1,124 results match your criteria Germinoma Central Nervous System

Primary germinoma of the medulla oblongata: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jun 6;3(23):CASE21315. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Pathology, Military Hospital of Santiago, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Primary central nervous system germinomas of the medulla oblongata are extremely rare and usually have been found in young female Asian patients. The authors present an illustrative case of a patient who presented with severe medullary and posterior cord syndrome, the first South American case published to date, to the authors' knowledge.

Observations: Initially, the radiological differential diagnosis did not include this entity. Read More

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Multi-institutional analysis of central nervous system germ cell tumors in patients with Down syndrome.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Jun 10:e29830. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

The Division of Hematology and Oncology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University, School of Medicine in St. Louis, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose: Primary germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm in patients with Down syndrome (DS). However, a standard of care has not been established due to paucity of data.

Methods: A retrospective multi-institutional analysis was conducted, in addition to a comprehensive review of the literature. Read More

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Pituitary Stalk Thickening: Causes and Consequences. The Children's Memorial Health Institute Experience and Literature Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 20;13:868558. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Pituitary stalk thickening (PST) is a rare abnormality in the pediatric population. Its etiology is heterogeneous. The aim of the study was to identify important clinical, radiological and endocrinological manifestations of patients with PST and follow the course of the disease. Read More

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A Novel Germline Gene Mutation and Co-Occurring Somatic Activating Mutation in a Patient With Pediatric Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor: Case Report.

Front Oncol 2022 16;12:835220. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of primary CNS tumors. GCTs are more common and mostly observed in pediatric and young adult patients. CNS GCTs are divided into germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), with different therapeutic strategies depending on diagnosis. Read More

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[The value of CXorf67 and H3K27me3 for diagnosing germ cell tumors in central nervous system].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;51(5):407-412

Department of Pathology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

To investigate immunohistochemical patterns of CXorf67 and H3K27me3 proteins in central nervous system germ cell tumors (GCTs) and to assess their values in both diagnosis and differential diagnosis. A total of 370 cases of central nervous system GCTs were collected from 2013 to 2020 at Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The expression of CXorf67, H3K27me3 and commonly-used GCT markers including OCT4, PLAP, CD117, D2-40, and CD30 by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) was examined in different subtypes of central nervous system GCTs. Read More

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Primary central nervous system germinoma as a rare cause of diffuse ependymal involvement in adults.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2022 05 25;37(4):308-310. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

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Epidemiology, Management, and Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Intracranial Typical Site Germinomas: An Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) Database.

Cancer Control 2022 Jan-Dec;29:10732748221095944

Department of Clinical Research, 162698The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The correlations of epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcomes with different tumor sites in patients with intracranial typical site germinomas (ICTSGs) have not yet been well established. We analyzed ICTSGs using a multicenter database, focusing on its demographic, management patterns, and long-term survival outcomes.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with ICTSGs were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database. Read More

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[Clinical analysis of 30 cases of basal ganglia germinoma in children].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2022 Apr;54(2):222-226

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

Objective: To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma and to improve the level of early clinical diagnosis.

Methods: The clinical data of children diagnosed with basal ganglia germinoma admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Ward of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma.

Results: A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 28 were male, 2 were female, the mean age at onset was (9. Read More

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Central Diabetes Insipidus in Children and Adolescents: Twenty-Six Year Experience from a Single Centre.

Int J Endocrinol 2022 8;2022:9397130. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Paediatric Endocrinology, Variety Club Children's Hospital, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: Paediatric cohorts of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) have shown varying prevalence for different causes of CDI. The objective of this study was to determine the causes of CDI and long-term outcome in children and adolescents from a Tertiary Paediatric Endocrinology unit.

Methods: The clinic database was searched to identify patients with CDI managed between 1993 and 2019. Read More

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Successful management of symptomatic hydrocephalus using a temporary external ventricular drain with or without endoscopic third ventriculostomy in pediatric patients with germinoma.

