204 results match your criteria Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage Imaging


Acta Clin Croat 2021 Dec;60(4):651-656

Institute of Neonatology, Belgrade, Serbia.

Germinal matrix-intraventricular brain hemorrhage is mostly found in preterm neonates, but may also occur in term neonates. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and severity of this type of hemorrhage in moderate and late preterm and early term neonates with intrauterine growth restriction. In the prospective analysis, 100 newborns were examined, i. Read More

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December 2021

Early detection of ischemic brain injuries by diffusion-weighted imaging after radiofrequency ablation for fetal reduction in monochorionic pregnancies.

J Clin Ultrasound 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Medical Imaging Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the additional advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) over fetal ultrasound in the detection of acute ischemic cerebral injuries in complicated monochorionic (MC) pregnancies that underwent selective reduction by radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 40 women with complicated MC pregnancies who were treated by RFA. Fetal brain imaging by DWI and conventional MRI was performed either in the early (within 10 days after RFA) or late phase (after 3-6 weeks) in the surviving fetuses to detect both acute and chronic ischemic injuries. Read More

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Intracranial Imaging of Preterm Infants with Suspected Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: Comparing MRI and Ultrasound.

Curr Pediatr Rev 2022 Apr 17. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville FL, USA.

Aims: We correlate ultrasound, MRI, and clinical findings in neonates with suspected hypoxic ischemic injury.

Background: Recent advances in neuroimaging have led to improved detection of subtle insults associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes, beyond more historically described lesions such as large hemorrhages and hydrocephalus.

Objective: In this study, we compare cranial ultrasound to MRI for evaluation of suspected HIE in preterm infants. Read More

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Comparison of Papile versus Laterality-Based Al-Abdi System to Predict Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Extreme Preterm Infants after Severe Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Comparative Observational Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 03 24;43(3):486-492. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

From the Neonatal Directorate (S.D., G.A.-J., M.S., D.S., S.P.).

Background And Purpose: The traditional Papile classification system for severe germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage is limited in objectivity and interrater variability for accurate prediction of neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. Many extremely preterm infants with severe germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage are still offered "redirection of care" in spite of the recent evidence suggesting that many of these infants can have normal outcomes. Therefore, it is important to consider the laterality and extent of brain hemisphere involvement while classifying severe germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage to predict neurodevelopmental impairment. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Perinatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: An Institutional Experience.

Ravikanth Reddy

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2022 Jan 11;13(1):87-94. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Radiology, St. John's Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

 Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most commonly diagnosed neurological abnormality affecting children leading to severe neurological deficits and a cause of neonatal mortality. HIE constitutes a diagnostic challenge in the prematurely born and full-term neonates. HIE causes severe neurological deficit in children and many a times goes unnoticed in early stages. Read More

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January 2022

The Leftover Shunts - Ventriculosubgaleal, and Ventriculocholecystal Shunts.

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(Supplement):S488-S494

Park Neuroscience Service, Park Clinic, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

The two shunts that are performed much less and are included here for completeness are the ventriculosubgaleal shunt and the ventriculocholecystal shunt. The ventriculosubgaleal shunt is an established treatment of hydrocephalus following germinal matrix hemorrhage in low-birth-weight neonates. It is also used in the treatment of post-infective hydrocephalus in children. Read More

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February 2022

Rate of head ultrasound abnormalities at one month in very premature and extremely premature infants with normal initial screening ultrasound.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 05 31;52(6):1150-1157. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children's Hospital, 1975 Fourth St., San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Background: Premature infants are at risk for multiple types of intracranial injury with potentially significant long-term neurological impact. The number of screening head ultrasounds needed to detect such injuries remains controversial.

Objective: To determine the rate of abnormal findings on routine follow-up head ultrasound (US) performed in infants born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) after initial normal screening US. Read More

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Normal variant residual germinal matrix in extremely premature infants: radiographic features and imaging pitfalls.

