10,661 results match your criteria Generalized Epilepsies on EEG


Electroclinical markers to differentiate between focal and generalized epilepsies.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Paediatric Neurology Division, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, Neurosciences Institute, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Generalized-onset seizures originate at a point within the brain and rapidly engage bilaterally distributed networks, whilst focal-onset seizures originate within networks limited to one hemisphere which may be discretely localized or more widely distributed. Challenges in data capturing have resulted in a lack of consistency across incidence and prevalence studies for estimates of generalized versus focal epilepsies in population groups, with a preponderance of unclassified cases. Infants and young children can further challenge delineation due to variable expression at different stages of brain maturation and impaired ability to express sensory seizure semiology. Read More

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[Clinical features of epilepsy in children with IRF2BPL gene variation].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jun;59(6):506-510

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

To summarize the genotype and phenotype of epilepsy in patients with interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) gene variants. Data of 6 epilepsy patients with IRF2BPL gene variants seen from May 2017 to September 2020 in the Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively collected. The clinical characteristics and genetic test results were analyzed. Read More

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Two cases of DYNC1H1 mutations with intractable epilepsy.

Brain Dev 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The DYNC1H1 gene encodes the heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein 1, a core structure of the cytoplasmic dynein complex. Dominant DYNC1H1 mutations are implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 20, spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant 1, and autosomal dominant mental retardation 13 with neuronal migration defects. We report two patients with DYNC1H1 mutations who had intractable epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID), one with and one without pachygyria. Read More

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Improving prediction of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: From SUDEP-7 to SUDEP-3.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a significant cause of mortality in epilepsy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the SUDEP-7 inventory and its components as tools for predicting SUDEP risk, and to develop and validate an improved inventory.

Methods: The study included 28 patients who underwent video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and later died of SUDEP, and 56 age- and sex-matched control patients with epilepsy. Read More

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Efficacy of Lacosamide in a Patient with Refractory Generalized Epilepsy Based on Video Electroencephalography.

Intern Med 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Japan.

A 20-year-old man with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy (GE) was admitted for video electroencephalography (vEEG) monitoring under treatment with multiple antiepileptic drugs, including levetiracetam (3,000 mg/day), valproic acid (800 mg/day), and lacosamide (LCM) (100 mg/day). No seizures were noted after the withdrawal of levetiracetam. However, after the withdrawal of LCM, atypical absence seizures with a 2- to 2. Read More

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Seizures among young adults consuming kratom beverages in Malaysia: A case series.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 27;121(Pt A):108057. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

We report a case series of young adults who were admitted to hospital with seizures after regular kratom beverage consumption. This study aimed to determine kratom consumption habits and seizure characteristics and to explore whether chronic kratom ingestion without concomitant drug abuse leads to recurrent seizure or epilepsy. All patients underwent blood investigations, a brain computed tomography (CT) scan, electroencephalography, and urine testing for mitragynine and drug toxicology. Read More

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Automated Analysis of Risk Factors for Postictal Generalized EEG Suppression.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:669517. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Center for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) Research, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

Currently, there is some ambiguity over the role of postictal generalized electro-encephalographic suppression (PGES) as a biomarker in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Visual analysis of PGES, known to be subjective, may account for this. In this study, we set out to perform an analysis of PGES presence and duration using a validated signal processing tool, specifically to examine the association between PGES and seizure features previously reported to be associated with visually analyzed PGES. Read More

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Hyperventilation maneuver during EEG in children with epilepsy after the COVID-19 pandemic. Is a routine procedure necessary?

Epilepsia Open 2021 06 12;6(2):437-442. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinica Integral de Epilepsia Infanto-juvenil, Santiago, Chile.

Objective: Hyperventilation (HV) is one of the main and basic activation methods during ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG), unless medical reasons contraindicate it. During the COVID-19 pandemic, with the high risk of human-to-human infection, local guidelines and recommendations have been developed that suggest not to perform the HV maneuver routinely. Our objective was to characterize patients who present positive HV in an epilepsy center. Read More

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Automatic detection of generalized paroxysmal fast activity in interictal EEG using time-frequency analysis.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 3;133:104287. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Markup of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on EEG is an important step in the diagnosis and characterization of epilepsy. However, manual EEG markup is a time-consuming, subjective, and the specialized task where the human reviewer needs to visually inspect a large amount of data to facilitate accurate clinical decisions. In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for automated detection of generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA), a generalized IED seen in scalp EEG recordings of patients with the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Read More

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The baboon in epilepsy research: Revelations and challenges.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 19;121(Pt A):108012. Epub 2021 May 19.

