6,509 results match your criteria Giardiasis


Protein-losing Enteropathy as a Complication and/or Differential Diagnosis of Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Université de Lille, UFR Médecine, 59000, Lille, France.

As protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) can lead to hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia, and since common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with digestive complications, we wondered if (1) PLE could occur during CVID and (2) specific features could help determine whether a patient with antibody deficiency has CVID, PLE, or both. Eligible patients were thus classified in 3 groups: CVID + PLE (n = 8), CVID-only (= 19), and PLE-only (n = 13). PLE was diagnosed using fecal clearance of α1-antitrypsin or 111In-labeled albumin. Read More

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3-nitroimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine as a novel scaffold for antiparasitics with sub-nanomolar anti-Giardia lamblia activity.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2022 May 26;19:47-55. Epub 2022 May 26.

Amsterdam Institute for Molecules, Medicines and Systems, Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

As there is a continuous need for novel anti-infectives, the present study aimed to fuse two modes of action into a novel 3-nitroimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine scaffold to improve antiparasitic efficacy. For this purpose, we combined known structural elements of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, a target recently proposed for Trypanosoma brucei and Giardia lamblia, with a nitroimidazole scaffold to generate nitrosative stress. The compounds were evaluated in vitro against a panel of protozoal parasites, namely Giardia lamblia, Trypanosoma brucei, T. Read More

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Repurposing the Kinase Inhibitor Mavelertinib for Giardiasis Therapy.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2022 Jun 15:e0001722. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (CERID), University of Washingtongrid.34477.33, Seattle, Washington, USA.

A phenotypic screen of the ReFRAME compound library was performed to identify cell-active inhibitors that could be developed as therapeutics for giardiasis. A primary screen against Giardia lamblia GS clone H7 identified 85 cell-active compounds at a hit rate of 0.72%. Read More

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Prevalence and genetic diversity of in pet dogs from Zhengzhou, central China and the association between gut microbiota and fecal characteristics during infection.

One Health 2022 Jun 20;14:100401. Epub 2022 May 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, People's Republic of China.

As a common zoonotic intestinal parasite, could infect humans and various mammals worldwide, including pet dogs, leading to giardiasis. This study detected the infection of in asymptomatic pet dogs in Zhengzhou, and evaluated the possibility of zoonosis and the relationship between gut microbiota and fecal characteristics. We randomly collected 448 fresh fecal samples from Zhengzhou, and was screened based on the beta-giardin (), glutamate dehydrogenase (), and triose phosphate isomerase () genes. Read More

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Associations between extreme precipitation, drinking water, and protozoan acute gastrointestinal illnesses in four North American Great Lakes cities (2009-2014).

J Water Health 2022 May;20(5):849-862

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

Climate change is already impacting the North American Great Lakes ecosystem and understanding the relationship between climate events and public health, such as waterborne acute gastrointestinal illnesses (AGIs), can help inform needed adaptive capacity for drinking water systems (DWSs). In this study, we assessed a harmonized binational dataset for the effects of extreme precipitation events (≥90th percentile) and preceding dry periods, source water turbidity, total coliforms, and protozoan AGIs - cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis - in the populations served by four DWSs that source surface water from Lake Ontario (Hamilton and Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Lake Michigan (Green Bay and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA) from January 2009 through August 2014. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality and found extreme precipitation weeks preceded by dry periods increased the relative risk of protozoan AGI after 1 and 3-5 weeks in three of the four cities, although only statistically significant in two. Read More

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Genotypic and Epidemiologic Profiles of   in Four Brazilian Biogeographic Regions.

Microorganisms 2022 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Laboratório de Epidemiologia e Sistemática Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21045-900, Brazil.

Human infections with gut protozoan parasites are neglected and not targeted by specific control initiatives, leading to a knowledge gap concerning their regional diversity and epidemiology. The present study aims to explore   genetic diversity and assess the epidemiologic scenario of subclinical infections in different Brazilian biogeographic regions. Cross-sectional surveys ( = 1334 subjects) were conducted in four municipalities in order to obtain fecal samples and socioenvironmental data. Read More

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Evaluation of the efficacy of gold nanoparticles on Giardia lamblia infection in experimental animals.

Exp Parasitol 2022 Jul 22;238:108277. Epub 2022 May 22.

Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is an important cause of severe malabsorption, weight loss, physical and mental retardation especially in infants and children throughout the world. Metronidazole (MTZ) is the standard drug used for their treatment which possesses several drawbacks with low efficacy. Read More

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Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in small ruminants of Shiraz, southwestern Iran: A zoonotic concern.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Jul 11;86:101819. Epub 2022 May 11.

Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Livestock are commonly affected by gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, including Giardia duodenalis. In small ruminants, G. duodenalis infection may decrease carcass weight and dressing percentage. Read More

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Dual RNA Sequencing Reveals Key Events When Different Life Cycle Stages Interact With Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 27;12:862211. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

 is a protozoan parasite causing diarrheal disease, giardiasis, after extracellular infection of humans and other mammals' intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of the upper small intestine. The parasite has two main life cycle stages: replicative trophozoites and transmissive cysts. Differentiating parasites (encysting cells) and trophozoites have recently been shown to be present in the same regions of the upper small intestine, whereas most mature cysts are found further down in the intestinal system. Read More

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Giardia intestinalis thymidine kinase is a high-affinity enzyme crucial for DNA synthesis and an exploitable target for drug discovery.

J Biol Chem 2022 May 11;298(6):102028. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address:

Giardiasis is a diarrheal disease caused by the unicellular parasite Giardia intestinalis, for which metronidazole is the main treatment option. The parasite is dependent on exogenous deoxyribonucleosides for DNA replication and thus is also potentially vulnerable to deoxyribonucleoside analogs. Here, we characterized the G. Read More

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Giardia duodenalis in patients with diarrhea and various animals in northeastern China: prevalence and multilocus genetic characterization.

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 11;15(1):165. Epub 2022 May 11.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research), NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Giardia duodenalis is a common parasitic diarrheal agent in humans, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and multilocus genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in patients with diarrhea and animals in northeastern China, and to assess the epidemiological role of animals in the transmission of human giardiasis. Read More

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Association Between Giardia Genotype and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Among Giardia-Infected Children: A Case-Control Study.

Acta Parasitol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.

Purpose: Giardia duodenalis is the most common worldwide intestinal protozoal infection. The implication of free radicals in organ injury occurs through oxidative stress. Infections as Giardia may act as a triggering or promoting factor for oxidative stress, particularly in children with compromised immunity. Read More

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Multilocus Genotyping of in Alpine Musk Deer () in China.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 20;12:856429. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

is the underlying cause of a significant number of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence and genetic diversity of in captive alpine musk deer () in China. A total of 202 fecal samples were collected from three farms in Gansu Province, China. Read More

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The influence of hospitalization and HIV severity on gastrointestinal PCR panel evaluation of HIV-related acute diarrhea in New York City: a retrospective, cross-sectional study.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2022 28;15:17562848221092593. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Division of Gastroenterology, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, NYU Langone Health, 305 East 33 Street, Lower Level, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Introduction: Diarrhea is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH)/AIDS. With the increasing utilization of multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel (GI panel) testing, we aimed to characterize the roles of CD4 count and hospitalization in GI panel assessments of PLWH with acute diarrhea.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of adult PLWH with acute diarrhea who underwent GI panel testing at two urban academic centers. Read More

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Uncovering the genetic diversity of Giardia intestinalis in isolates from outbreaks in New Zealand.

Infect Dis Poverty 2022 May 4;11(1):49. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, Manawatu-Wanganui, New Zealand.

Background: Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea worldwide. Molecular techniques have greatly improved our understanding of the taxonomy and epidemiology of this parasite. Co-infection with mixed (sub-) assemblages has been reported, however, Sanger sequencing is sometimes unable to identify shared subtypes between samples involved in the same epidemiologically linked event, due to samples showing multiple dominant subtypes within the same outbreak. Read More

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Polyphenolic extract from peel causes cytoskeleton-related damage on trophozoites .

PeerJ 2022 27;10:e13350. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Departamento de Investigación en Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico.

Background: Diarrheal diseases caused by protozoa have a great impact on human health around the world. is one of the most common flagellates in the intestinal tract. Factors such as adverse effects to first-line drugs or the appearance of drug-resistant strains, make it necessary to identify new treatment alternatives. Read More

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In vitro effects of the 4-[(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)methyl]-N-hydroxybenzamide on Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

Acta Trop 2022 Aug 26;232:106484. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagens e Centro Nacional de Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagens, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Diretoria de Metrologia Aplicada a Ciências da Vida, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Giardiasis is an intestinal disease caused by the parasite protozoan Giardia intestinalis. For more than five decades, the treatment of this disease has been based on compounds such as nitroimidazoles and benzimidazoles. The parasite's adverse effects and therapeutic failure are largely recognized. Read More

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The Giardia ventrolateral flange is a lamellar membrane protrusion that supports attachment.