J Ultrasound 2022 Jan 29. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Medical Center, 55 Fruit Street, White 427, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: As radiology volume from premature patients increases, previously undescribed imaging findings may be identified, posing diagnostic dilemma to the pediatric radiologist.

Objective: The primary goal of our study is to characterize the previously undescribed imaging finding of subependymal echogenicity at the floor of the frontal horns, which we postulate represents normal variant embryologic remnant residual germinal matrix. Furthermore, we hope to equip the pediatric radiologist with diagnostic criteria to distinguish this normal variant from pathology. Read More

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January 2022

Pathophysiologic mechanisms and strategies for the treatment of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 03 4;38(3):511-520. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate University Hospital, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Purpose: Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) of prematurity is a devastating pathology. Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including cognitive and motor deficits are very commonly seen among this population. Thus, there is interest to delineate the pathophysiology of PHH to uncover potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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Prediction of persistent ventricular dilation by initial ventriculomegaly and clot volume in a porcine model.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Nov 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

2Center for Image-Guided Innovation and Therapeutic Intervention and.

Objective: While intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is associated with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD), not all infants affected by high-grade IVH develop PHVD. The authors aimed to determine clot-associated predictors of PHVD in a porcine model by varying the amount and rate of direct intraventricular injection of whole autologous blood.

Methods: Seven 1-week-old piglets underwent craniectomy and injection of autologous blood into the right lateral ventricle. Read More

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November 2021

Prenatal Evaluation of Intracranial Hemorrhage on Fetal MRI: A Retrospective Review.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 12 28;42(12):2222-2228. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

From the Departments of Radiology and Medical Imaging (K.N.E., B.M.K.-F., U.D.N.).

Background And Purpose: The evaluation and characterization of germinal matrix hemorrhages have been predominantly described on postnatal head sonography in premature neonates. However, germinal matrix hemorrhages that are seen in premature neonates can be also seen in fetuses of the same postconceptual age and are now more frequently encountered in the era of fetal MR imaging. Our aim was to examine and describe the MR imaging findings of fetuses with intracranial hemorrhage. Read More

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December 2021

White matter injury but not germinal matrix hemorrhage induces elevated osteopontin expression in human preterm brains.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 10 15;9(1):166. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Centre of Perinatal Medicine and Health, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, 40530, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein that mediates various physiological functions and is implicated in neuroinflammation, myelination, and perinatal brain injury. However, its expression in association with brain injury in preterm infants is unexplored. Here we examined the expression of OPN in postmortem brains of preterm infants and explored how this expression is affected in brain injury. Read More

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October 2021

Ultrasound imaging of preterm brain injury: fundamentals and updates.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Apr 14;52(4):817-836. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Neurosonography has become an essential tool for diagnosis and serial monitoring of preterm brain injury. Preterm infants are at significantly higher risk of hypoxic-ischemic injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Neonatologists have become increasingly dependent on neurosonography to initiate medical and surgical interventions because it can be used at the bedside. Read More

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Characterization of germinal matrix hemorrhage in extremely premature infants: recognition of posterior location and diagnostic pitfalls.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Jan 15;52(1):75-84. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatric Radiology, Monroe Carell, Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, 2200 Children's Way, Ste. 1415, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.

Background: Traditionally, descriptions of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), derived from observations in preterm and very preterm infants, indicate its location at the caudothalamic grooves. However, before the germinal matrix begins to recede at approximately 28 weeks' gestational age (GA), it extends along the floor of the lateral ventricles far posterior to the caudothalamic grooves. Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) can occur along any site from which the germinal matrix has not yet involuted. Read More

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January 2022

Percutaneous Transfontanellar External Ventricular Drainage in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 12 8;156:22. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Pediatric Neurosurgery, Bologna, Italy.

Intraventricular hemorrhage and the subsequent development of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is one of the most serious complication of prematurity, especially in extremely low birth weight infants. Neurodevelopmental delay, epilepsy, and severe cognitive impairment represent common sequelae of PHH. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in such premature infants is associated with higher rates of skin erosion, infection, and shunt failure. Read More

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December 2021

Neonatal stroke in premature neonates.