Radiology, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States; Research Imaging Institute, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

The baboon offers a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy with photosensitivity. In this review, we will summarize some of the more important clinical, neuroimaging, and elctrophysiological findings form recent work performed at the Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas), which houses the world's largest captive baboon pedigree. Due to the phylogenetic proximity of the baboon to humans, many of the findings are readily translatable, but there may be some important differences, such as the mutlifocality of the ictal and interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) on intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) and greater parieto-occipital connectivity of baboon brain networks compared to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in humans. Read More

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Shared genetic basis between genetic generalized epilepsy and background electroencephalographic oscillations.

Epilepsia 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Genetics, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objective: Paroxysmal epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are the hallmark of epilepsies, but it is uncertain to what extent epilepsy and background EEG oscillations share neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we aimed to assess the genetic correlation between epilepsy and background EEG oscillations.

Methods: Confounding factors, including the heterogeneous etiology of epilepsies and medication effects, hamper studies on background brain activity in people with epilepsy. Read More

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Acute Leukoencephalopathy with Restricted Diffusion in an Infant with Severe COVID-19 and Dengue Coinfection Progressing to West Syndrome.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 05;67(2)

Department of Paediatrics, Bangalore Medical College & Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560002, India.

COVID-19 pandemic is increasingly being recognized in infants and some develop cytokine storm mediated tissue damage. We report 5-month-old infant presenting with fever, refusal of feeds, developing altered sensorium and convulsions during the hospital course, tested positive for SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR in second week of illness. Her serology was also Dengue positive. Read More

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Case Report: Responsive Neurostimulation of the Centromedian Thalamic Nucleus for the Detection and Treatment of Seizures in Pediatric Primary Generalized Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:656585. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Up to 20% of pediatric patients with primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) will not respond effectively to medication for seizure control. Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) is a promising therapy for pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and has been shown to be an effective therapy for reducing seizure frequency and severity in adult patients. RNS of the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus may help to prevent loss of awareness during seizure activity in PGE patients with absence seizures. Read More

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Localization of Epileptic Foci Based on Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Data.

Front Neurol 2021 27;12:645594. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) enables a non-invasive investigation of the human brain function and evaluation of the correlation of these two important modalities of brain activity. This paper explores recent reports on using advanced simultaneous EEG-fMRI methods proposed to map the regions and networks involved in focal epileptic seizure generation. One of the applications of EEG and fMRI combination as a valuable clinical approach is the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy to map and localize the precise brain regions associated with epileptiform activity. Read More

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Psychiatric and cognitive characteristics of older adults admitted to a Video-EEG monitoring (VEM) unit.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 9;120:107987. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medicine (RMH), The University of Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia; Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To compare the clinical, psychiatric, and cognitive characteristics of older with younger patients presenting to a video-EEG monitoring (VEM) unit.

Method: This was a retrospective case-control study involving patients admitted for VEM over a two-year period (from April 2018 to April 2020) at two comprehensive epilepsy units. Patients were categorized into an older (≥60 years) and a younger (<60 years) group. Read More

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Is severe head injury associated with functional (psychogenic) seizures?

Seizure 2021 May 1;89:38-40. Epub 2021 May 1.

Epilepsy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare the frequency of significant head injuries in three groups of people with seizures [idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) vs. temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) vs. functional seizures (FS)]. Read More

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Predictors of successful valproate withdrawal in women with epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jun 3;119:107980. Epub 2021 May 3.

Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Departments of Neurology and Clinica Neurophysiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Valproate (VPA) use was restricted due to its teratogenic risks in women with epilepsy (WWE). We aimed to assess the outcome and predictors of treatment decisions of withdrawal/switch or continuation of VPA in WWE.

Methods: We included 214 consecutive WWE with a follow-up time of 9. Read More

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Characteristics of visual sensitivity in familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Apr;23(2):366-375

Epilepsy and Sleep Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Xijing hospital, Air Force Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The aim of the study was to describe the electroclinical features of visual sensitivity in patients with familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy. We searched the EEG database using the terms "familial cortical myoclonic tremor and epilepsy" and "visual sensitivity" over a seven-year period from March 2013 to April 2020 in the Xijing hospital, Xi'an, China. The inclusion criteria were demonstrable electroclinical visual sensitivity in the form of eye-opening sensitivity, eye-closure sensitivity, eyes-closed sensitivity and photosensitivity. Read More

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Non-convulsive status epilepticus induced by acute thalamic lesions: A report of three cases.

