6,197 results match your criteria Giardiasis


Differential antibody responses to Giardia lamblia strain variants expressing dissimilar levels of an immunogenic protein.

Parasite Immunol 2020 Jun 28:e12767. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Chemistry-Biology, University of Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas and Rosales s/n, 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

Aims: Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, one of the most common worldwide gastrointestinal diseases. For rational development of a Giardia vaccine, increasing our understanding of the host-Giardia interaction is crucial. In this study, we analyzed the immunogenicity and antigenicity of two G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12767DOI Listing

Associations of five food- and water-borne diseases with ecological zone, land use and aquifer type in a changing climate.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 20;728:138808. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive Blusson Hall 11518, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Food- and water-borne pathogens exhibit spatial heterogeneity, but attribution to specific environmental processes is lacking while anthropogenic climate change alters these processes. The goal of this study was to investigate ecology, land-use and health associations of these pathogens and to make future disease projections.

Methods: The rates of five acute gastrointestinal illnesses (AGIs) (campylobacteriosis, Verotoxin- producing Escherichia coli, salmonellosis, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis) from 2000 to 2013 in British Columbia, Canada, were calculated across three environmental variables: ecological zone, land use, and aquifer type. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138808DOI Listing

Comparing spatio-temporal distribution of the most common human parasitic infections in Iran over two periods 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018: A systematic quantitative literature review.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

This study analyses the spatio-temporal trend of the prevalence of the four most prevalent parasitic diseases in Iran over two periods, 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018, indicating high-risk and low-risk areas. Out of 19 126 articles, we selected 220 articles for data extraction and calculated the pooled prevalence for cutaneous leishmaniasis, human toxoplasmosis, giardiasis and blastocystosis for all 31 provinces in the country. Anselin local Moran's I was used to identify clusters and outliers in the prevalence rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3010DOI Listing

Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in cattle in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

The molecular prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in cattle were investigated. A total of 450 fecal samples were collected from cattle in three provinces of Central Anatolia from August 2017 to July 2019. Genomic DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and used in molecular analysis carried out by nested PCR analyses of the β-giardin (bg) gene of G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06771-8DOI Listing

Ongoing transmission of Entamoeba histolytica among newly diagnosed people living with HIV in Taiwan, 2009-2018.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 12;14(6):e0008400. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Recent outbreaks of enterically transmitted infections, including acute hepatitis A and shigellosis, have raised the concerns of increasing Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Taiwan. This study investigated the prevalence of EHI, its temporal trends, and associated factors among newly diagnosed PLWH in Taiwan. Medical records of newly diagnosed PLWH at six medical centers in Taiwan between 2009 and 2018 were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314233PMC

Enteric parasitic infections in children and dogs in resource-poor communities in northeastern Brazil: Identifying priority prevention and control areas.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 9;14(6):e0008378. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-UESC, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the main enteric parasitic infections that affect children and dogs in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; and to identify the geopolitical areas that should receive priority interventions to combat them. Between March and November 2016, fecal samples of 143 dogs and 193 children aged 1 month to 5 years were collected in 40 rural and semirural communities using a systematic sampling approach, stratified by district. Samples were collected by legal guardians of the children and / or dog owners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282628PMC

Giardia lamblia: Laboratory Maintenance, Lifecycle Induction, and Infection of Murine Models.

Curr Protoc Microbiol 2020 Jun;57(1):e102

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia.

Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that is found ubiquitously throughout the world and is a major contributor to diarrheal disease. Giardia exhibits a biphasic lifestyle existing as either a dormant cyst or a vegetative trophozoite. Infections are typically initiated through the consumption of cyst-contaminated water or food. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmc.102DOI Listing

An update on the incidence of human giardiasis in Scotland, 2011-2018.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jun 8;13(1):291. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Scottish Microbiology Reference Laboratories, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Background: Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common parasites in the UK to cause diarrhoeal illness. Giardiasis is likely to be significantly under-reported in the UK as laboratory testing is largely based on examining stool samples from individuals with a recent travel history. This results in the majority of locally-acquired cases going undetected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04160-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282119PMC

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of assemblages detected in Djelfa, Algeria.

