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    Tongue psoriasis: Clinical aspects and analysis of epidemiological associations in 313 children, with a systematic literature review.
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.
    Dermatology department, hôpital Victor-Dupouy, 69, rue du Lieutenant-Colonel-Prud'hon, 95107 Argenteuil, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Little information is available on the prevalence and clinical aspects of tongue involvement in children with psoriasis. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical aspects and risk factors concerning tongue involvement in children with psoriasis.

    Patients And Methods: This study was carried out in two stages. Read More

    A pragmatic evidence-based clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome.
    J Clin Exp Dent 2018 Apr 1;10(4):e321-e326. Epub 2018 Apr 1.
    MD, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
    Background: Burning mouth syndrome is a poorly understood disease process with no current standard of treatment. The goal of this article is to provide an evidence-based, practical, clinical algorithm as a guideline for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome.

    Material And Methods: Using available evidence and clinical experience, a multi-step management algorithm was developed. Read More

    An infant with generalized pustular psoriasis and geographic tongue had a heterozygous IL36RN mutation and IgG2 deficiency.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 May 6;90(2):216-218. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

    Geographic tonguelike presentation in a child with pityriasis rosea: Case report and review of oral manifestations of pityriasis rosea.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Mar 13;35(2):e124-e127. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Division of Dermatology, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Oral lesions are rarely reported in patients with pityriasis rosea. We report a case of a 3-year-old boy with clinical evidence of generalized pityriasis rosea who developed asymptomatic oral lesions similar in appearance to geographic tongue. The generalized eruption and tongue lesions resolved simultaneously within 4 weeks. Read More

    Prevalence and heritability of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in one Brazilian population.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):816-819
    Department of Genetics and Evolution, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar) - São Carlos (SP), Brazil.
    Background: An oral condition associated to psoriasis is benign migratory glossitis. The review of the literature does not show any publication about heritability in both soriasis and benign migratory glossitis and prevalence of psoriasis in the Brazilian population.

    Objective: This research was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of psoriasis and benign migratory glossitis in the Brazilian population from a Brazilian sample, as well as the heritability in these conditions. Read More

    Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions and Their Association with Severity of Psoriasis among Psoriatic Patients Referred To Dermatology Clinic: A Cross-Sectional Study in Kashan/Iran.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Dec 24;5(7):978-982. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory papulosquamous disease of the skin with unknown aetiology that may be associated with the abnormal T-cell function.

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with severity of psoriasis in psoriatic patients attending the dermatologic clinic of Shahid Beheshti Teaching Hospital at Kashan, Iran.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, all consecutive patients with psoriasis who referred to the dermatologic clinic at the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in Kashan City/ Iran were enrolled. Read More

    Oral features in patients with psoriasis: an observational study.
    Minerva Stomatol 2018 02;67(1):12-19
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a group of psoriatic patients and healthy subjects.

    Methods: 120 psoriatic patients were enrolled in this observational study. Clinical examination, panoramic X-ray, magnetic nuclear resonance of temporo-mandibular joint, parodontal evaluation, oropharyngeal buffer and incisional biopsies by scalpel, as applicable, were done in order to value the patients. Read More

    Tooth Wear Is Frequent in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease.
    Nutrients 2017 Dec 4;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Medical School of Salerno, 84131 Salerno, Italy.
    (1) Background: Celiac disease (CD) patients can be affected by mouth and tooth disorders, which are influenced by their gluten-free diet. The aim of our research was to evaluate the pathological conditions of the stomatognathic system observed in celiac patients on a gluten-free diet. (2) Methods: we consecutively recruited celiac patients on a gluten-free diet at our celiac center, as well as healthy volunteers. Read More

    Harefuah 2017 Oct;156(10):645-649
    The Padeh Baruch Medical Center, Poriya.
    Introduction: Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world. Despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. The incidence and mortality caused by this tumor show variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed. Read More

    Digestive system in psoriasis: an update.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2017 Nov 13;309(9):679-693. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Dermatologikum Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disorder associated and often coexisting with many other immune-related clinical conditions including those affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Data obtained from the reviewed literature suggest an association between psoriasis and pathologies of the oral cavity, both psoriasis-specific lesions, as well as non-specific, such as geographic tongue or fissured tongue. These findings show the importance of thorough examination of oral mucosa in psoriatic patients. Read More

    Lingual microbiota profiles of patients with geographic tongue.
    J Oral Microbiol 2017 27;9(1):1355206. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine and Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences; The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Geographic tongue (GT) is an oral mucosal lesion that affects the tongue. The association between GT and the bacterial colonization profiles of the tongue is not clear. Lingual swabs were collected from lesion sites and healthy sites of 35 patients with GT (19 males and 16 females; M = 54. Read More

    Geographic tongue: assessment of peripheral nerve status, Langerhans cell, and HLA-DR expression.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 Oct 7;124(4):371-377.e1. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Private practice, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine whether geographic tongue (GT) is an antigen-driven condition by assessing Langerhans cell numbers and the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP, -DQ, and -DR in the epithelium of GT and to assess peripheral nerve status for any possible damage/injury association by quantifying neurite area in connective tissue in GT.

