1,563,710 results match your criteria Genetic Vaccines and Therapy[Journal]


Gene Expression Profiles of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Endothelin-1 in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2018 Dec 11;81(1):16-23. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Wakayama University Hospital, Wakayama, Japan.

Background/aims: The aim of this study was to observe the relationship between the gene expression profiles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and endothelin (EDN)-1 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study performed at a tertiary-care academic center; 108 patients with snoring and day-time sleeplessness were included in this study carried out in the Otolaryngology Department. All patients were evaluated with 1-night polysomnography (PSG). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A Novel Variant of the FZD4 Gene in a Chinese Family Causes Autosomal Dominant Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2445-2455. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Key Laboratory of Epigenetics and Oncology, the Research Center for Preclinical Medicine, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou,

Background/aims: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex hereditary eye disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature, thereby affecting retinal angiogenesis.

Methods: In this study, a Chinese autosomal dominant FEVR pedigree was recruited. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, targeted next-generation sequencing was used to identify the causative gene, and Sanger sequencing was conducted to verify the candidate mutation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Type I Interferons: Distinct Biological Activities and Current Applications for Viral Infection.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 11;51(5):2377-2396. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou,

The interferons (IFNs) are a primary defense against pathogens because of the strong antiviral activities they induce. IFNs can be classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III, according to their genetic, structural, and functional characteristics and their receptors on the cell surface. The type I IFNs are the largest group and include IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-ω, IFN-κ, IFN-δ, IFN-τ and IFN-ζ. Read More

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December 2018

Mammalian STE20-Like Kinase 1 Deletion Alleviates Renal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury via Modulating Mitophagy and the AMPK-YAP Signalling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 7;51(5):2359-2376. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Background/aims: The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) participates in renal I/R injury through modifying mitophagy and the AMPK-YAP signalling pathway.

Methods: WT mice and Mst1-knockout mice were subjected to renal ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo. In vitro, the hypoxia-reoxygenation model was used with renal tubular epithelial cells to mimic renal I/R injury. Read More

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December 2018

Biology of Nodal Spread in Colon Cancer: Insights from Molecular and Genetic Studies.

Eur Surg Res 2018 Dec 11;59(5-6):361-370. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan,

Colorectal cancer (CRC) lymph node metastases are common but their genetics and the mechanism whereby these metastases occur are not well understood. Here we present recent data regarding genetic heterogeneity in primary CRCs and their metastasis. In addition, we explain the different potential models describing the mechanisms of metastasis and the data supporting them. Read More

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December 2018

Why we can't determine reliably the age of a subject on the basis of his maturation degree.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 5;61:97-101. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Past Director of the Complex Unit of Auxology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Maturation is the irreversible biological process leading to adult form or function. The degree of maturation can be derived from the examination of maturity indicators, i.e. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Synthesizing, characterizing, and toxicity evaluating of Phycocyanin-ZnO nanorod composites: A back to nature approaches.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:221-230. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Industrial & Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

C-Phycocyanin pigment was purified from a native cyanobacterial strain using a novel consecutive multi-step procedure and utilized for the first time for the green synthesis of phycocyanin-zinc oxide nanorods (PHY-ZnO NRs) by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach. The PHY-ZnO NRs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurement, FTIR, SEM, TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), and EDX spectroscopy analysis. The UV-vis spectra showed an absorption band at 364 nm which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs). Read More

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December 2018

Expression profiles of organogenesis-related genes over the time course of one-step de novo shoot organogenesis from intact seedlings of kohlrabi.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 8;232:257-269. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia.

Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) is an important vegetable crop that is able to undergo shoot regeneration in culture from intact seedlings in a single-step regeneration process, using cytokinin as the only plant growth regulator. In this work, we present the expression profiles of seven organogenesis-related genes over the time course of shoot regeneration from intact seedlings of kohlrabi cv. Read More

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November 2018

Direct HLA Genetic Comparisons Identify Highly Matched Unrelated Donor/Recipient Pairs with Improved Transplant Outcome.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Diagnostic Laboratories and Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, part of Versiti, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address:

HLA matching by allele-level genotyping is largely based on genetic similarity between a few exons which encode the antigen recognition domain (ARD) of the HLA protein. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify HLA genetic polymorphisms in non-ARD encoding exons, introns, and untranslated regions, but the impact of these polymorphisms on hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes is unclear. We performed NGS-based sequencing of eleven HLA loci on a well-characterized retrospective cohort of 166 unrelated donor/recipient HCT pairs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Allicin enhances antimicrobial activity of macrophages during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Genetic loss of proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) in mice is compatible with survival.

Peptides 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 111 Mason Farm Road, CB 7545, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are small peptides derived from a common precursor, pre-proadrenomedullin. Although AM and PAMP share hypotensive effects in the cardiovascular system, the peptides also exert diverse and distinct effects on endocrine physiology, innate immunity, cytoskeletal biology and receptor signaling pathways. Tremendous knowledge has been gleaned from the study of several genetic animal models of AM deletion or overexpression, some of which also simultaneously delete the coding region for PAMP peptide. Read More

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December 2018

Hla in colombia wayu from guajira peninsula amerindians: pacific ocean relationships.

Hum Immunol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departmentof Medicina, Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Wayu Amerindians live around Guajira Peninsula shared by Colombia and Venezuela. Wayu from Colombia South have been studied for their HLA profile and these data put in context with both genetic and cultural relatedness to Pacific Islanders. HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*35 (most likely HLA-A*24:02 and HLA-B*35:05) and HLA-DRB1*04:03 and HLA-DQB1*03:02 are shared both by Wayu and other Amerindians and Pacific Islanders in specific high frequency. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Molecular characterization of metaplastic breast carcinoma via next generation sequencing.

Hum Pathol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte 91010, USA.

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast cancer with variable morphology. MBC is more often triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) and is associated with poorer clinical outcome when compared to infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The purpose of our study is to identify molecular alterations in MBC using next generation sequencing (NGS) which may aid chemotherapy selection and use of targeted therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Novel trends in application of stem cells in skin wound healing.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Centre of Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; LinkoCare Life Sciences AB, Sweden; Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, UPR4301 CNRS CS80054, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans cedex 2, France.

The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the therapy of chronic wounds, they can be administrated either topically or using different matrix like hydrogels, scaffolds, dermal substitutes and extracellular matrix (ECM) derivatives. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Simple, rapid and inexpensive typing of common HLA class I alleles for immunological studies.

J Immunol Methods 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Current HLA-typing methods are typically designed to provide exquisitely-detailed identification of multiple HLA-alleles to satisfy the requirements for organ and bone marrow transplantation or genetic studies. Many human immunological studies, on the other hand, focus around only a small number of HLA alleles that are abundant or of relevance to specific diseases. Consequently, for such studies, many HLA typing approaches are not cost-effective and are potentially complicated, slow and not easily performed in-house. Read More

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December 2018

Adjuvant Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancers.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec;14(12):701-708

South East Cancer Center, University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Ireland; and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Biliary tract cancers, including gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal cholangiocarcinomas, although anatomically contiguous, represent a heterogeneous group of cancers with extensive biologic and genetic diversity. With early disease, surgical resection is the preferred option for all subtypes; however, relapse rates remain high, and survival outcomes are poor. Data to guide the use of adjuvant therapy have been limited to retrospective series, population-based studies, and meta-analyses, all with their associated limitations. Read More

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December 2018

The paucity of genetic studies of alcohol phenotypes in diverse populations: What are the consequences and opportunities?

Authors:
Karen G Chartier

Addiction 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University.

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December 2018
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GAGA protein is required for multiple aspects of Drosophila oogenesis and female fertility.

Genesis 2018 Dec 10:e23269. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Investigation of Drosophila oogenesis provides the opportunity to understand conservative genetic mechanisms underlying fertile female gamete development. In this work, we showed that the Drosophila DNA-binding protein GAGA factor (GAF) had a multifunctional role in oogenesis and it is involved in the regulation of this process genetic program. We studied the influence on Drosophila oogenesis of a number of mutations in the 5' region of the Trl gene that encodes GAF. Read More

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December 2018

Hyperactivation of Nrf2 increases stress tolerance at the cost of aging acceleration due to metabolic deregulation.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 10:e12845. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacogenetics of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor - induced angioedema.

Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Angioedema is a rare adverse effect of the commonly used angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and is reported to occur with a prevalence of 0.1 - 0.7%. Read More

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December 2018

Plant compartment and genetic variation drive microbiome composition in switchgrass roots.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Texas Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a promising biofuel crop native to the United States with genotypes that are adapted to a wide range of distinct ecosystems. Various plants have been shown to undergo symbioses with plant growth promoting bacteria and fungi, however, plant-associated microbial communities of switchgrass have not been extensively studied to date. We present 16S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data of rhizosphere and root endosphere compartments of four switchgrass genotypes to test the hypothesis that host selection of its root microbiota prevails after transfer to non-native soil. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring subindividual variability: role of ontogeny, abiotic environment, and seed-dispersing birds.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Departamento de Bioloxía Celular e Ecoloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Within-individual trait variation -otherwise known as subindividual variation- is an important component of phenotypic variation, with a genetic and epigenetic basis. We explore its adaptive value and the effects of ontogeny and the environment on subindividual variability. We conducted a field study to analyze the effects of tree age, soil pH, soil water content, and soil nutrients on subindividual variability in fruit size of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) in three sites in Northwestern Spain. Read More

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December 2018

Linear mixed models for association analysis of quantitative traits with next-generation sequencing data.

Genet Epidemiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Computational and Statistical Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland.

We develop linear mixed models (LMMs) and functional linear mixed models (FLMMs) for gene-based tests of association between a quantitative trait and genetic variants on pedigrees. The effects of a major gene are modeled as a fixed effect, the contributions of polygenes are modeled as a random effect, and the correlations of pedigree members are modeled via inbreeding/kinship coefficients. -statistics and χ likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistics based on the LMMs and FLMMs are constructed to test for association. Read More

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December 2018

Utility and implications of exome sequencing in early-onset Parkinson's disease.

Mov Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Background: Although the genetic load is high in early-onset Parkinson's disease, thorough investigation of the genetic diagnostic yield has yet to be established. The objectives of this study were to assess variants in known genes for PD and other movement disorders and to find new candidates in 50 patients with early-onset PD.

Methods: We searched for variants either within genes listed by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force on Genetic Nomenclature or rare homozygous variants in novel candidate genes. Read More

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December 2018

An Updated Gene Atlas for Maize Reveals Organ-Specific and Stress-Induced Genes.

Plant J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Maize(Zea mays L.), a model species for genetic studies, is one of the two most important crop species worldwide.The genome sequence of the reference genotype, B73, representative of the stiff stalk heterotic group was recently updated (AGPv4) using long-read sequencing and optical mapping technology. Read More

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December 2018
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Genetic polymorphism of rs9564966 G > A on 13q22.1 predicts poor survival for Chinese patients with gastric cancer.

Cancer Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Oncology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Two genomewide association studies on pancreatic cancer have identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism of rs9564966 G > A on 13q22.1 region. However, the associations between the rs9564966 G > A polymorphism and the survival of Chinese patients with gastric cancer (GC) were unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Developing a highly efficient and wildly adaptive CRISPR-SaCas9 toolset for plant genome editing.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Rice Genetic Breeding of Anhui Province, Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

The CRISPR- Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) system offers a rapid, simple and flexible genome editing approach. However, the targeting scope of the SpCas9 system is limited by the canonical NGG PAM. To broaden the editing range of the CRISPR system, several Cas orthologs recognized different PAM were isolated from diverse microbes and were engineered as powerful genome editing tools in eukaryotic cells (Murovec et al. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic variation of FTO: rs1421085 T>C, rs8057044 G>A, rs9939609 T>A, and copy number (CNV) in Mexican Mayan school-aged children with obesity/overweight and with normal weight.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23192. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Programa Integral de Atención a la Obesidad, Secretaria de Educación del Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.

Objectives: Genetic variation of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and obesity traits. Distribution of FTO single nutleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1421085T>C, rs9939609T>A, rs8057044G>A and copy number variation (CNV) was evaluated in association with childhood obesity or overweight status in children with Mayan ethnicity.

Methods: We included 318 school-aged children with obesity or overweight status (body mass index [BMI]: >85th percentile) and 303 children with normal weight (BMI: 15th-85th percentile). Read More

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December 2018

Effects of GST variants on the risk odds of hematological malignancy: A meta-analysis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Linyi Cancer Hospital, Linyi, Shandong, China.

Background: Whether glutathione S-transferases (GST) polymorphisms influence the risk odds of hematological malignancy remains controversial. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to better analyze correlations between GST polymorphisms and hematological malignancy.

Methods: Literature retrieve was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase. Read More

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December 2018

Oleoylethanolamide: A novel pharmaceutical agent in the management of obesity-an updated review.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Nutrition, Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Obesity as a multifactorial disorder has been shown a dramatically growing trend recently. Besides genetic and environmental factors, dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system tone is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. This study reviewed the potential efficacy of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) as an endocannabinoid-like compound in the energy homeostasis and appetite control in people with obesity. Read More

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December 2018
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Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between mood disorder and periodontal disease: a cross-sectional study amongst female twins in the UK.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with periodontal traits considering genetic and environmental background in predominantly older female twins.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using self-reported questionnaires for periodontal traits in TwinsUK. Age-adjusted and age-stratified multivariate analyses were conducted for all twins. Read More

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December 2018

TLR9 rs352139 genetic variant promotes tacrolimus elimination in Chinese liver transplant patients during the early posttransplantation period.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200080, China.

Background: There are limited markers that could facilitate individualized tacrolimus treatment in the early posttransplantation period. Genetic factors have been found to play critical roles in determining tacrolimus pharmacokinetics.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association of donor and recipient Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms with tacrolimus elimination and the potential mechanism for TLR gene polymorphism-mediated tacrolimus metabolism. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing ureolytic bacteria with calcifying abilities isolated from limestone caves for biocalcification.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Chemical Engineering and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak Campus, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Biocalcification through the use of ureolytic bacteria and biochemical activities has evolved in recent decades into a fervent resourceful effective technology suitable for soil stabilization, crack repair and bioremediation. Extensive studies have been carried out numerous ureolytic bacterial species isolated from soils and sewage samples. However, very limited attention has been given to limestone caves with natural calcite formations, as a possible source for isolation of ureolytic bacteria. Read More

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December 2018

CCR5 deficiency enhances hepatic innate immune cell recruitment & inflammation in a murine model of acute hepatitis B infection.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Human genetic studies demonstrate a link between the 32-bp deletion that produces a nonfunctional CCR5 receptor (CCR5∆32) and enhanced recovery from acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To investigate the role of CCR5 in immune responses to acute HBV, we intravenously infected Ccr5 (WT) and Ccr5 (KO) mice with a replication-incompetent adenovirus containing the overlapping HBV1.3 construct (AdHBV), or vector control. Read More

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December 2018

Dynamic changes of urinary proteins in a rat model of acute hypercoagulable state induced by tranexamic acid.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

The hypercoagulable state leads to the development of thrombotic diseases, but it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of available biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate systematic changes of the urinary proteome in the acute hypercoagulable state. A rat model of the acute hypercoagulable state was induced by an antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid and urine samples were collected for proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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December 2018

The importance and adaptive value of life-history evolution for metapopulation dynamics.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Biology, Research Group Phycology - Bioinformatics & Evolutionary Genomics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The spatial configuration and size of patches influence metapopulation dynamics by altering colonisation-extinction dynamics and local density dependency. This spatial forcing as determined by the metapopulation typology then imposes strong selection pressures on life-history traits, which will in turn feed back on the ecological metapopulation dynamics. Given the relevance of metapopulation persistence for biological conservation, and the potential rescuing role of evolution, a firm understanding of the relevance of these eco-evolutionary processes is essential. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

miR-125a/b inhibits tumor-associated macrophages mediated in cancer stem cells of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting CD90.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Medical School of Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Cancer stem cells promote tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, emerging evidence indicates tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression. However, TAMs often occurs with unknown mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Optimizing ex situ genetic resource collections for European livestock conservation.

J Anim Breed Genet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Global Academy of Agriculture and Food Security, The University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, Edinburgh, UK.

Ex situ collections offer the potential to reduce extinction risks, affording option to society in maintaining future breeding opportunities for productivity and heritage traits. However, how much should we be seeking to collect and conserve in gene banks, and where? We developed a mathematical model to optimize logistical decisions of breed conservation choices and to evaluate alternative scenarios for efficiently re-allocating genetic materials currently stored in different European gene banks, allowing for cross-country collections, cost and cryogenic capacity differentials. We show how alternative allocations for the breeds that are currently stored in 11 European gene banks could reduce overall conservation costs by around 20% by selecting cryogenic banks that have relatively lower combination of fixed and collection costs, and are geographically closer to collection regions. Read More

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December 2018

Microtubules: From understanding their dynamics to using them as potential therapeutic targets.

Authors:
Yaron Ilan

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Microtubules (MT) and actin microfilaments are dynamic cytoskeleton components involved in a range of intracellular processes. MTs play a role in cell division, beating of cilia and flagella, and intracellular transport. Over the past decades, much knowledge has been gained regarding MT function and structure, and its role in underlying disease progression. Read More

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December 2018
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High risk Epstein-Barr virus variants characterized by distinct polymorphisms in the EBER locus are strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Whether certain variants of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are linked to the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which shows a marked geographic restriction, remains an unresolved issue. We performed a case-control study comparing genomic sequences of EBV isolated from saliva samples of 142 population carriers with those from primary tumour biopsies derived from 62 patients with NPC of Hong Kong. Cluster analysis discovered five EBV subgroups 1A-C and 2A-B amongst the population carriers in contrast to the predominance of 1A and -B in the majority of NPC. Read More

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December 2018

Preservation of boar semen: An update.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Molecular Endocrinology, Center of Translational Medicine - Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (CEMT-BIOREN).

In the pork industry, artificial insemination and the storage of boar semen in liquid at 17°C are routinely applied to optimize the ejaculate and bring about rapid genetic changes that are reflected in the animal protein. Although the results are satisfactory, they are below what occurs with natural mating. It is currently possible to preserve boar semen with storage at 17°C and slow freezing, since to date there is only one study on vitrification, with negative results applicable only in the case of implementing an intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Periplasmic protein EipA determines envelope stress resistance and virulence in Brucella abortus.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Molecular components of the Brucella abortus cell envelope play a major role in its ability to infect, colonize and survive inside mammalian host cells. In this study, we have defined a role for a conserved gene of unknown function in B. abortus envelope stress resistance and infection. Read More

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December 2018

Gene-environment interactions and colorectal cancer risk: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK.

The cause of colorectal cancer (CRC) is multifactorial, involving both genetic variants and environmental risk factors. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang databases from inception to December 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that investigated gene-environment (G × E) interactions in CRC risk. Then, we critically evaluated the cumulative evidence for the G × E interactions using an extension of the Human Genome Epidemiology Network's Venice criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Increased biomass and lipid production by continuous cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina transformant overexpressing a bHLH transcription factor.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Advanced Biomass R&D Center, 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Microalgae are promising feedstocks for sustainable and eco-friendly production of biomaterials, which can be improved by genetic engineering. It is also necessary to optimize the processes to produce biomaterials from engineered microalgae. We previously reported genetic improvements of an industrial microalga Nannochloropsis salina by overexpressing a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (NsbHLH2). Read More

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December 2018

Deciphering global gene expression and regulation strategy in Escherichia coli during carbon limitation.

Microb Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences and Oceanology, Shenzhen University, 1066 Xueyuan Rd, Shenzhen, 518055, Guangdong, P. R. China.

Despite decades of studies meant to analyse the bacterial response to carbon limitation, we still miss a high-resolution overview of the situation. All gene expression changes observed in such conditions cannot solely be accounted for by the global regulator Crp either free or bound to its effector, cyclic AMP. Here, for the first time, we evaluated the response of both CDS (protein-coding sequence) and ncRNA (non-coding RNA) genes to carbon limitation, revealed cellular functions of differentially expressed genes systematically, quantified the contribution of Crp-cAMP and other factors to regulation and deciphered regulation strategies at a genomewide scale. Read More

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December 2018

A polyphasic approach to the delimitation of diatom species: a case study for the genus Pinnularia (Bacillariophyta).

J Phycol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Protistology and Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S8, 9000, Gent, Belgium.

Diatoms are one of the most abundant and arguably the most species-rich group of protists. Diatom species delimitation has been often based exclusively on the recognition of morphological discontinuities without investigation of other lines of evidence. Even though DNA sequences and reproductive experiments have revealed several examples of (pseudo)cryptic diversity, our understanding of diatom species boundaries and diversity remains limited. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular and cellular basis of depigmentation in vitiligo patients.

Exp Dermatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, INSERM U1021, Normal and Pathological Development of Melanocytes, Orsay, France.

Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by the appearance of zones of depigmentation. It is mostly described as an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys the melanocytes. Consistent with this origin, genetic studies have implicated genes encoding proteins mediating the immune response targeting melanocytes in the etiology of this disease, together with proteins specific to these cells. Read More

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December 2018
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RhoB antibody alters retinal vascularization in models of murine retinopathy.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania.

Neovascularization in cancer or retinopathy is driven by pathological changes that foster abnormal sprouting of endothelial cells. Mouse genetic studies indicate that the stress-induced small GTPase RhoB is dispensable for normal physiology but required for pathogenic angiogenesis. In diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or age-related wet macular degeneration (AMD), progressive pathologic anatomic changes and ischemia foster neovascularization are characterized by abnormal sprouting of endothelial cells. Read More

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December 2018

The array of clinical phenotypes of males with mutations in Methyl-CpG binding protein 2.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2 are associated with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome (RTT), primarily in girls. It had been suspected that mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) led to embryonic lethality in males, however such males have been reported. To enhance understanding of the phenotypic spectrum present in these individuals, we identified 30 males with MECP2 mutations in the RTT Natural History Study databases. Read More

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December 2018
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