J Parasit Dis 2020 Jun 13;44(2):281-288. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

is a flagellated protozoan that lives and proliferates in the small intestine of the host causing giardiasis. The route of transmission is the fecal-oral route, either directly or indirectly. Limited genetic information on is known in Algeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-01206-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244687PMC

Application of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay and pilot field testing for Giardia duodenalis at Lake Albert, Uganda.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jun 6;13(1):289. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal protozoan causing 184 million cases of giardiasis worldwide annually. Detection is by microscopy or coproantigen assays, although sensitivity is often compromised by intermittent shedding of cysts or trophozoites, or operator expertise. Therefore, for enhanced surveillance field-applicable, point-of-care (POC), molecular assays are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04168-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275508PMC

Common Variable Immunodeficiency Enteropathy With Chronic Giardiasis.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 Jun;95(6):1293-1294

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.02.024DOI Listing

and infections in dairy calves in southern Ethiopia.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 Aug 11;10:e00155. Epub 2020 May 11.

Italian National Reference Centre for Toxoplasmosis at Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia A. Mirri, Italy.

and are the most common enteric protozoan parasites causing diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. This study was conducted with the objectives of estimating prevalence and identifying risk factors for and infections in dairy calves in selected districts of southern Ethiopia. Fecal samples ( = 330) were collected from calves in 92 farms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256661PMC

infection in dogs affected by primary chronic enteropathy.

Open Vet J 2020 Apr 18;10(1):74-79. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Canine primary chronic enteropathy (CE) includes a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic gastrointestinal signs.

Aim: This study evaluated the occurrence of infection in primary CE-affected dogs.

Methods: Forty-seven CE-affected dogs of different age and sex were enrolled in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ovj.v10i1.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193877PMC

Molecular characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from dogs and coyotes in an urban landscape suggests infrequent occurrence of zoonotic genotypes.

Vet Parasitol 2020 May 21;281:109115. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Ethology Unit, Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Province of Pisa, Italy; UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besancon, France.

Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal parasites with the potential for zoonotic transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109115DOI Listing

Epidemiological study of Giardia duodenalis infection in companion dogs from the metropolitan area of São Paulo Brazil.

Zoonoses Public Health 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Zoetis Indústria de Produtos Veterinários Ltda., São Paulo, Brasil.

Giardia duodenalis is a zoonotic pathogen associated with gastrointestinal disease that has a direct life cycle, with cysts eliminated in the faeces of an infected host being ingested by a susceptible host. In Brazil, studies of chronically infected adult dogs estimated a prevalence of 10%-20%. Diagnosis of giardiasis, as a cause of diarrhoea is important for the global One-Health guidelines when controlling cyst dissemination in the environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12710DOI Listing

Assessment of health risks from recreational exposure to Giardia and Cryptosporidium in coastal bathing waters.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 24;27(18):23129-23140. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

FSP/USP - School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Environmental Health Department, Av. Dr Arnaldo 715, 1° andar, 01246-904, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Some Brazilian beaches are impacted by raw or poorly treated sewage. Thus, users (beachgoers, sports people, and children) are exposed to pathogens, which pose health concerns. This study aimed to estimate the probability of infection and disease by Giardia and Cryptosporidium, using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for three groups of bathers: children, adults, and open water swimmers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08650-2DOI Listing

Triazoxins: Novel nucleosides with anti-Giardia activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 Jun 7;30(12):127175. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Drug Design, College of Pharmacy, Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States. Electronic address:

Novel nucleoside analogues named "triazoxins" were synthesized. Of these, two analogues were found to be highly effective against Giardia lamblia, an intestinal parasite and a major cause of waterborne infection, worldwide. While compound 7 reduced the growth of trophozoites in culture (IC, ~5 μM), compound 21 blocked the in vitro cyst production (IC ~5 μM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2020.127175DOI Listing
June 2020
2.420 Impact Factor

Imported Infections in Rural Mid-West United States - A Report from a Tertiary Care Center.

