182 results match your criteria Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage Imaging


Consensus Approach for Standardizing the Screening and Classification of Preterm Brain Injury Diagnosed With Cranial Ultrasound: A Canadian Perspective.

Front Pediatr 2021 8;9:618236. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Acquired brain injury remains common in very preterm infants and is associated with significant risks for short- and long-term morbidities. Cranial ultrasound has been widely adopted as the first-line neuroimaging modality to study the neonatal brain. It can reliably detect clinically significant abnormalities that include germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, cerebellar hemorrhage, and white matter injury. Read More

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Reduced hippocampal subfield volumes and memory performance in preterm children with and without germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2420. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology and Neurosurgery Research Unit, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Preterm newborns with germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) are at a higher risk of evidencing neurodevelopmental alterations. Present study aimed to explore the long-term effects that GM-IVH have on hippocampal subfields, and their correlates with memory. The sample consisted of 58 participants, including 36 preterm-born (16 with GM-IVH and 20 without neonatal brain injury), and 22 full-term children aged between 6 and 15 years old. Read More

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January 2021

An Important Finding of White Matter Injury in Late Preterm Infant: Deep Medullary Vein Involvement.

Front Pediatr 2020 17;8:597567. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

To investigate high risk factors and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in late preterm infants with severe white matter injury (WMI) associated with abnormal deep medullary veins (DMVs). Preterm infants with severe WMI, who were hospitalized in Shengjing Hospital from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2018, were enrolled in this retrospective study. High risk factors and MRI characteristics of infants with abnormal DMVs were analyzed and compared with those of infants without DMV abnormalities. Read More

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December 2020

Endoscopic Transfontanellar Approach of a Cyst Anterior to the Brainstem Crossing the Foramen Magnum-Part I: Failure of Unique Fenestration: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 02 22;146:362. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Neurosurgery Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes (CHUGA), Grenoble, France; Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Laboratoire d'Anatomie des Alpes Françaises (LADAF), Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Premature infants with severe germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are at high risk of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus (Video 1). We report the case of a 3-month-old premature infant referred for posthemorrhagic multilocated hydrocephalus. He presented with somnolence, hypotonia, and a bulging fontanelle. Read More

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February 2021

Endoscopic Transfontanellar Approach of a Cyst Anterior to the Brainstem Crossing the Foramen Magnum-Part II: Success of Multiple Fenestrations: Two-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 02 24;146:363. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Neurosurgery Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Université de Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Premature infants with severe germinal matrix/intraventricular hemorrhage are at high risk of posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation and hydrocephalus (Video 1). We report a 4-month-old premature infant with grade III intraventricular hemorrhage and compartmentalized hydrocephalus with an unusual craniospinal cyst. The cyst extended anteriorly from the mesencephalon to the posterior wall of C6, causing severe compression of the brainstem and spinal cord. Read More

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February 2021

Bilateral subependymal pseudocysts as a pitfall in diagnosis of absence of the cavum septum pellucidum.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Jun 13;49(5):502-505. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Absent cavum septum pellucidum in the fetus is a common condition that may be associated with a variety of associated abnormalities. Herein, we present a case to emphasize a new pitfall in the differential diagnosis of the absence of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP). Prenatal ultrasound views were concerning for partially absent CSP in the third trimester and subependymal pseudocysts (SEC) after a normal CSP visualization in the second trimester. Read More

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Reversal of blood flow in deep cerebral vein in preterm intraventricular hemorrhage: two case reports.

BMC Pediatr 2020 11 11;20(1):517. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Life Science, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, 860-8556, Kumamoto, Japan.

Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage during the early stage is a major complication in very low birth weight infants. Elevation of venous pressure is one of the contributing factors. The internal cerebral vein receives most of the venous flow from the subependymal germinal matrix, the most common site of origin of intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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November 2020

MRI Findings at Term-Corrected Age and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in a Large Cohort of Very Preterm Infants.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 08;41(8):1509-1516

From the Centre for the Developing Brain (S.A., N.T., A.C., S.F., J.V.H., S.J.C., M.A.R., A.D.E.), School of Biomedical engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London and Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: Brain MR imaging at term-equivalent age is a useful tool to define brain injury in preterm infants. We report pragmatic clinical radiological assessment of images from a large unselected cohort of preterm infants imaged at term and document the spectrum and frequency of acquired brain lesions and their relation to outcomes at 20 months.

