159 results match your criteria Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage Imaging


Utility of Various Ultrafast Magnetic Resonance Sequences in the Detection of Fetal Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):275-279

Department of Sonography, Mediscan Systems, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the images obtained from standard ultrafast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences with gradient (GRE) sequence images in identifying fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Materials And Methods: MR images of fetal brains with ICH done between October 2012 and September 2015 were reviewed. The images obtained from four ultrafast MR sequences- Turbo Fast Low Angle Shot (Turbo FLASH) T1-weighted images, Half Fourier Acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) T2-weighted images, b0 images of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and b800 images of DWI were compared with images obtained from GRE sequence in depicting fetal ICH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_431_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238567PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Quantitative susceptibility map analysis in preterm neonates with germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Nov 10;48(5):1199-1207. Epub 2018 May 10.

Neuroradiology Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage occurring in preterm neonates that may affect normal brain development. Although the primary lesion is easily identified on MRI by the presence of blood products, its exact extent may not be recognizable with conventional sequences. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantify the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues, including blood degradation products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26163DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

Intracranial hemorrhage in neonates: A review of etiologies, patterns and predicted clinical outcomes.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Jul 24;22(4):690-717. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Great Ormond St, London WC1N 3JH, UK. Electronic address:

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in neonates often results in devastating neurodevelopmental outcomes as the neonatal period is a critical window for brain development. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with ICH are determined by the maturity of the brain, the location and extent of the hemorrhage, the specific underlying etiology and the presence of other concomitant disorders. Neonatal ICH may result from various inherited and acquired disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2018.04.008DOI Listing
July 2018
17 Reads

Predictive Value of Cranial Ultrasound for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Brain Injury.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Apr;131(8):920-926

Department of Ultrasound, Hunan Children's Hospital, University of South China, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China.

Background: Compared with full-term infants, very preterm infants are more vulnerable to injury and long-term disability and are at high risk of death. The predictive value of ultrasound and imaging on the neurodevelopment is one of the hot topics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cranial ultrasound (cUS) variables and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.229895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912057PMC
April 2018
14 Reads

Intracranial hemorrhage in term neonates.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Jun 10;34(6):1135-1143. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, 170 Jomaru-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, 420-767, Republic of Korea.

Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in term neonates; currently, ICH is more frequently diagnosed because of improved neuroimaging techniques.

Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging data (pattern, size, distribution) of neonatal ICH.

Methods: We reviewed MRI data from July 2004 to June 2015 for 42 term neonates with ICH who were less than 1 month old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-018-3788-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978839PMC
June 2018
9 Reads

Neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in a patient with 9p deletion syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Aug 27;61(8):473-477. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Clinical Genetics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3D Craniofacial Image Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We report the clinical and neuroradiological findings in a young boy harboring the 9p deletion syndrome including the novel findings of thalamic infarction and germinal matrix haemorrhage and neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both the hypoglycemic events and the ventriculomegaly found in this patient have previously only been reported in two patients, while the thalamic infarction and germinal matrix haemorrhage are novel features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.03.009DOI Listing
August 2018
10 Reads

Evaluation of symmetrical increased echogenicity of bilateral caudothalamic grooves detected on cranial ultrasonography by comparing with susceptibility-weighted imaging.

Radiol Med 2018 Jun 1;123(6):434-440. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objective: To assess symmetrical increased echogenicity of bilateral caudothalamic grooves (SIEBCG) detected on newborn cranial ultrasonography (CUS) using magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).