J Neurosurg 2021 Dec 3:1-6. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

2Division of Hematology, Oncology & Bone Marrow Transplant, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario; and.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the management of hydrocephalus in a cohort of pediatric patients with germinoma.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with germinoma and symptomatic hydrocephalus treated at the Hospital for Sick Children between 2002 and 2020. Descriptive data included tumor location, CSF diversion procedure (external ventricular drain [EVD], endoscopic third ventriculostomy [ETV], ventriculoperitoneal [VP] shunt) and outcomes. Read More

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December 2021

Roles of Tumor Markers in Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Revisited with Histopathology-Proven Cases in a Large International Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Feb 15;14(4). Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

The central nervous system germ cell tumor (CNS GCT) is a rare and incompletely understood disease. A major outstanding question in the 2015 consensus document for CNS GCT management was the utility and interpretation of the tumor markers human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis of malignant non-germinomatous GCTs (hereafter NGGCTs) prior to treatment. In the current study, we assembled two geographically and ethnically different clinical cohorts from the Mayo Clinic (1988-2017) and the intracranial GCT Genome Analysis Consortium (iGCT Consortium) in Japan to address this question. Read More

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February 2022

Chemotherapy plus focal radiation therapy for localized intracranial germinoma: How little is enough?

Neuro Oncol 2022 Jun;24(6):984-985

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

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[Evolving Exploration of the Pathogenesis of CNS Germ Cell Tumors with Regard to Precision Medicine].

No Shinkei Geka 2022 Jan;50(1):39-50

Department of Neurosurgery, the University of Tokyo.

Genomic and epigenomic analyses have progressed the exploration of the pathogenesis of CNS germ cell tumors(GCTs)in the past decade. GCTs are characterized by mutations in MAPK or PI3K pathways(55%)and unstable chromosomes, especially 12p gain(45%), as well as global hypomethylation in germinoma. Highly specific microRNA, miR-371a-3p, can be a diagnostic marker in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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January 2022

Advances in Molecular Profiling and Developing Clinical Trials of CNS Germ Cell Tumors: Present and Future Directions.

Hirokazu Takami

Curr Oncol Rep 2022 01 20;24(1):105-112. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: The last decade has seen significant improvements in the management and understanding of the pathogenesis of CNS germ cell tumors (GCTs) by studies on genomic and epigenomic analyses, and published results of clinical trials. This review highlights the new findings to stay up-to-date on the knowledge and better inform the future directions.

Recent Findings: CNS GCTs are characterized by either MAPK or PI3K pathway mutations. Read More

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January 2022

Non-invasive preoperative imaging differential diagnosis of pineal region tumor: A novel developed and validated multiparametric MRI-based clinicoradiomic model.

Radiother Oncol 2022 02 13;167:277-284. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Background: Preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal region tumor can greatly assist clinical decision-making and avoid economic costs and complications caused by unnecessary radiotherapy or invasive procedures. The present study was performed to pre-operatively distinguish pineal region germinoma and pinealoblastoma using a clinicoradiomic model by incorporating radiomic and clinical features.

Methods: 134 pineal region tumor patients (germinoma, 69; pinealoblastoma, 65) with complete clinic-radiological and histopathological data from Tiantan hospital were retrospectively reviewed and randomly assigned to training and validation sets. Read More

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February 2022

Approach to the Pediatric Patient: Central Diabetes Insipidus.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 04;107(5):1407-1416

Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a complex disorder in which large volumes of dilute urine are excreted due to arginine-vasopressin deficiency, and it is caused by a variety of disorders affecting the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary network. The differential diagnosis is challenging and requires a detailed medical history, physical examination, biochemical approach, imaging studies, and, in some cases, histological confirmation. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard method for evaluating congenital or acquired cerebral and pituitary stalk lesions. Read More

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Pupillary Light-Near Dissociation.

N Engl J Med 2021 Dec;385(26):e94

IRCCS Istituto Delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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December 2021

Basal Ganglia Germ Cell Tumors With or Without Sellar Involvement: A Long-Term Follow-Up in a Single Medical Center and a Systematic Literature Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 10;12:763609. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Basal ganglia germ cell tumors (BGGCTs) represent an extremely rare subset of tumors about which little is known. Some patients suffer from tumor dissemination, such as sellar involvement. This study aimed to evaluate the independent prognostic risk factors of patients with BGGCTs with or without sellar involvement. Read More

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February 2022

Phase II trial of response-based radiation therapy for patients with localized germinoma: a Children's Oncology Group study.

Neuro Oncol 2022 Jun;24(6):974-983

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: The study aimed to evaluate whether simplified chemotherapy followed by dose-reduced irradiation was effective for treating patients (ages 3-21 years) with localized germinoma. The primary endpoint was 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate.

Methods: Patients with a complete response to chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide received 18 Gy WVI + 12 Gy boost to the tumor bed. Read More

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A pragmatic diagnostic approach to primary intracranial germ cell tumors and their treatment outcomes.

CNS Oncol 2021 Nov 22:CNS79. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Ida B Scudder Cancer Center, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632004, India.