    Study Design: Randomly selected samples of GT were examined by using routine immunoperoxidase staining methods to S100 protein, neurofilament, CD1a, and HLA class II. The Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to assess statistical significance. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions in teenagers: a cross-sectional study.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 31;43(1):50. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Dental School, Pediatric Dentistry Department, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: Adolescence is a period of transition to adulthood. Little is known about oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in teenagers, in which the emergence of new habits, unfamiliar to children, could affect the type of lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a wide sample of adolescents. Read More

    National Database Analysis of Single-Level versus Multilevel Sleep Surgery.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 05 21;156(5):955-961. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    6 University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Objective Recent evidence suggests that multilevel sleep surgery improves outcomes when compared with palate surgery alone for most patients. The study objective was to compare demographic and outcomes data for palate surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty [UPPP]) alone versus multilevel surgery through a national insurance claims database. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Read More

    Maternal genetic backgrounds contribute to the genetic susceptibility of tongue cancer patients in Hunan, central of China.
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2018 Apr 16;29(3):347-352. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    a Key Laboratory of Genetics and Birth Health of Hunan Province , Family Planning Institute of Hunan Province , Changsha , Hunan Province , China.
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations played crucial roles on affecting the susceptibility to cancer. In this study, to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA mutations contributed to the genetic susceptibility of Chinese tongue cancer patients, mtDNA control regions of 105 Chinese tongue cancer patients were amplified and sequenced, the mutations were recorded by comparing with the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS), which were attributed to certain mtDNA haplogroups based on the specific variations motif of each patients. The Miao Chinese group (a Chinese ethnic minority) from surrounding region has no essential difference with tongue cancer group, which was taken as the matched control group with principal component analysis by taking the haplogroups frequency of 105 tongue cancer individuals and 354 healthy individuals of eight groups from the similar geographic regions as input factors. Read More

    Oral mucosal changes induced by anticancer targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
    Support Care Cancer 2017 05 22;25(5):1713-1739. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Oral Medicine Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Institut Universitaire du cancer Toulouse-Oncopole, 1 avenue Irène Joliot-Curie, 31059, Toulouse Cedex, France.
    Development of biological targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has redefined the treatment for many cancers; however, the increasing use of new protocols has led to physicians observing a new spectrum of toxicities. To date, oral adverse events induced by these new anticancer therapies have been mainly reported using nonspecific terminology ("stomatitis," "mucosal inflammation," "mucositis") and remain poorly characterized, with the exception of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-associated stomatitis. Oral toxicities of targeted therapies often display very characteristic features which clearly differ from classic oral injuries observed with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Read More

    Investigation of the clinical features of geographic tongue: unveiling its relationship with oral psoriasis.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Apr 10;56(4):421-427. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Postgraduate Program in Pathology, School of Medicine, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Background: Few studies have examined the clinical features of geographic tongue (GT), an inflammatory lesion, making diagnosis and the investigation of oral psoriasis difficult.

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features of GT to facilitate its identification and understand its relationship with psoriasis.

    Methods: A total of 96 participants diagnosed with GT underwent stomatological and dermatological examinations. Read More

    Salivary levels of interleukin-8 and growth factors are modulated in patients with geographic tongue.
    Oral Dis 2017 Sep 24;23(6):757-762. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the levels of salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with geographic tongue (GT), as compared to control subjects.

    Methodology: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of IL-8, EGF and VEGF in whole saliva samples collected from 34 patients with GT and 38 control subjects. The patients and controls were grouped and matched according to age, gender and the presence of systemic diseases, which are factors that may influence the levels of salivary biomarkers. Read More

    Autoimmune Disease Manifestations in the Oral Cavity.
    Surg Pathol Clin 2017 Mar 28;10(1):57-88. Epub 2016 Dec 28.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnostic Sciences, University of Florida, 1395 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
    Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns. Read More

    T-Helper 17 Cell Cytokine Responses in Lyme Disease Correlate With Borrelia burgdorferi Antibodies During Early Infection and With Autoantibodies Late in the Illness in Patients With Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(7):930-938
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, and.
    Background: Control of Lyme disease is attributed predominantly to innate and adaptive T-helper 1 cell (TH1) immune responses, whereas the role of T-helper 17 cell (TH17) responses is less clear. Here we characterized these inflammatory responses in patients with erythema migrans (EM) or Lyme arthritis (LA) to elucidate their role early and late in the infection.