Materials And Methods: A total of 14 newborns (8 girls; 12 premature with mean gestational age of 30 weeks and 5 days, 2 mature) who were detected to have SIEBCG on routine serial CUS and underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were recruited for the study. The cranial MRI examinations including SWI acquired on the same day of SIEBCG detection and serial CUS to assess the progress of SIEBCG lesions in the following 6 month period were retrospectively evaluated and compared for the presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-018-0861-zDOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Altered white matter development in children born very preterm.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Jun 29;223(5):2129-2141. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Children born very preterm (VPT) at less than 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) are prone to disrupted white matter maturation and impaired cognitive development. The aims of the present study were to identify differences in white matter microstructure and connectivity of children born VPT compared to term-born children, as well as relations between white matter measures with cognitive outcomes and early brain injury. Diffusion images and T1-weighted anatomical MR images were acquired along with developmental assessments in 31 VPT children (mean GA: 28. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-018-1614-4DOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads

The effects of mild germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage on the developmental white matter microstructure of preterm neonates: a DTI study.

Eur Radiol 2018 Mar 27;28(3):1157-1166. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Neuroradiology Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Via Gerolamo Gaslini, 5, 16147, Genoa, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate white matter (WM) microstructural changes in preterm neonates (PN) with mild germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (mGMH-IVH) (grades I and II) and no other associated MRI abnormalities, and correlate them with gestational age (GA) and neurodevelopmental outcome.

Methods: Tract-based spatial-statistics (TBSS) was performed on DTI of 103 patients studied at term-equivalent age, to compare diffusional parameters (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD)) between mGMH-IVH neonates (24/103) and controls matched by GA at birth and sex. The relationship between DTI abnormalities, GA and neurodevelopmental outcome assessed with Griffiths' Developmental Scale-Revised:0-2 was explored using TBSS and Spearman-correlation analysis (p < . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5060-0DOI Listing
March 2018
20 Reads

Clinical neuroimaging in the preterm infant: Diagnosis and prognosis.

Neuroimage Clin 2017 14;16:355-368. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

USC Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, 2025 Zonal Avenue, SHN, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2017.08.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568883PMC
May 2018
8 Reads

Neurosonography: Assessing the Premature Infant.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 Aug 4;47(9):1031-1045. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, 848 Adams Ave, Radiology G216, Memphis, TN, 38103, USA.

Neurosonography has proven to be helpful in neonatal brain diagnosis. Premature infants are at great risk for intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, key abnormalities affecting developmental outcome. Here we discuss technique, anatomy, variants and key points for diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-017-3884-zDOI Listing
August 2017
3 Reads

Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 07 20;7:CD012362. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Paediatrics, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012362.pub2DOI Listing
July 2017
8 Reads

The Impact of Low-Grade Germinal Matrix-Intraventricular Hemorrhage on Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Very Preterm Infants.

Neonatology 2017 14;112(3):203-210. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital and Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Very preterm infants often show germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) on cranial ultrasound (cUS).

Aim: To determine the impact of low-grade GMH-IVH on early neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm infants.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study in very preterm infants with and without low-grade GMH-IVH on cUS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000472246DOI Listing
June 2018
76 Reads

Fetal intracranial hemorrhage: role of fetal MRI.

Prenat Diagn 2017 Aug 19;37(8):827-836. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: To date, prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly based on ultrasound (US) findings rather than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to investigate the role of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal ICH among pregnancies referred to fetal MRI and to characterize the topography of fetal ICH using MRI.

Methods: We retrospectively identified fetal ICH cases diagnosed by MRI from 2008 to 2015 and reviewed their prenatal and postnatal medical records. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5096DOI Listing
August 2017
27 Reads

Differences in subependymal vein anatomy may predispose preterm infants to GMH-IVH.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Jan 6;103(1):F59-F65. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Background And Purpose: The anatomy of the deep venous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in the preterm brain as shown by different histological studies. The aims of this study were to compare the subependymal vein anatomy of preterm neonates with germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), as evaluated by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography, with a group of age-matched controls with normal brain MRI, and to explore the relationship between the anatomical features of subependymal veins and clinical risk factors for GMH-IVH.