Materials And Methods: Infants born at <33 weeks' gestation were recruited from South and North West London neonatal units and imaged in a single center at 3T at term-equivalent age. Read More

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Routine imaging of the preterm neonatal brain.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Jun 10;25(4):249-262. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

Routine brain imaging to detect injuries affecting preterm infants is used to predict long-term outcomes and identify complications that might necessitate an intervention. Although magnetic resonance imaging may be indicated in some specific cases, head ultrasound is the most widely used technique and, because of portability and ease of access, is the best modality for routine imaging. Routine head ultrasound examination is recommended for all infants born at or before 31+6 weeks gestation. Read More

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A Comparative Study of Craniosonogram and CT scan of Brain in CNS Complication of Perinatal Asphyxia.

Mymensingh Med J 2020 Apr;29(2):325-336

Dr Mir Naz Farzana, Medical Officer, Department of Radiology & Imaging, Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh (CBMCB), Mymensingh; E-mail:

Pereinatal asphyxia is one of the most important complications related with the process of birth and this complications affect not only the brain but also many other organs. The purpose of this cross sectional study is to compare the role of craniosonogram and CT scan of the brain to delineate the cerebral pathology in respondent of preterm and term infant and to assess the Kappa test for agreement. This study was carried out in the department of Radiology & Imaging of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during the period of July 2015 to June 2017. Read More

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Neuroprotection Care Bundle Implementation to Decrease Acute Brain Injury in Preterm Infants.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 09 1;110:42-48. Epub 2020 May 1.

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: We assessed the impact of an evidence-based neuroprotection care bundle on the risk of brain injury in extremely preterm infants.

Methods: We implemented a neuroprotection care bundle consisting of a combination of neuroprotection interventions such as minimal handling, midline head position, deferred cord clamping, and protocolization of hemodynamic and respiratory managements. These interventions targeted risk factors for acute brain injury in extremely preterm infants (born at gestational age less than 29 weeks) during the first three days of birth. Read More

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September 2020

Role of Fibronectin-1 polymorphism genes with the pathogenesis of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 08 13;36(8):1729-1736. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Perinatology and Women's Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Background/introduction: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a dangerous complication facing a significant proportion of preterm infants. It is multifactorial in nature, and an observed fibronectin deficiency in the germinal matrix basal lamina is among the most prominent factors that influence such rupture. Better understanding of the FN1 gene polymorphisms and their role in IVH may further clarify the presence of a genetic susceptibility of certain babies to this complication. Read More

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Altered structural brain networks at term-equivalent age in preterm infants with grade 1 intraventricular hemorrhage.

Ital J Pediatr 2020 Apr 10;46(1):43. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Hospital, 222-1 Wangsimni-ro Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 04763, South Korea.

Background: Preterm infants are at risk for structural disruption of brain connectivity due to perinatal complications encountered during the fetal and neonatal periods. This study aimed to investigate the development of connectivity using diffusion tensor imaging at near-term age and the effect of grade 1 intraventricular hemorrhage on it.

Methods: A total of 86 infants (55 preterm infants, 24 full-term infants) without apparent brain injury underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between 36 and 41 weeks post-menstrual age. Read More

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Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm germinal matrix haemorrhage, sequelae and outcome.

Pediatr Res 2020 03;87(Suppl 1):13-24

IRCCS, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, DINOGMI Department University of Genoa, Via Gaslini 5, 16148, Genoa, Italy.

Germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PHI) and its complication, post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD), are still common neonatal morbidities in preterm infants that are highly associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Typical cranial ultrasound (CUS) findings of GMH-IVH, PHI and PHVD, their anatomical substrates and underlying mechanisms are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, we propose a detailed descriptive classification of GMH-IVH and PHI that may improve quality of CUS reporting and prediction of outcome in infants suffering from GMH-IVH/PHI. Read More

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New Insights into the Anterior Complex.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2020 13;47(6):514-518. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Fetal Medicine Unit - Maternal and Child Health and Development Network, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital 12 de Octubre, 12 de Octubre Research Institute (imas12), Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: To introduce visualization of the germinal matrix (GM), external angle of the frontal horn, and periventricular white matter while evaluating the anterior complex (AC) during basic ultrasound assessment of the fetal brain.