Semin Perinatol 2021 11 20;45(7):151471. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Neonatology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 85090, Utrecht 3508 AB, the Netherlands; Department of Neonatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

There are many neuro-imaging studies on the presence of brain lesions in the preterm infant, using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and/or term equivalent age MRI (TEA-MRI). These studies however tend to focus on germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) and white matter injury. Data about perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in the preterm infant are very limited. Read More

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November 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of foetal intracranial haemorrhage and the correlation with ultrasound findings and postnatal outcomes.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2022 04 30;305(4):877-884. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in the middle- and late trimesters and to explore the relationship between the MRI features of foetal ICH and postnatal outcomes.

Methods: This was a retrospective study which recruited foetal ICH diagnosed by MRI in one tertiary centre from 2015 to 2019. The prenatal and postnatal medical records were reviewed. Read More

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Structural and functional brain connectivity in moderate-late preterm infants with low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage.

Neuroradiology 2022 Jan 3;64(1):197-204. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Purpose: Brain functional connectivity (FC) changes and microstructural abnormalities are reported in infants born moderate and late preterm (MLPT). We evaluated the effect of low-grade (grades I, II) intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in MLPT babies on brain structural connectivity (SC) and FC.

Methods: Babies born MLPT between January 2014 and May 2017 underwent brain ultrasound (US) at 72 h and 7 days after birth, and MRI at around term equivalent. Read More

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January 2022

Longitudinal CSF Iron Pathway Proteins in Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus: Associations with Ventricle Size and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

Ann Neurol 2021 08 25;90(2):217-226. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Objective: Iron has been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain injury and hydrocephalus after preterm germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage, however, it is unknown how external or endogenous intraventricular clearance of iron pathway proteins affect the outcome in this group.

Methods: This prospective multicenter cohort included patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) who underwent (1) temporary and permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion and (2) Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III testing around 2 years of age. CSF proteins in the iron handling pathway were analyzed longitudinally and compared to ventricle size and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Read More

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Intraventricular haemorrhage and posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation: moving beyond CSF diversion.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 11 15;37(11):3375-3383. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

Advances in medical care have led to more premature babies surviving the neonatal period. In these babies, germinal matrix haemorrhage (GMH), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) are the most important determinants of long-term cognitive and developmental outcomes. In this review, we discuss current neurosurgical management of IVH and PHVD, including the importance of early diagnosis of PHVD, thresholds for intervention, options for early management through the use of temporising measures and subsequent definitive CSF diversion. Read More

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November 2021

Consensus Approach for Standardizing the Screening and Classification of Preterm Brain Injury Diagnosed With Cranial Ultrasound: A Canadian Perspective.

Front Pediatr 2021 8;9:618236. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Acquired brain injury remains common in very preterm infants and is associated with significant risks for short- and long-term morbidities. Cranial ultrasound has been widely adopted as the first-line neuroimaging modality to study the neonatal brain. It can reliably detect clinically significant abnormalities that include germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, cerebellar hemorrhage, and white matter injury. Read More

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Reduced hippocampal subfield volumes and memory performance in preterm children with and without germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage.

Sci Rep 2021 01 28;11(1):2420. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology and Neurosurgery Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Preterm newborns with germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) are at a higher risk of evidencing neurodevelopmental alterations. Present study aimed to explore the long-term effects that GM-IVH have on hippocampal subfields, and their correlates with memory. The sample consisted of 58 participants, including 36 preterm-born (16 with GM-IVH and 20 without neonatal brain injury), and 22 full-term children aged between 6 and 15 years old. Read More

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January 2021

Revisiting germinal matrix and ventricular lining cells in cerebrospinal fluid: Potential mimickers of intracranial malignancy.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Mar 26;49(3):449-451. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

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An Important Finding of White Matter Injury in Late Preterm Infant: Deep Medullary Vein Involvement.