Methods: SWI venographies of 48 neonates with GMH-IVH and 130 neonates with normal brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2017-312710DOI Listing
January 2018
12 Reads

Early appearance of tuberous sclerosis complex on cerebral ultrasound in extremely preterm infant.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2017 ;10(2):203-206

Department of Paediatrics, Section Neonatology, Amalia Children Hospital, Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder. Diagnosis of early onset TSC in newborn infants is usually made by cardiac ultrasound because of circulatory problems due to cardiac rhabdomyoma. Early appearance of cortical tubers on cerebral ultrasound in newborn infants is very rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NPM-171652DOI Listing
May 2018
15 Reads

Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants predict the development of cerebral palsy.

Dan Med J 2017 Feb;64(2)

Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate any association between gestational age, birth weight and findings on cranial ultrasounds during hospitalisation in very preterm infants and mortality and neurological outcome in childhood.

Method: This study was a retrospective cohort study based on a patient record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. Read More

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February 2017
23 Reads

A selective CB2R agonist (JWH133) restores neuronal circuit after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage in the preterm via CX3CR1 microglia.

Neuropharmacology 2017 06 30;119:157-169. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Microglia play dual roles after germinal matrix hemorrhage, and the neurotrophic phenotype maybe neuroprotective. However, the phenotype transformation and the way by which neuron-microglia dialogue remain unclear. We raise the hypothesis that a cannabinoid receptor2 agonist (JWH133) accelerates the CX3CR1 microglia secreting neurotrophic factors and restores damaged neuronal circuit. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283908173002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.01.027DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Three-dimensional ultrasound of the neonatal brain: technical approach and spectrum of disease.

Pediatr Radiol 2017 May 5;47(5):613-627. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 111 East 210th St., Bronx, NY, 10467, USA.

Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-016-3753-1DOI Listing
May 2017
10 Reads

Severe intraventricular hemorrhage and withdrawal of support in preterm infants.

J Perinatol 2017 04 15;37(4):441-447. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether withdrawal of support in severe 'intraventricular hemorrhage' (IVH), that is, IVH grade 3 and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), has decreased after publication of studies that show improved prognosis and to examine cranial ultrasonograms, including PVHI territories defined by Bassan.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort of preterm infants from 23 0/7 to 28 6/7 weeks' gestation in 1993 to 2013.

Results: Among the 1755 infants, 1494 had no bleed, germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) or IVH grade 2, 137 had grade 3 IVH and 124 had PVHI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jp.2016.233DOI Listing

Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2016 Jul-Sep;26(3):316-327

Department of Paediatrics, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury results in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and serious long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an ideal and safe imaging modality for suspected hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pattern of injury depends on brain maturity at the time of insult, severity of hypotension, and duration of insult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-3026.190421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5036328PMC
November 2016
3 Reads

Superficial Siderosis after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2016 Dec 15;37(12):2389-2391. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

From the Departments of Neuroradiology (U.Y., H.K., M.T., A.S., W.R., R.M.-B.).

Background And Purpose: Germinal matrix hemorrhage is a frequent complication of prematurity and can be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, depending on its severity. In addition to parenchymal damage, intraventricular residues of hemorrhage and hydrocephalus MR imaging findings include superficial siderosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and location of superficial siderosis in patients with a history of germinal matrix hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A4935DOI Listing
December 2016
2 Reads

Aligning Animal Models of Clinical Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage, From Basic Correlation to Therapeutic Approach.

Curr Drug Targets 2017 ;18(12):1316-1328

Department of Basic Science, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Germinal matrix hemorrhage is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity from prematurity. This brain region is vulnerable to bleeding and re-bleeding within the first 72 hours of preterm life. Cerebroventricular expansion of blood products contributes to the mechanisms of brain injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450117666160615100538DOI Listing
June 2018
16 Reads

Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage.

Sci Rep 2016 05 16;6:25903. Epub 2016 May 16.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant's bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867629PMC
May 2016
27 Reads

Superficial Echogenic Lesions Detected on Neonatal Cranial Sonography: Possible Indicators of Severe Birth Injury.

J Ultrasound Med 2016 Mar 2;35(3):477-84. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Departments of Radiology (B.H.H., M.J.S., K.S.L., Y.-H.K.) and Pediatrics (S.Y.K., G.J.), Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Seoul, Korea; Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea (S.B.P.); and Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Sinchon-dong, Seoul, Korea (S.-K.L.).