Primary intracranial germ cell tumors (ICGCT) are often diagnosed with tumor markers and imaging, which may avoid the need for a biopsy. An intracranial germ cell tumor with mild elevation of markers is seldom stratified as a distinct entity. Fifty-nine patients were stratified into three groups: pure germinoma (PG), secreting germinoma (SG) and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). Read More

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November 2021

Extraneural recurrence of an intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumor to cervical lymph nodes in a pediatric patient: Case report.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Nov 18:e1586. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Dayton Children's Hospital, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

Background: Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise 3%-5% of pediatric primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Western countries. Though they are related in embryonic origin to gonadal GCTs, which are considered highly treatable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens, intracranial GCTs vary in malignant potential and sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy, generally carrying a worse prognosis. Metastases of intracranial GCTs outside of the CNS are rare, indicate a poor prognosis, and their salvage treatment is not well established. Read More

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November 2021

12p gain is predominantly observed in non-germinomatous germ cell tumors and identifies an unfavorable subgroup of central nervous system germ cell tumors.

Neuro Oncol 2022 May;24(5):834-846

Division of Brain Tumor Translational Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are neoplasms predominantly arising in pediatric and young adult populations. While germinomas generally respond to chemotherapy and radiation, non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs) require more intensive treatment. This study aimed to determine whether 12p gain could predict the prognosis of CNS GCTs. Read More

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Stereotactic biopsy for adult brainstem lesions: A surgical approach and its diagnostic value according to the 2016 World Health Organization Classification.

Cancer Med 2021 11 12;10(21):7514-7524. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The brainstem has the critical role of regulating cardiac and respiratory function and it also provides motor and sensory function to the face via the cranial nerves. Despite the observation of a brainstem lesion in a radiological examination, it is difficult to obtain tissues for a pathological diagnosis because of the location and small volume of the brainstem. Thus, we aimed to share our 6-year experience with stereotactic biopsies from brainstem lesions and confirm the value and safety of stereotactic biopsy on this highly eloquent area in this study. Read More

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November 2021

Safety of endoscopic endonasal biopsy for the pituitary stalk-hypothalamic lesions.

Pituitary 2022 Feb 1;25(1):143-151. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The indications for and the optimal biopsy approach in pituitary stalk-hypothalamic (PsH) lesions are controversial. Biopsies through an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for PsH lesions have often been considered to cause the infundibulo-tuberal syndrome. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical and endocrinological safety of EEA biopsies for PsH lesions. Read More

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February 2022

Typing of inflammatory lesions of the pituitary.

Pituitary 2022 Feb 31;25(1):131-142. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institute of Neuropathology of the University of Hamburg, UKE, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Inflammatory pituitary lesions account for 1.8% of all specimens from the German Pituitary Tumor Registry. They occure in 0. Read More

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February 2022

Molecular Pathology and Targeted Therapies for Personalized Management of Central Nervous System Germinoma.

J Pers Med 2021 Jul 14;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Endocrinology, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, 8 Victor Babes Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Intracranial germinomas are rare tumours, usually affecting male paediatric patients. They frequently develop in the pineal and suprasellar regions, causing endocrinological disturbances, visual deficits, and increased intracranial pressure. The diagnosis is established on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers, and tumour stereotactic biopsy. Read More

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Management trends and outcomes of pineal germinoma in a multi-institutional Australian cohort.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 21;90:1-7. Epub 2021 May 21.

Medical Oncology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Pineal germinoma is rare with high cure rates following craniospinal radiotherapy. Efforts to reduce the radiotherapy dose and field via combination with chemotherapy suggest comparable disease control and reduced neurocognitive impairments, while the efficacy of immunotherapy in pineal germinoma remains undetermined. This report aimed to review clinical outcomes in patients treated for pineal germinoma in Queensland, Australia, and assess for Programmed Death-Ligand1 (PD-L1) expression. Read More

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Primary central nervous system germinoma as a rare cause of diffuse ependymal involvement in adults.

Neurologia (Engl Ed) 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, España.

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Co-Deregulated miRNA Signatures in Childhood Central Nervous System Tumors: In Search for Common Tumor miRNA-Related Mechanics.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 17;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Science, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Hertfordshire, UK.

Despite extensive experimentation on pediatric tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), related to both prognosis, diagnosis and treatment, the understanding of pathogenesis and etiology of the disease remains scarce. MicroRNAs are known to be involved in CNS tumor oncogenesis. We hypothesized that CNS tumors possess commonly deregulated miRNAs across different CNS tumor types. Read More

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