PLoS Pathog 2022 04 28;18(4):e1010496. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Attachment to the intestinal epithelium is critical to the lifestyle of the ubiquitous parasite Giardia lamblia. The ventrolateral flange is a sheet-like membrane protrusion at the interface between parasites and attached surfaces. This structure has been implicated in attachment, but its role has been poorly defined. Read More

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COX-2 is required to mediate crosstalk of ROS-dependent activation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling with pro-inflammatory response and defense-related NO enhancement during challenge of macrophage-like cell line with Giardia duodenalis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 28;16(4):e0010402. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Giardia duodenalis, the causative agent of giardiasis, is among the most important causes of waterborne diarrheal diseases around the world. Giardia infection may persist over extended periods with intestinal inflammation, although minimal. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is well known as an important inducer of inflammatory response, while the role it played in noninvasive Giardia infection remains elusive. Read More

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Conserved metabolic enzymes as vaccine antigens for giardiasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 25;16(4):e0010323. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoal cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Infection is associated with abdominal pain, malabsorption and weight loss, and protracted post-infectious syndromes. A human vaccine is not available against G. Read More

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Occurrence of spp. and spp. Infection in Humans in Latvia: Evidence of Underdiagnosed and Underreported Cases.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Mar 24;58(4). Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment BIOR, 1076 Riga, Latvia.

: Protozoan parasites- and -are important causes of diarrhea with an underestimated short-term burden on childhood growth and wellbeing in children under five years of age. The main transmission routes for both parasites are food and drinking water; transmission from person to person; and, due to their zoonotic nature, from domestic or wild animals to humans. The aims of the present study were to summarize the officially reported human cases of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in Latvia and to assess the occurrence of and in children within a prospective prevalence study. Read More

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Occurrence, genetic characterization, and zoonotic importance of Giardia duodenalis in various species of rodents (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus).

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Jun 8;85:101812. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Zoonoses Research Center (ZRC), Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. Electronic address:

Giardia duodenalis is a well-known flagellated parasite and the causative agent of protozoal diarrhea in animals and humans worldwide. Current study was aimed at determination of G. duodenalis prevalence, genetic variation and zoonotic significance in various species of rodents in Shiraz, southwestern Iran. Read More

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Global prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in cattle: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2022 Jun 28;203:105632. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal parasite responsible for diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Up to now, G. duodenalis infections in cattle have been reported in many studies around the world. Read More

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Molecular identification of Giardia spp. in Latin America: An updated systematic review on reports from 2017 to 2021.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2022 03 31;16(3):392-401. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Facultad de Ingenierías, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Cartagena de Indias, Bolivar, Colombia.

Background: Giardia spp. is the most common protozoan found in coproparasitoscopic tests; it is the cause of gastrointestinal discomfort, with a high prevalence in children and in low-income areas. This systematic review updates available literature on molecular identification of Giardia spp. Read More

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Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in humans in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: an unexpectedly low occurrence of anthropozoonotic transmission.

Acta Trop 2022 Jul 5;231:106450. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.

Enteric protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are among the leading causes of diarrhoea in children. These parasites have particular impact in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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Enhanced detection of Giardia duodenalis mixed assemblage infections in pre-weaned dairy calves using next generation sequencing.

Vet Parasitol 2022 Apr 28;304:109702. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS)-Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common parasitic causes of gastrointestinal illness in humans worldwide with widespread infections in mammalian hosts. It frequently infects cattle, producing a high number of cysts. Cattle can harbor both host-adapted assemblage E and human pathogenic assemblages A and B. Read More

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Investigating how clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 participates in Giardia lamblia encystation.

Int J Parasitol 2022 Jun 30;52(7):399-406. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Instituto de Investigación Médica Mercedes y Martín Ferreyra, INIMEC - CONICET - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Friuli 2434, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia acquires cholesterol from the environment since it is unable to synthesise cholesterol de novo and this is vital for trophozoite growth. Conversely, the lack of cholesterol was described as an essential event to trigger encystation, the differentiation of trophozoites to mature cysts. During the G. Read More

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Giardia lamblia regulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines through activating the NOD2-Rip2-ROS signaling pathway in mouse macrophages.

Immunol Cell Biol 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xian Road, Changchun, Jilin, 130062, China.

Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic protozoan that causes the diarrheal illness giardiasis, with the highest prevalence reported in the tropics and subtropics. Giardia is currently the most frequently identified pathogen in waterborne outbreaks in the United States. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2, intracellular NOD-like receptors, recognize pathogens to induce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses. Read More

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The ever -present need for biopsy to diagnose coeliac disease safely.

Trop Doct 2022 Mar 30:494755221079042. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Pathology, 75299Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Delhi.

Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy which occurs in genetically predisposed individuals on exposure to gluten. The recommended diagnostic approach includes serological screening by Anti-tissue Transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG) followed by a small intestinal biopsy. As high anti-tTG antibody is expected to be significantly associated with MARSH III histopathological changes in the small intestine, it has now become the basis for a biopsy-free approach to diagnose CD. Read More

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