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and importance of superficial echogenic lesions around cranial sutures on neonatal cranial sonography.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and neuroimaging studies of 40 neonates who had superficial echogenic lesions around sutures on neonatal cranial sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (n = 18) and computed tomography (n = 2) were performed within 2 weeks after sonography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/ultra.15.04012DOI Listing
March 2016
24 Reads

Longitudinal cerebellar growth following very preterm birth.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2016 06 23;43(6):1462-73. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: To measure cerebellar growth in a longitudinal cohort of very preterm infants to identify early predictors of subsequent brain growth. Although the cerebellum grows rapidly during late gestation, the rate and variability of growth following premature birth, and the effects of associated injury, are largely unknown.

Materials And Methods: In all, 105 very-preterm born infants (24-32 weeks GA) were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth, term-equivalent, 2, and 4 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.25098DOI Listing
June 2016
5 Reads

Effects of Posthemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation in the Preterm Infant on Brain Volumes and White Matter Diffusion Variables at Term-Equivalent Age.

J Pediatr 2016 Jan 31;168:41-9.e1. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the differential impact of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) and posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) on brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and diffusion variables in preterm born infants at term-equivalent age (TEA).

Study Design: Nineteen infants (gestational age <31 weeks) with GMH-IVH grade II-III according to Papile et al and subsequent PHVD requiring intervention were matched against 19 controls with GMH-IVH grade II but no PHVD and 19 controls without GMH-IVH. Outcome variables on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion weighted imaging at TEA were volumes of white matter, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, brainstem, cerebellum, ventricles, extracerebral CSF, total brain tissue, and intracranial volume (ICV), as well as white matter and cerebellar apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.083DOI Listing
January 2016
31 Reads

Prenatal MR imaging features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions.

Eur Radiol 2016 Aug 16;26(8):2685-96. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Radiology and Neuroradiology Department, V. Buzzi Children's Hospital, Via Castelvetro 32, 20154, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Prenatal features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions have not been sufficiently characterised. We aimed to better define their MR imaging characteristics, documenting the location, extension, evolution stage and anatomic sequelae, and to better understand cerebellar haemorrhage pathophysiology.

Materials And Methods: We screened our foetal MR imaging database (3200 cases) for reports of haemorrhagic lesions affecting only the cerebellum (without any supratentorial bleeding or other clastic lesions), defined as one of the following: T2-weighted hypointense or mixed hypo-/hyperintense signal; rim of T2-weighted hypointense signal covering the surface of volume-reduced parenchyma; T1-weighted hyperintense signal; increased DWI signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-4053-0DOI Listing
August 2016
7 Reads

Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Term Neonates: Sources, Severity and Outcome.

Iran J Child Neurol 2015 ;9(3):34-9

Pediatrician, Ali-Asghar Children's Hospital, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs in preterm infants; however, the occurrence of this event is less frequent in term neonates. The present study evaluated clinical characteristics, pathophysiological features, and early outcome of term neonates with IVH in a referral neonatal center in Iran.

Materials & Methods: This study was performed on 30 full-term neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Ali-Asghar Hospital, Tehran, Iran between March 2005 and April 2011. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4577696PMC
September 2015
1 Read

Early Detection of Preterm Intraventricular Hemorrhage From Clinical Electroencephalography.

Crit Care Med 2015 Oct;43(10):2219-27

1Systems Neuroscience Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. 2School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, QLD, Australia. 3Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 4Department of Pediatrics, Karlstad Central Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden. 5Department of Pediatrics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. 6Metro North Mental Health Service, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. 7Department of Children's Clinical Neurophysiology, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 8Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: Intraventricular hemorrhage is a common neurologic complication of extremely preterm birth and leads to lifelong neurodevelopmental disabilities. Early bedside detection of intraventricular hemorrhage is crucial to enabling timely interventions. We sought to detect early markers of brain activity that preempt the occurrence of intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely preterm infants during the first postnatal days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000001190DOI Listing
October 2015
13 Reads

Cinegraphic versus Combined Static and Cinegraphic Imaging for Initial Cranial Ultrasound Screening in Premature Infants.

