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate a possible role for PPARγ in the protection of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in a rat model of DAI, and the underlying mechanisms. PPAR agonists and antagonists were intraperitoneally injected after DAI. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Inhibitory effects of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptor on chronic morphine-induced spinal glial activation.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Fujian Normal University

Glial activation plays a pivotal role in morphine tolerance. This study investigated effect of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptor on morphine-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord and its underlying mechanisms. Intrathecal (i. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

ErbB4 point mutation in CU3 inbred rats affects gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neuronal function via compromised neuregulin-stimulated prostaglandin E2 release from astrocytes.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-secretion is not only regulated by neuronal factors but also by astroglia cells via growth factors and ErbB receptors of the epidermal growth factor family. Studies in transgenic mice carrying mutations in the ErbB receptor system experience impaired reproductive capacity. In addition, some of these animals show a typical skin phenotype with wavy hair and curly whiskers. Read More

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November 2018

Cognitive deficits in mice lacking Nsun5, a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase, with impairment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a microdeletion disorder with cognitive phenotype. NSUN5 gene, which encodes a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase, is located in WBS deletion locus. To investigate the influence of NSUN5 deletion on cognitive behaviors, we produced single-gene Nsun5 knockout (Nsun5-KO) mice. Read More

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November 2018
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Dissecting functional phenotypes of microglia and macrophages in the rat brain after transient cerebral ischemia.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Neurobiology Center, The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Ischemic brain injury causes local inflammation, which involves activation of resident microglia, leukocyte, and monocyte infiltration. Involvement of peripheral immune cells in ischemia-induced damage and repair is debatable. Using flow cytometry, gene expression profiling, and immunocytochemistry, we show that microglia predominate in the ischemic brain and express inflammation mediators at Day 1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Read More

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November 2018

Transcription factor MafB contributes to the activation of spinal microglia underlying neuropathic pain development.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Life Innovation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan.

Microglia, which are pathological effectors and amplifiers in the central nervous system, undergo various forms of activation. A well-studied microglial-induced pathological paradigm, spinal microglial activation following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), is a key event for the development of neuropathic pain but the transcription factors contributing to microglial activation are less understood. Herein, we demonstrate that MafB, a dominant transcriptional regulator of mature microglia, is involved in the pathology of a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Read More

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November 2018

Release of astroglial vimentin by extracellular vesicles: Modulation of binding and internalization of C3 transferase in astrocytes and neurons.

Glia 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute of Integrative Neuroanatomy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Clostridium botulinum C3 transferase (C3bot) ADP-ribosylates rho proteins to change cellular functions in a variety of cell types including astrocytes and neurons. The intermediate filament protein vimentin as well as transmembrane integrins are involved in internalization of C3bot into cells. The exact contribution, however, of these proteins to binding of C3bot to the cell surface and subsequent cellular uptake remains to be unraveled. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads