Viruses 2022 04 5;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 5.
Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.
Vaccination programs with the current prophylactic HPV vaccines started in most countries around 2008 with introduction of the bivalent Cervarix HPV16/18 vaccine, rapidly followed by Gardasil (HPV6/11/16/18) and, finally, Gardasil 9 (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58), from 2015. Many studies have now confirmed their ability to prevent infection with vaccine-covered HPV types, and the subsequent development of either genital warts and/or cervical neoplasia, although this is clearly more effective in younger women vaccinated prior to sexual debut. Most notably, reductions in the prevalence of vaccine-covered HPV types were also observed in unvaccinated women at the same geographical location, presumably by sexual dissemination of these changes, between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Read More