Pediatr Radiol 2015 Oct 26;45(11):1706-11. Epub 2015 May 26.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Florida Hospital, 601 E. Rollins St., Orlando, FL, 32803, USA.

Background: Cranial ultrasound is an essential screening and diagnostic tool in the care of neonates and is especially useful in the premature population for evaluation of potential germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage (GM/IVH). There are typically two screening examinations, with the initial cranial sonography performed between 3 days and 14 days after birth, usually consisting of a series of static images plus several cinegraphic sweeps.

Objective: Our primary goal was to assess whether cinegraphic sweeps alone are as accurate for diagnosing neurological abnormalities as combined static and cinegraphic imaging in the initial cranial US evaluation of premature infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-015-3382-0DOI Listing
October 2015
4 Reads

Urinary Allantoin Is Elevated in Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Preterm Newborn.

Transl Stroke Res 2016 Apr 22;7(2):97-102. Epub 2015 May 22.

Department of Earth and Biological Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, 92350, USA.

Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most common type of intracranial hemorrhage observed in preterm neonates. It is a precursor of poor neurocognitive development, cerebral palsy, and death. The pathophysiology is not well defined, but damage to the fragile germinal matrix vasculature may be due to free radicals generated during inflammation and as a consequence of ischemia followed by reperfusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-015-0405-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4655193PMC
April 2016
2 Reads

Minocycline Attenuates Neonatal Germinal-Matrix-Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema by Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2.

Mol Neurobiol 2016 Apr 2;53(3):1935-1948. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, No.30, Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns leading to detrimental neurological sequelae. Minocycline has been reported to play a key role in neurological inflammatory diseases by controlling some mechanisms that involve cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). The current study investigated whether minocycline reduces neuroinflammation and protects the brain from injury in a rat model of collagenase-induced GMH by regulating CB2R activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-015-9154-xDOI Listing
April 2016
15 Reads

Neonatal neurosonography: A pictorial essay.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2014 Oct;24(4):389-400

Departments of Radiology and Imaging Services, Narayana Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Neurosonography is a simple, established non-invasive technique for the intracranial assessment of preterm neonate. Apart from established indication in the evaluation of periventricular haemorrhage, it provides clue to wide range of pathology. This presentation provides a quick roadmap to the technique, imaging anatomy and spectrum of pathological imaging appearances encountered in neonates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-3026.143901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4247508PMC
October 2014
116 Reads

Early and late complications of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm infant: what is new?

Neonatology 2014 20;106(4):296-303. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a serious problem in the very and extremely preterm infant. This article reviews current methods of diagnosis, treatment and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with low-grade and severe GMH-IVH. We conclude that there is still no consensus on timing of intervention and treatment of infants with GMH-IVH, whether or not complicated by post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000365127DOI Listing
October 2015
6 Reads

Multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages after ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery in infants.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2014 Oct 25;14(4):329-35. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery and.

Object: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus. In certain situations, uncommon complications can occur after shunting procedures. The authors undertook this study to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients who developed multifocal intraparenchymal hemorrhages (MIPHs) as a complication of shunt surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2014.6.PEDS13635DOI Listing
October 2014
24 Reads

Time efficiency and diagnostic agreement of 2-D versus 3-D ultrasound acquisition of the neonatal brain.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2014 Aug 3;40(8):1804-9. Epub 2014 May 3.

Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Children's Hospital of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The purpose of this study was to compare acquisition time efficiency and diagnostic agreement of neonatal brain ultrasound (US) scans obtained with a 3-D volume US acquisition protocol and the conventional 2-D acquisition protocol. Ninety-one consecutive premature neonatal brain ultrasound scans were prospectively performed on 59 neonates with the conventional 2-D acquisition protocol. Immediately after the 2-D study, a coronal 3-D ultrasound volume was acquired and later reconstructed into axial and sagittal planes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03015629140016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.03.013DOI Listing
August 2014
2 Reads

Neurologic and metabolic issues in moderately preterm, late preterm, and early term infants.