    Methods: Levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines, representative of innate, TH1, and TH17 immune responses, were assessed by Luminex in acute and convalescent sera from 91 EM patients, in serum and synovial fluid from 141 LA patients, and in serum from 57 healthy subjects. Read More

    The Journey of "Geographic Atrophy" through Past, Present, and Future.
    Ophthalmologica 2017 12;237(1):11-20. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    "Geographic atrophy" is a concise term that has been firmly established for the description of the end-stage manifestation of nonexudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). "Geographic lesions" resembling sharply demarcated continents on a map have been originally described in the German literature in 1854 (landkartenartiger/inselförmiger Zungenfratt) for a manifestation later called "geographic tongue" in English. In 1970, Gass was the first to describe "geographic areas of atrophy" in "senile macular choroidal degeneration. Read More

    Mutations in IL36RN are associated with geographic tongue.
    Hum Genet 2017 Feb 29;136(2):241-252. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.
    Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Epidemiology and histopathology in previous studies found that generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a factor associated with GT, but the molecular mechanism remains obscure. To investigate the mechanism of GT, with and without GPP, three cohorts were recruited to conduct genotyping of IL36RN, which is the causative gene of GPP. Read More

    Host and clinical aspects in patients with benign migratory glossitis.
    Arch Oral Biol 2017 Jan 26;73:259-268. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
    Objective: Investigate the association of clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics with benign migratory glossitis (BMG).

    Study Design: Sample consisted of 175 patients, 44 with BMG and 131 control patients. Clinical examination and DMFT index were assessed. Read More

    The single-species metagenome: subtyping core genome sequences from shotgun metagenomic data.
    PeerJ 2016 18;4:e2571. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    In this study we developed a genome-based method for detecting subtypes from metagenome shotgun sequence data. We used a binomial mixture model and the coverage counts at >100,000 known SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites derived from prior comparative genomic analysis to estimate the proportion of 40 subtypes in metagenome samples. We were able to obtain >87% sensitivity and >94% specificity at 0. Read More

    The prevalence of celiac disease in patients with geographic tongue.
    J Oral Pathol Med 2016 Nov 1;45(10):791-796. Epub 2016 May 1.
    Study of Dental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Split, Split, Croatia.
    Background: Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign inflammatory condition usually involving the dorsal surface and lateral borders of the tongue. Numerous etiological factors of GT have been suggested, including immunological factors; genetic; atopic or allergic predisposition; emotional stress; and hormonal disturbances. GT may also coexist as one of the possible manifestations of celiac disease (CD). Read More

    HPV in Head and Neck Cancer-30 Years of History.
    Recent Results Cancer Res 2017;206:3-25
    Department of Clinical Research, Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland.
    The interesting history of papillomavirus (PV) research has been reviewed before. The history of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck region starts in 1901 when the contagious transmission of warty lesions into the mouth via oral sex was described, although the confirmation of their viral etiology had to wait until 1907. Ullman was the first to associate the human wart virus with laryngeal warts. Read More

    Unmet diagnostic needs in contact oral mucosal allergies.
    Clin Mol Allergy 2016 1;14(1):10. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Section of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy.
    The oral mucosa including the lips is constantly exposed to several noxious stimuli, irritants and allergens. However, oral contact pathologies are not frequently seen because of the relative resistance of the oral mucosa to irritant agents and allergens due to anatomical and physiological factors. The spectrum of signs and symptoms of oral contact allergies (OCA) is broad and a large number of condition can be the clinical expression of OCA such as allergic contact stomatitis, allergic contact cheilitis, geographic tongue, oral lichenoid reactions, burning mouth syndrome. Read More

    Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;91(4):410-21
    Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) - Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.
    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. Read More

    Treatment of Symptomatic Geographic Tongue with Triamcinolone Acetonide Alone and in Combination with Retinoic Acid: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    J Dent (Tehran) 2016 Jan;13(1):23-8
    Statistical Consultant, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Objectives: Geographic tongue or migratory glossitis is an inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology. Considering the accompanied burning pain, taste dysfunction, and lack of definite cure, it is important to treat this condition symptomatically. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of a combination of 0. Read More

    [Atypical scurvy associated with anorexia nervosa].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Feb 5;144(2):125-129. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Service de médecine interne générale, hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, 1206 Genève, Suisse; Service de médecine interne, hôpital de la Tour, 1217 Meyrin-Genève, Suisse.
    Introduction: Scurvy, or "Barlow's disease", is a widely described disease involving cutaneous and mucosal lesions resulting from vitamin C deficiency. Herein, we report a case of scurvy in a 48-year-old woman that was unusual in its atypical cutaneous-mucosal presentation as well as its association with anorexia nervosa.