Front Pediatr 2020 17;8:597567. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

To investigate high risk factors and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in late preterm infants with severe white matter injury (WMI) associated with abnormal deep medullary veins (DMVs). Preterm infants with severe WMI, who were hospitalized in Shengjing Hospital from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2018, were enrolled in this retrospective study. High risk factors and MRI characteristics of infants with abnormal DMVs were analyzed and compared with those of infants without DMV abnormalities. Read More

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December 2020

Endoscopic Transfontanellar Approach of a Cyst Anterior to the Brainstem Crossing the Foramen Magnum-Part I: Failure of Unique Fenestration: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 02 22;146:362. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Neurosurgery Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes (CHUGA), Grenoble, France; Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Laboratoire d'Anatomie des Alpes Françaises (LADAF), Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Premature infants with severe germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are at high risk of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus (Video 1). We report the case of a 3-month-old premature infant referred for posthemorrhagic multilocated hydrocephalus. He presented with somnolence, hypotonia, and a bulging fontanelle. Read More

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February 2021

Endoscopic Transfontanellar Approach of a Cyst Anterior to the Brainstem Crossing the Foramen Magnum-Part II: Success of Multiple Fenestrations: Two-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 02 24;146:363. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Neurosurgery Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Premature infants with severe germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage are at high risk of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus (Video 1). We report a 4-month-old premature infant with grade III intraventricular hemorrhage and compartmentalized hydrocephalus with an unusual craniospinal cyst. The cyst extended anteriorly from the mesencephalon to the posterior wall of C6, causing severe compression of the brainstem and spinal cord. Read More

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February 2021

Bilateral subependymal pseudocysts as a pitfall in diagnosis of absence of the cavum septum pellucidum.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Jun 13;49(5):502-505. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Absent cavum septum pellucidum in the fetus is a common condition that may be associated with a variety of associated abnormalities. Herein, we present a case to emphasize a new pitfall in the differential diagnosis of the absence of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP). Prenatal ultrasound views were concerning for partially absent CSP in the third trimester and subependymal pseudocysts (SEC) after a normal CSP visualization in the second trimester. Read More

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Reversal of blood flow in deep cerebral vein in preterm intraventricular hemorrhage: two case reports.

BMC Pediatr 2020 11 11;20(1):517. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Life Science, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, 860-8556, Kumamoto, Japan.

Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage during the early stage is a major complication in very low birth weight infants. Elevation of venous pressure is one of the contributing factors. The internal cerebral vein receives most of the venous flow from the subependymal germinal matrix, the most common site of origin of intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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November 2020

MRI Findings at Term-Corrected Age and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in a Large Cohort of Very Preterm Infants.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 08;41(8):1509-1516

From the Centre for the Developing Brain (S.A., N.T., A.C., S.F., J.V.H., S.J.C., M.A.R., A.D.E.), School of Biomedical engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London and Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: Brain MR imaging at term-equivalent age is a useful tool to define brain injury in preterm infants. We report pragmatic clinical radiological assessment of images from a large unselected cohort of preterm infants imaged at term and document the spectrum and frequency of acquired brain lesions and their relation to outcomes at 20 months.

Materials And Methods: Infants born at <33 weeks' gestation were recruited from South and North West London neonatal units and imaged in a single center at 3T at term-equivalent age. Read More

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Regional impairment of cortical and deep gray matter perfusion in preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage: an ASL study.

Neuroradiology 2020 Dec 10;62(12):1689-1699. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Neuroradiology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose: The long-term impact of low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) on brain perfusion has not been fully investigated. We aimed to compare cortical and deep gray matter (GM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) obtained with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL), among preterm neonates with and without low-grade GMH-IVH and full-term controls.

Methods: 3T-pCASL examinations of 9 healthy full-term neonates (mean gestational age 38. Read More

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December 2020