Mo Med 2020 Mar-Apr;117(2):89-94

Christian Rojas-Moreno, MD, William Salzer, MD, and Gordon Christensen, MD is in the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Background: There is lack of specific data on imported infections in the mid-west United States (U.S.). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144708PMC

Click chemistry-facilitated comprehensive identification of proteins adducted by antimicrobial 5-nitroimidazoles for discovery of alternative drug targets against giardiasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 04 17;14(4):e0008224. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Giardiasis and other protozoan infections are major worldwide causes of morbidity and mortality, yet development of new antimicrobial agents with improved efficacy and ability to override increasingly common drug resistance remains a major challenge. Antimicrobial drug development typically proceeds by broad functional screens of large chemical libraries or hypothesis-driven exploration of single microbial targets, but both strategies have challenges that have limited the introduction of new antimicrobials. Here, we describe an alternative drug development strategy that identifies a sufficient but manageable number of promising targets, while reducing the risk of pursuing targets of unproven value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190177PMC

Chronic Diarrhea in Adults: Evaluation and Differential Diagnosis.

Am Fam Physician 2020 Apr;101(8):472-480

Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC, USA.

Chronic diarrhea is defined as a predominantly loose stool lasting longer than four weeks. A patient history and physical examination with a complete blood count, C-reactive protein, anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A (IgA), total IgA, and a basic metabolic panel are useful to evaluate for pathologies such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. More targeted testing should be based on the differential diagnosis. Read More

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Prevalence and genotypic characterization of isolates from asymptomatic school-going children in Lusaka, Zambia.

Food Waterborne Parasitol 2020 Jun 21;19:e00072. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Zambia.

is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans with about 250-300 million cases per year. It is considered to be a species complex comprising of eight genetic assemblages (A to H), with assemblages A and B being the major causes of human infections. In this study we carried out genotypic characterization of isolates detected in asymptomatic school-going children aged 3-16 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2020.e00072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125351PMC

Genetic analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from children of low-income families living in an economically successful region in Southeastern Brazil.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2020 30;62:e20. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Parasitologia, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important and widespread gastrointestinal parasites in the world. Despite its relevance as a causative agent of diarrhea, asymptomatic giardiasis occurs frequently, especially in low resources settings in which children are exposed to many risk factors. Based on microscopic examination and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes, we assessed G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202062020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178812PMC

An image-based Pathogen Box screen identifies new compounds with anti-Giardia activity and highlights the importance of assay choice in phenotypic drug discovery.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2020 04 13;12:60-67. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, 46 Don Young Rd, Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia. Electronic address:

Giardia duodenalis, the most prevalent human intestinal parasite causes the disease, giardiasis. On an annual basis G. duodenalis infects ~1 billion people, of which ~280 million develop symptomatic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113605PMC

Recent advances in nitroaromatics: The synthesis and development of anti-infective drugs.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Centre of excellence for Pharmaceutical Pharmacen™, North-West University, Potchefstroom. South Africa.

Infectious diseases commonly occur in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The pathogens of such diseases are able to multiply in human hosts, warranting their continual survival. Infections that are commonplace include malaria, chagas, trypanosomiasis, giardiasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200331091853DOI Listing

Combined Mini-Parasep SF and Nanogold Immunoassay Show Potential in Stool Antigen Immunodetection for Giardiasis Diagnosis.

Sci Rep 2020 03 30;10(1). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Parasitology, Banha University Faculty of Medicine, Banha, Egypt.

Covalent loading or directional binding of biomolecules on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could lead to better results than simple direct adsorption for an enhanced ELISA application. The use of Mini-Parasep solvent-free (SF) without ether or ethyl acetate for the clean and efficient concentration of protozoa cysts, it is a single-use device for in vitro diagnostic use only. In this work, we used Mini-Parasep SF for the detection of giardia cysts in comparison to direct smear and Merthiolate-Iodine Formaldehyde Concentration (MIFC) technique in addition to its use in antigen detection by AuNPs biomolecule loading using rabbit polyclonal antibodies (pAb) against purified Giardia antigen (PGA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55492-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103579PMC

Co-infection risk assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium with HIV considering synergistic effects and age sensitivity using disability-adjusted life years.