    Patients And Methods: A 48-year-old woman treated for depression for several years was admitted to hospital for her impaired general state of health. Read More

    [Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome. Report of two pediatric cases].
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2016 Aug 1;114(4):e224-7. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Residencia de Otorrinolaringología Infantil, Hospital General de Niños Pedro de Elizalde, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome is a very infrequent disease of unknown etiology, chronic and progressive course, with neurocutaneous disease that affects the orofacial innervation and mucocutaneous tissues with non-caseating granulomatous infiltration. Clinically, it is characterized by the diagnostic triad: recurrent edema of lips and/or face; recurrent and alternating acute peripheral facial paralysis and scrotal or geographic tongue. The condition generally presents as oligosymptomatic or monosymptomatic form. Read More

    Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the western Sicilian population.
    Minerva Stomatol 2016 Aug;65(4):191-206
    Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy -
    Backgroung: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal non-malignant lesions in the Sicilian population. In addition, we evaluated the association between each oral lesion and its risk factors.

    Methods: This study analyzed a total of 2539 consecutive patients, attending the Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Disciplines of Palermo University, who were examined for the presence of various oral lesions during the period from January 2012 and February 2015. Read More

    Diseases of the tongue.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):458-69. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.
    The tongue is a complex organ involved in speech and expression as well as in gustation, mastication, and deglutition. The oral cavity, along with the tongue, are sites of neoplasms, reactive processes, and infections, and may be a harbinger of systemic diseases. This review includes both common and rare diseases that occur on the tongue, including: vascular and lymphatic lesions (infantile hemangiomas and oral varices), reactive and inflammatory processes (hairy tongue, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, benign migratory glossitis, and fissured tongue), infections (oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections, human papillomavirus, and candidiasis), premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and erythroplakia), malignant lesions (squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and lymphoproliferative diseases), and signs of systemic disease (nutritional deficiency and systemic amyloidosis). Read More

    The practical evaluation and management of patients with symptoms of a sore burning mouth.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):449-57. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Department of Oral Medicine, Leeds Dental Institute and School of Dentistry, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust/University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Electronic address:
    There are many etiologic factors to consider in a patient who presents with symptoms or sensations of a sore burning mouth. These range from local causes within the oral cavity to underlying systemic disease, including psychologic factors. This paper aims to describe the different clinical presentations and to outline a systematic approach to the evaluation and management of such patients. Read More

    Prevalence of oro-dental anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen.
    East Mediterr Health J 2016 Apr 19;22(1):33-8. Epub 2016 Apr 19.
    Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Al-Farabi College, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Practitioners and policy-makers need information about the relative frequency of dental anomalies among children in their region. This study investigated the prevalence of different oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. A sample of 1000 private and public schoolchildren aged 4-12 years were examined by the same examiner using disposable tongue blades. Read More

    Oral lichen planus clinical characteristics in Italian patients: a retrospective analysis.
    Head Face Med 2016 Apr 26;12:18. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM) - Section of Dentistry, University "Aldo Moro" of Bari, Clinica odontoiatrica del Policlinico di Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    Background: Oral lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving skin and mucous membranes. Its etiology is still uncertain whilst an autoimmune mechanism is known to be implicated. OLP is commonly considered a geriatric disease and gender differences in prevalence are clear, whereby females are generally more frequently affected than males more often during the 5th and 6th decades of life. Read More

    Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 May 13;33(3):e224-5. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. Read More

    Paediatric Geographic Tongue: A Case Report, Review and Recent Updates.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Feb 1;10(2):ZE05-9. Epub 2016 Feb 1.
    Reader, Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Science , Davangere, Karnataka, India .
    Geographic tongue is a benign recurrent condition of uncertain aetiology affecting the tongue characterized by loss of epithelium especially filiform papillae giving a characteristic appearance. The clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to painful and burning ulceration. The condition is commonly seen in adults but few cases are reported in children. Read More

    [Chronic or recurrent ulceration of the tongue].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2016 Apr 30;143(4):297-308; quiz 295-6, 309-10. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
    Dermatologie, consultation pluridisciplinaire de pathologies de la muqueuse buccale, institut Claudius-Regaud, institut universitaire du cancer Toulouse Oncopole, 1, avenue Irène-Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France.

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