Seizure 2021 Apr 22;89:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

EEG/Sleep Laboratory, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisboa, Portugal; Univ Lisboa, Fac Med, Clin Univ Neurol, Lisboa, Portugal; Centro de Referência para Epilepsias Refratárias do CHULN, Member of ERN EpiCare, Portugal.

The thalamocortical network appears to play a pivotal role in ictogenesis. We herein present three cases of non-convulsive status epilepticus (SE), in adult patients without previous history of epilepsy or seizures, precipitated by acute thalamic vascular and metabolic-induced lesions. In all cases the EEG showed patterns consistent with generalized SE confirmed either by a fast and complete clinical and EEG response to anti-seizure medication or definitive subtle motor signs consistent with SE. Read More

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Levetiracetam effectiveness as add-on therapy in Bulgarian patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2021 Apr;63(2):234-241

Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Introduction: There are no reliable prospective studies on the effectiveness of LEV in Bulgarian adult patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Aim: The study aimed at conducting an open, prospective study on various aspects of levetiracetam (LEV) effectiveness in Bulgarian patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Materials And Methods: The study was performed with patients with epilepsy recruited from those attending the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Read More

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Eucalyptus Oil-Induced Seizures in Children: A Single-Center Prospective Study.

Cureus 2021 Mar 25;13(3):e14109. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Pediatrics, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, IND.

Objective Eucalyptus oil (EO) is known to have proconvulsant properties. EO is present in many over-the-counter preparations and used orally or topically to treat many ailments. In this study, we seek to describe clinical features, neuroimaging, and electroencephalographic findings and follow up outcome in children with eucalyptus oil-induced seizures (EOIS). Read More

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Phenotypic Spectrum of Seizure Disorders in MBD5-Associated Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Neurol Genet 2021 Apr 18;7(2):e579. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (K.M.), Montreal, PQ; Division of Child Neurology (K.M.), Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, PQ; Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery (K.M.), Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, PQ; Child Neurology and Psychiatry (C.M.), Salesi Pediatric Hospital, United Hospitals of Ancona, Ancona, Italy; Division of Genetic Medicine (G.L.C., J.N., H.C.M.), Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Department of Neurology (A.M.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK; Developmental Neurosciences Programme (A.M.), UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Neurology Network Melbourne (J.P.), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute (C.S., I.E.S.), Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Department of Paediatrics and Child Health (T.S.), School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand; Division of Neurology (S.M.), Department of Pediatrics, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Neurology Unit and Neurogenetic Laboratories (C.B., A.R., R.G.), Meyer Children's Hospital, Florence, Italy; Department of Clinical Genetics (R.H.S.), Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK; Epilepsy Research Centre (I.E.S.), Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; Department of Paediatrics (I.E.S.), Royal Children's Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; and The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (I.E.S.), Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To describe the phenotypic spectrum in patients with MBD5-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (MAND) and seizures; features of MAND include intellectual disability, epilepsy, psychiatric features of aggression and hyperactivity, and dysmorphic features including short stature and microcephaly, sleep disturbance, and ataxia.

Methods: We performed phenotyping on patients with deletions, duplications, or point mutations and a history of seizures.

Results: Twenty-three patients with MAND and seizures were included. Read More

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Cognitive Dysfunction in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) - A Tertiary Care Center Study.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2021 Jan-Feb;24(1):40-50. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurology, Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (GIPMER), New Delhi, India.

Background And Aim: Epilepsy often leads to cognitive impairment. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy as a group is considered to be benign in terms of its effects on cognition. Though, neuropsychological testing reveals subtle frontal impairment in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Read More

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February 2021

Proteomics and Transcriptomics of the Hippocampus and Cortex in SUDEP and High-Risk SUDEP Patients.