Water Res 2020 May 12;175:115698. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Co-infection with multiple pathogens, especially the spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source water among those with immunodeficiency, is common worldwide, which will result in an increase in overall risk. In this study, the quantitative microbial risk assessment model was used to estimate the cumulative risk of co-infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium promoted by HIV, considering age sensitivity. The sensitivity of population segments with different ages was estimated by the optimization method, based on clinical data of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis with age structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115698DOI Listing

Giardia spp. promote the production of antimicrobial peptides and attenuate disease severity induced by attaching and effacing enteropathogens via the induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Int J Parasitol 2020 Apr 14;50(4):263-275. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Inflammation Research Network, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Host-Parasite Interactions, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Polymicrobial infections of the gastro-intestinal tract are common in areas with poor sanitation. Disease outcome is the result of complex interactions between the host and pathogens. Such interactions lie at the core of future management strategies of enteric diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2019.12.011DOI Listing

Antiparasitic activity of two Brazilian plants: and .

Nat Prod Res 2020 Mar 16:1-5. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, SC, Brazil.

Parasitoses are very common throughout the world, generating serious consequences for public health. Leishmaniosis and giardiasis are examples of fairly recurrent, but neglected diseases. Several higher plants have demonstrated promising activity against the parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1739676DOI Listing

Molecular Characterization of Giardia intestinalis Detected in Humans and Water Samples in Egypt.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Jun 2;65(2):482-489. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

National Blood Transfusion Services, Ministry of Health, Damanhour, Egypt.

Background: Giardia intestinalis is a common cause of gastrointestinal illness especially in children of developing countries. Giardia assemblages A and B are the major human infective genotypes.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the role of water supply in the epidemiology of giardiasis via genotyping G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00176-4DOI Listing

Drug resistance in Giardia: Mechanisms and alternative treatments for Giardiasis.

Adv Parasitol 2020 17;107:201-282. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

The use of chemotherapeutic drugs is the main resource against clinical giardiasis due to the lack of approved vaccines. Resistance of G. duodenalis to the most used drugs to treat giardiasis, metronidazole and albendazole, is a clinical issue of growing concern and yet unknown impact, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2019.11.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Pathogenesis and post-infectious complications in giardiasis.

Adv Parasitol 2020 26;107:173-199. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

University of Calgary, Host-Parasite Interactions Program, Inflammation Research Network, Department of Biological Sciences, Calgary, Canada. Electronic address:

Giardia is an important cause of diarrhoea, and results in post-infectious and extra-intestinal complications. This chapter presents a state-of-the art of our understanding of how this parasite may cause such abnormalities, which appear to develop at least in part in Assemblage-dependent manner. Findings from prospective longitudinal cohort studies indicate that Giardia is one of the four most prevalent enteropathogens in early life, and represents a risk factor for stunting at 2 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2019.12.001DOI Listing
December 2019

Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Giardia intestinalis: Intestinal epithelial cell interactions.

Adv Parasitol 2020 25;107:139-171. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular protozoan parasite that infects the small intestines of humans and animals. Giardiasis, the disease caused by the parasite, occurs globally across socioeconomic boundaries but is mainly endemic in developing countries and particularly within young children, where pronounced effects manifests in a failure to thrive condition. The molecular pathogenesis of Giardia has been studied using in vitro models of human and rat intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and parasites from the two major human genotypes or assemblages (A and B). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2019.11.002DOI Listing
November 2019

The structural organization of Giardia intestinalis cytoskeleton.