Authors:
Abbot R Laptook

Clin Perinatol 2013 Dec 20;40(4):723-38. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02905, USA. Electronic address:

Common neurologic morbidities encountered in very preterm and extremely preterm infants (intracranial hemorrhage, white matter injury and periventricular leukomalacia, and apnea of prematurity) are much less common in moderately preterm and late preterm infants. The frequency of germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter injury are reported to be low, but selection bias in neuroimaging surveillance prevents ascertainment of precise frequencies. The major neurologic morbidity of moderately and late preterm infants is feeding difficulty reflecting developmental integration of suck, swallow, and breathing. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00955108130007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2013.07.005DOI Listing
December 2013
2 Reads

From germinal matrix to cerebellar haemorrhage.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015 Nov 23;28 Suppl 1:2280-5. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

b Neonatal Intensive Care Unit , Istituto Giannina Gaslini , Genova , Italy.

For many years cerebellar development after preterm birth has been poorly investigated and has been studied without taking germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage into account. Advanced neuroimaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the use of various acoustic windows (mastoid fontanelle, occipital foramen) have allowed for in vivo diagnosis of acquired focal haemorrhagic lesions in the cerebellum of very preterm babies. The vulnerability of the cerebellum also seems to be related to specific gestational ages, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2013.796168DOI Listing
November 2015
3 Reads

Low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage: is ultrasound good enough?

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015 Nov 23;28 Suppl 1:2261-4. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and.

Objective: To assess diagnostic accuracy of cranial ultrasonography (CUS) in detecting low-grade (i.e. grade I and grade II) germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2013.796162DOI Listing
November 2015
5 Reads

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt as a primary neurosurgical procedure in newborn posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus: report of a series of 47 shunted patients.

Childs Nerv Syst 2014 Jan 24;30(1):91-7. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, HRU Carlos Haya, Málaga, Spain,

Purpose: Intraventricular hemorrhage is the most common cause of infantile acquired hydrocephalus. Our objective is to determine if the implantation of ventriculoperitoneal shunt in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus as a primary and definitive neurosurgical treatment, with no previous temporary procedures, would decrease complication rates with good functional outcomes.

Methods: Two hundred seventy-one patients with germinal matrix hemorrhage were diagnosed at the Carlos Haya Hospital between 2003 and 2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-013-2177-6DOI Listing
January 2014
2 Reads

The premature brain: developmental and lesional anatomy.

Neuroradiology 2013 Sep 7;55 Suppl 2:23-40. Epub 2013 Jul 7.

Division of Neuroradiology, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Neurodevelopmental outcome in prematures who suffer from a neonatal brain injury depends on the lesion itself, and on how the lesion interferes with the still developing functional anatomy.

Methods: Most of the neuronal migration is completed by midgestation. The second part of the gestation corresponds to the development of the connectivity and sulcation, of the maturation of the oligodendrocytic lineage and of the microglia, and of the vascular bed in the parenchyma beyond the germinal matrix. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-013-1231-0DOI Listing
September 2013
25 Reads

Evolution of fetal subependymal cysts throughout gestation.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2013 19;34(2):127-30. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit, Valencian University Institute of Infertility, Valencia, Spain.

Subependymal cysts are secondary to brain germinal matrix hemorrhage or infarction and are associated with fetal chromosomal and metabolic conditions, as well as infections. They are found in 1-3% of neonates in the first days of life and have been described in fetuses, although much less frequently. We report the prenatal diagnosis of a case of subependymal cysts first visualized at 12 weeks' gestation and its evolution throughout pregnancy and after birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000346571DOI Listing
April 2014
19 Reads

Delayed germinal matrix hemorrhage induced by ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for congenital hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2013 Jul 3;12(1):67-70. Epub 2013 May 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Okayama, Japan.