Case Presentations: This is a retrospective observational study of healthy women with singleton pregnancies, with no increased risk of fetal central nervous system anomalies, attending routine ultrasound screening at 20-32 weeks' gestation. Seventeen cases are presented in which an abnormal aspect of the GM or external angle of the frontal horn or periventricular white matter on AC evaluation has allowed a prenatal diagnosis of peri-intraventricular hemorrhage, subependymal cysts, connatal cysts, periventricular venous hemorrhagic infarction, and white matter injury. Read More

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Frequency, Extent, and Correlates of Superficial Siderosis and Ependymal Siderosis in Premature Infants with Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage: An SWI Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 02 9;41(2):331-337. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Pediatrics (M.D.W.) University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.

Background And Purpose: Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage is a common complication of prematurity. An underrecognized complication of germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage is superficial siderosis, and the clinical consequences of superficial siderosis are not well-known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, anatomic distribution, and severity of superficial siderosis and ependymal siderosis in premature infants with germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage using SWI. Read More

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February 2020

Fetal mediastinal teratoma: Misinterpretation as congenital cystic lesions of the lung on prenatal ultrasound.

J Clin Ultrasound 2020 Jun 20;48(5):287-290. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.

Congenital mediastinal teratoma can lead to development of hydrops fetalis and may be misinterpreted on ultrasound. In this case report, ultrasound revealed severe fetoplacental hydrops, moderate posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and multiple pulmonary cysts suggesting cystic adenomatoid malformation and displacement of the heart to the left side. Autopsy of the hydropic 24-weeks male fetus showed a large cystic-solid mediastinal mass that was consistent with nonmetastatic immature teratoma. Read More

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Thermoacoustic tomography of germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal mouse cerebrum.

J Xray Sci Technol 2020 ;28(1):83-93

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) has potential for detecting germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). However, it has not been demonstrated in vivo.

Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of TAT for in vivo detecting GMH by using neonatal mouse. Read More

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Two-dimensional ultrasound measurements vs. magnetic resonance imaging-derived ventricular volume of preterm infants with germinal matrix intraventricular haemorrhage.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 02 6;50(2):234-241. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital/University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation can be measured accurately by MRI. However, two-dimensional (2-D) cranial US can be used at the bedside on a daily basis.

Objective: To assess whether the ventricular volume can be determined accurately using US. Read More

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February 2020

[Mechanisms of brain injury of the premature baby].

Medicina (B Aires) 2019 ;79 Suppl 3:10-14

Cátedra de Neuropediatría, Facultad de Medicina, UDELAR, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Preterm birth is one of the main country health indicators. It is associated with high mortality and significant morbidity in preterm newborns with cerebral palsy and potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities like cognitive and learning problems. The main lesions could be: a) white matter injuries, generally associated with cortical and other regions of grey matter neuronal-axonal disturbances; b) intracranial hemorrhage that includes germinal matrix, intraventricular and parenchymal, c) cerebellum injuries. Read More

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October 2019

Preterm brain injury: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage and post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.

Handb Clin Neurol 2019 ;162:173-199

Department of Neonatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhages (GMH-IVH) remain a common and clinically significant problem in preterm infants, particularly extremely preterm infants. A large GMH-IVH is often complicated by posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD) or parenchymal hemorrhagic infarction and is associated with an increased risk of adverse neurologic sequelae. The widespread use of cranial ultrasonography since the early 1980s has shown a gradual decrease in the incidence of GMH-IVH and has helped with the identification of antenatal and perinatal risk factors and timing of the lesion. Read More

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January 2020

Isolated periventricular pseudocysts do not affect white matter microstructure development in neonatal stage: A retrospective case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

Eur J Radiol 2019 Jul 7;116:152-159. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, PR China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710054, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Periventricular pseudocysts (PVPCs) are cystic cavities originating from the germinal matrix. The effects of PVPCs on the development of white matter (WM) in neonates remain unclear. This study aimed to characterise WM microstructural variations in neonates with PVPCs with and without additional abnormities on MRI. Read More

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White matter microstructural differences identified using multi-shell diffusion imaging in six-year-old children born very preterm.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 4;23:101855. Epub 2019 May 4.

Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: The underlying microstructural properties of white matter differences in children born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) can be investigated in depth using multi-shell diffusion imaging. The present study compared white matter across the whole brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) metrics in children born very preterm and full-term children at six years of age. We also investigated associations between white matter microstructure with early brain injury and developmental outcomes. Read More

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Utility of Various Ultrafast Magnetic Resonance Sequences in the Detection of Fetal Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2018 Oct-Dec;21(4):275-279

Department of Sonography, Mediscan Systems, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the images obtained from standard ultrafast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences with gradient (GRE) sequence images in identifying fetal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Materials And Methods: MR images of fetal brains with ICH done between October 2012 and September 2015 were reviewed. The images obtained from four ultrafast MR sequences- Turbo Fast Low Angle Shot (Turbo FLASH) T1-weighted images, Half Fourier Acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) T2-weighted images, b0 images of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and b800 images of DWI were compared with images obtained from GRE sequence in depicting fetal ICH. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative susceptibility map analysis in preterm neonates with germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 11 10;48(5):1199-1207. Epub 2018 May 10.

Neuroradiology Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage occurring in preterm neonates that may affect normal brain development. Although the primary lesion is easily identified on MRI by the presence of blood products, its exact extent may not be recognizable with conventional sequences. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantify the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues, including blood degradation products. Read More

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November 2018

Intracranial hemorrhage in neonates: A review of etiologies, patterns and predicted clinical outcomes.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Jul 24;22(4):690-717. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Great Ormond St, London WC1N 3JH, UK. Electronic address:

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in neonates often results in devastating neurodevelopmental outcomes as the neonatal period is a critical window for brain development. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with ICH are determined by the maturity of the brain, the location and extent of the hemorrhage, the specific underlying etiology and the presence of other concomitant disorders. Neonatal ICH may result from various inherited and acquired disorders. Read More

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Predictive Value of Cranial Ultrasound for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Infants with Brain Injury.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Apr;131(8):920-926

Department of Ultrasound, Hunan Children's Hospital, University of South China, Changsha, Hunan 410007, China.

Background: Compared with full-term infants, very preterm infants are more vulnerable to injury and long-term disability and are at high risk of death. The predictive value of ultrasound and imaging on the neurodevelopment is one of the hot topics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cranial ultrasound (cUS) variables and neurodevelopmental outcomes of very preterm infants. Read More

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Intracranial hemorrhage in term neonates.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 06 10;34(6):1135-1143. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, 170 Jomaru-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, 420-767, Republic of Korea.

Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in term neonates; currently, ICH is more frequently diagnosed because of improved neuroimaging techniques.

Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging data (pattern, size, distribution) of neonatal ICH.

Methods: We reviewed MRI data from July 2004 to June 2015 for 42 term neonates with ICH who were less than 1 month old. Read More

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Neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in a patient with 9p deletion syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Aug 27;61(8):473-477. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Clinical Genetics, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3D Craniofacial Image Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We report the clinical and neuroradiological findings in a young boy harboring the 9p deletion syndrome including the novel findings of thalamic infarction and germinal matrix haemorrhage and neonatal hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both the hypoglycemic events and the ventriculomegaly found in this patient have previously only been reported in two patients, while the thalamic infarction and germinal matrix haemorrhage are novel features. Read More

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Evaluation of symmetrical increased echogenicity of bilateral caudothalamic grooves detected on cranial ultrasonography by comparing with susceptibility-weighted imaging.

Radiol Med 2018 Jun 1;123(6):434-440. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey.

Objective: To assess symmetrical increased echogenicity of bilateral caudothalamic grooves (SIEBCG) detected on newborn cranial ultrasonography (CUS) using magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).

Materials And Methods: A total of 14 newborns (8 girls; 12 premature with mean gestational age of 30 weeks and 5 days, 2 mature) who were detected to have SIEBCG on routine serial CUS and underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were recruited for the study. The cranial MRI examinations including SWI acquired on the same day of SIEBCG detection and serial CUS to assess the progress of SIEBCG lesions in the following 6 month period were retrospectively evaluated and compared for the presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage. Read More

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