Adv Parasitol 2020 18;107:1-23. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

UNIGRANRIO-University of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Biophysics Institute-Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; CENABIO-National Center for Structural Biology and Bioimaging and National Institute of Science and Technology on Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Giardia intestinalis, the causative agent of giardiasis, has complex cytoskeleton organization with structures involved in motility, adhesion, cell division, and cell differentiation. Microtubules are key components of the cytoskeleton and are the main elements of the ventral disc, median body, funis, in addition to four pairs of flagella. These cytoskeletal elements are basically stable microtubule arrangements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2019.08.003DOI Listing
October 2019

Efficacy of Ageratum conyzoides extracts against Giardia duodenalis trophozoites: an experimental study.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Feb 28;20(1):63. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Protozoology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Background: Giardia duodenalis causes giardiasis in humans, particularly in developing countries. Despite the availability of treatments, resistance to some of the commercial anti-Giardia drugs has been reported in addition to their harmful side effects. Therefore, novel treatments for giardiasis are required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-2860-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076862PMC
February 2020

Giardiasis Pattern among Different Age Categories: Childhood Assemblage B Proclaim Endemicity.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Oct-Dec;14(4):614-622

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Background: Giardiasis is one of the commonest intestinal parasitic diseases that affects wide range of age groups. We aimed to detect the pattern of assemblages among symptomatic patients at the age of 2 up to 40 years.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from 278 patients and examined microscopically and genetically for giardiasis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028230PMC
February 2020

First description of in buffalo calves () in southwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

Food Waterborne Parasitol 2019 Sep 31;16:e00062. Epub 2019 May 31.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.

We performed molecular characterization of in buffalo calves from the Southwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 183 fecal samples of Murrah breed buffaloes up to six months of age were collected. We examined these samples by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene and positive samples were characterized using additional PCR assays targeting a portion of the beta-giardin, the glutamate dehydrogenase and the triose-phosphate isomerase genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2019.e00062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034009PMC
September 2019

Phosphoinositide-binding proteins mark, shape and functionally modulate highly-diverged endocytic compartments in the parasitic protist Giardia lamblia.

PLoS Pathog 2020 02 24;16(2):e1008317. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PIPs) are key membrane lipid residues involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME relies on PIP species PI(4,5)P2 to mark endocytic sites at the plasma membrane (PM) associated to clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) formation. The highly diverged parasitic protist Giardia lamblia presents disordered and static clathrin assemblies at PM invaginations, contacting specialized endocytic organelles called peripheral vacuoles (PVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058353PMC
February 2020

Identification of GdRFC1 as a novel regulator of telomerase in Giardia duodenalis.

Parasitol Res 2020 Mar 19;119(3):1035-1041. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Zoonosis, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China.

Telomerase plays a crucial role in ageing and tumourigenesis. However, the regulatory network of its activity is complicated and not fully understood. In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified a homologue of human replication factor C subunit 1 (RFC1) as a novel interacting protein of Giardia duodenalis GdTRBD (Giardia duodenalis telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex RNA binding domain GdTRBD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06610-wDOI Listing

Update on the major imported protozoan infections in travelers and migrants.

Future Microbiol 2020 Feb 17;15:213-225. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

National Referral Unit for Tropical Diseases, Infectious Diseases Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, IRYCIS, Ctra Colmenar, Km 9,100, 28034, Madrid, Spain.

Globalization has contributed to the emergence of specific parasitic diseases in novel geographical areas, and in these regions, these infections in travelers and immigrants may cause a considerable burden of disease. Timely diagnosis and treatment of protozoan infections to decrease mortality and prevent associated complications are essential. In this respect, the increased availability of specific DNA-detection procedures has improved the diagnosis of many imported parasitic infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2019-0212DOI Listing
February 2020

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among the Bulgarian Population Over a Three Year Period (2015 - 2017).

Helminthologia 2020 Mar 25;57(1):12-18. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria, Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Yanko Sakazov Blvd. 26, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria.

