Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.
Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.
Denning behavior has long remained the least observed aspect of bear behavior. During 2010-2013, we used webcams, microphones, the internet, and 14,602 h of archived video to document the denning behaviors of two adult wild black bears () as they gave birth and cared for four litters through six winters in northeastern Minnesota. Observations included types of dens, labor, pre-parturient genital swelling, birthing positions, post-partum vocalizations, mothers removing amniotic tissues and warming newborn cubs in sub-freezing temperatures, frequency of nursing, cubs establishing nipple order, yearlings suckling, the ingestion of snow and icicles, the ingestion of foot pads, urination and defecation in latrine areas, toilet-licking, eye opening, reciprocal tongue-licking, play, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and possible dreaming, and reactions to wildlife intruders. Read More