Neurology 2021 May 28;96(21):e2639-e2652. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

From the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center (D.F.L., C.V., S.D., D.F., O.D.), Proteomics Laboratory (E.K., S.N., B.U.), Division of Advanced Research Technologies, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (B.U.), NYU School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (D.F.L., G.P., A.F., E.D., S.D., D.F., T.W., B.U., O.D.), Center for Cognitive Neurology (G.P., A.F., E.D., T.W.), Department of Pathology (T.W.), and Department of Psychiatry (T.W.), NYU Langone Health and School of Medicine, New York; Department of (Neuro)Pathology (J.D.M., J.J.A., E.A.v.V., E.A.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, the Netherlands; Alzheimer's and Prion Diseases Team (G.P.), Paris Brain Institute, CNRS, UMR 7225, INSERM 1127, Sorbonne University UM75, Paris, France; Brain & Mind Centre and School of Medical Sciences (E.D.), Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Australia; Biomedical Hosting LLC (M.A.), Arlington, MA; School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (B.J.C., M.J.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Amsterdam UMC (J.C.B., S.I.), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Neurosurgery, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117; Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (E.A.v.V.), Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy (B.D., C.S., M.T.), University College London Institute of Neurology, UK; and Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (R.T., E.A.), Heemstede, the Netherlands

Objective: To identify the molecular signaling pathways underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and high-risk SUDEP compared to control patients with epilepsy.

Methods: For proteomics analyses, we evaluated the hippocampus and frontal cortex from microdissected postmortem brain tissue of 12 patients with SUDEP and 14 with non-SUDEP epilepsy. For transcriptomics analyses, we evaluated hippocampus and temporal cortex surgical brain tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: 6 low-risk and 8 high-risk SUDEP as determined by a short (<50 seconds) or prolonged (≥50 seconds) postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) that may indicate severely depressed brain activity impairing respiration, arousal, and protective reflexes. Read More

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Lateralized Periodic Discharges in a Patient With Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: SPECT and DWI Studies Suggest They are Ictal.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2021 Apr 26:15500594211012352. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

64005Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) are unilateral electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms, recurring at regular intervals. There has been a long-lasting debate about whether they represent ictal or interictal phenomena. Very few patients in the literature have been investigated with multimodal functional imaging techniques. Read More

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Our reasons for converting to valproic acid treatment in female patients with genetic generalized epilepsy: a retrospective, single-centre study.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey.

Introduction And Aim: Valproic acid (Na valproate) is a broad-spectrum anti-seizure medication used in children and adolescents. It is thought to have fewer adverse effects; however, recent studies have restricted its use in women of reproductive age due to the teratogenic impacts on cognition. Although alternative drugs have been used to treat patients in clinical follow-up, some patients have to return to using valproic acid. Read More

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Origin of post-ictal and post-anesthesia adverse effects and possibly of SUDEP.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 9;151:110591. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Physics Dept., Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

The origin of post-ictal malfunctions is debatable. We want to propose a novel idea of a cause of these adverse results occurring following epileptic seizures and anesthesia. Previously we have put forward the idea that epileptic seizures termination is caused by the function of the glymphatic system in the brain. Read More

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Scalp high-frequency oscillation rates are higher in younger children.

Brain Commun 2021 23;3(2):fcab052. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neuropediatrics, University Children's Hospital Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

High-frequency oscillations in scalp EEG are promising non-invasive biomarkers of epileptogenicity. However, it is unclear how high-frequency oscillations are impacted by age in the paediatric population. We prospectively recorded whole-night scalp EEG in 30 children and adolescents with focal or generalized epilepsy. Read More

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Efficient use of clinical EEG data for deep learning in epilepsy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 26;132(6):1234-1240. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Institute for Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Technical Medical Centre, Enschede, the Netherlands; Neurocentrum, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: Automating detection of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) in electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings can reduce the time spent on visual analysis for the diagnosis of epilepsy. Deep learning has shown potential for this purpose, but the scarceness of expert annotated data creates a bottleneck in the process.

Methods: We used EEGs from 50 patients with focal epilepsy, 49 patients with generalized epilepsy (IEDs were visually labeled by experts) and 67 controls. Read More

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Physical activity status and quality of life in patients with epilepsy - Survey from level four epilepsy monitoring units.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul 9;173:106639. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, TX, 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: People with epilepsy (PWE) tend to have sedentary lifestyles which may predispose them to a lower perceived quality of life (QOL). Moreover, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and QOL in populations of PWE with high disease burden has been under-studied. The goal of this study was to evaluate PA level and its impact on health-related QOL in PWE who were admitted to Level-4 epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). Read More

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