The aim of the present study is to perform a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the Bulgarian population over the period 2015 - 2017. The study involved all Bulgarians and foreign nationals residing in the country who had been tested for intestinal protozoa and helminths. A total of 23,785 infections have been revealed, of which 17,712 (74. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/helm-2020-0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996262PMC
March 2020
0.678 Impact Factor

Characterisation of the in vitro activity of a Nitazoxanide-N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule against albendazole and nitazoxanide susceptible and resistant strains of Giardia intestinalis and its in vivo giardicidal activity.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2020 7;115:e190348. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Siglo XXI, Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Parasitarias, Hospital de Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide.

Objetives: To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760190348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012584PMC
March 2020
1.566 Impact Factor

Evolving epidemiology of reported giardiasis cases in the United States, 1995-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Feb 12. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic disease of humans identified in the United States and an important waterborne disease. In the United States, giardiasis has been variably reportable since 1992 and was made a nationally notifiable disease in 2002. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of US giardiasis cases from 1995-2016 using National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa128DOI Listing
February 2020

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ruminants.

Authors:
Monica Santin

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2020 Mar;36(1):223-238

Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, BARC-East, Building 173, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ubiquitous protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals as well as humans. Both parasites are of medical and veterinary importance. Infections with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in ruminants are associated with diarrhea outbreaks, mainly in young animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.11.005DOI Listing

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Southwestern Iran. A community survey.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(2):e0228317. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Khuzestan, Iran.

Giardia duodenalis is one of the main enteric pathogens associated with diarrheal disease. In developing countries, giardiasis is a major public health concern, particularly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and genetic diversity of G. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228317PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004373PMC

Evaluation of the effects of anthelmintic administration on the fecal microbiome of healthy dogs with and without subclinical Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium canis infections.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(2):e0228145. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Gastrointestinal Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Background: The gastrointestinal microbiome plays an important role in host health and there is increasing concern regarding the deleterious effects of pharmaceuticals on the fecal microbiome. The effect of anthelmintic therapy on the fecal microbiome in dogs has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthelmintic administration on the fecal microbiome of dogs with and without subclinical Giardia species and Cryptosporidium canis infections. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228145PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004322PMC

Occurrence and multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates from 12 zoos in China.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(2):e0228673. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Giardia duodenalis is a common enteric protozoan that infects a range of hosts including humans and other mammals. Multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in captive non-human primates (NHPs) from zoos in China is limited. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228673PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999901PMC

Methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor has potent in vivo activity in a novel Giardia lamblia luciferase murine infection model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 May;75(5):1218-1227

Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (CERID), University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Background: Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) inhibitors are under investigation for the treatment of intestinal infections caused by Giardia lamblia.

Objectives: To properly analyse the therapeutic potential of the MetRS inhibitor 1717, experimental tools including a robust cell-based assay and a murine model of infection were developed based on novel strains of G. lamblia that employ luciferase reporter systems to quantify viable parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz567DOI Listing

Zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in horses and donkeys in northern China.

Parasitol Res 2020 Mar 31;119(3):1101-1108. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Limited data are available on infection rates and genetic identity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in horses and donkeys. In this study, 865 fecal specimens were collected from donkeys (n = 540) and horses (n = 325) in three provinces and autonomous regions in northern China during 2015-2019. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected and genotyped by PCR and sequence analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06612-8DOI Listing

Investigations from Northern Greece on mussels cultivated in areas proximal to wastewaters discharges, as a potential source for human infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Mar 28;210:107848. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization - DEMETER, 57001, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Marine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish tissues during their feeding process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107848DOI Listing

ILEOCOLONIC LYMPHONODULAR HYPERPLASIA IN CHILDREN; RELATED WITH VARIETY OF ETIOLOGIES RANGING FROM FOOD HYPERSENSITIVITY TO FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER.

Med Princ Pract 2020 Jan 31. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Objective: We aimed to share our experience about the demographics and clinical characteristics and outcome of lymphonodular hyperplasia (LNH) in children.

Subjects And Methods: The study included the children that performed colonoscopy between January 2015 and May 2018 (n=361). Demographics, treatment modalities and outcomes of the patients with LNH were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506257DOI Listing
January 2020