Germinal matrix hemorrhages (GMHs) are typically seen in preterm neonates during the first 4 days of life. The authors encountered 2 children with late-onset GMH subsequent to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion for congenital hydrocephalus. Both children were delivered at full term with normal body weight, although they were compromised with the preceding hypoxic events prior to shunt insertion. Read More

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https://thejns.org/view/journals/j-neurosurg-pediatr/12/1/ar
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2013.4.PEDS12599DOI Listing
July 2013
9 Reads

Autism spectrum disorder is associated with ventricular enlargement in a low birth weight population.

J Pediatr 2013 Jul 11;163(1):73-8. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Midland County Department of Public Health, Midland, MI 48640, USA.

Objective: To determine the relation of neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in low birth weight (LBW) adult survivors, a population at increased ASD risk.

Study Design: This is a secondary analysis of a prospectively-followed regional birth cohort of 1105 LBW infants systematically screened for perinatal brain injury with cranial ultrasound in the first week of life and later assessed for ASD using a two-stage process [screening at age 16 years (n = 623) followed by diagnostic assessment at age 21 years of a systematically selected subgroup of those screened (n = 189)]; 14 cases of ASD were identified. For this analysis, cranial ultrasound abnormalities were defined as ventricular enlargement (indicative of diffuse white matter injury), parenchymal lesions (indicative of focal white matter injury), and isolated germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223476120157
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.12.084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122247PMC
July 2013
22 Reads

Microglia activation in the extremely preterm human brain.

Pediatr Res 2013 Mar 7;73(3):301-9. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Centre for the Developing Brain, Department of Perinatal Imaging and Health, Division of Imaging & Biomedical Engineering, The Rayne Institute, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.

Background: The periventricular white matter (PVWM) of the immature preterm brain is selectively vulnerable to a spectrum of injury. Although essential for normal brain development, the presence of resident microglia may exacerbate PVWM injury.

Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to investigate microglia profile in human preterm noninjured control brains and in brains with evidence of germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH/IVH), with median gestational age (GA) of 24. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/pr.2012.186DOI Listing
March 2013
1 Read

Accuracy of head ultrasound for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage in preterm neonates: comparison with brain MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging.

J Neuroradiol 2013 May 24;40(2):81-8. Epub 2012 May 24.

Divisions of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287-0842, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of head ultrasound (HUS) in the detection of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates compared with brain MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).

Material And Methods: Ultrasound (US) and MRI scans of the brain using SWI in premature neonates were retrospectively evaluated for grade I-III germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), periventricular hemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), intra-axial hemorrhage other than PVHI, extra-axial hemorrhage in each cerebral hemisphere and cerebellar hemorrhage in each cerebellar hemisphere. The impact of these hemorrhagic findings on short-term clinical management was also reviewed. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S015098611200166
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2012.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428334PMC
May 2013
6 Reads

Deep gray matter maturation in very preterm neonates: regional variations and pathology-related age-dependent changes in magnetization transfer ratio.

Radiology 2012 May 13;263(2):510-7. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Neonatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between gestational age, pathologic findings, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measures of tissue maturation-myelination in deep gray matter areas in very preterm neonates imaged at birth.

Materials And Methods: The study was approved by the research ethics board. Written informed consent was given by the infants' parents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.12110367DOI Listing
May 2012
16 Reads

Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome.

Pediatr Radiol 2012 Jan 6;42 Suppl 1:S33-61. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g. Read More

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http://www.springerlink.com/index/077G610642386656.pdf
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http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s00247-011-2239
Web Search
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00247-011-2239-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-011-2239-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4517479PMC
January 2012
8 Reads

Endoscopic treatment of cavum vergae cyst: case report and review.

Turk J Pediatr 2011 Sep-Oct;53(5):590-4

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul University Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

A 3.5-year-old boy was admitted with febrile convulsion for the first time. The patient had a medical history of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and premature delivery in the 21st week of pregnancy. Read More

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February 2012
1 Read