985,315 results match your criteria Gender Place and Culture [Journal]


Prevalence and clinical correlations of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia.

Asian J Psychiatr 2018 Nov 27;39:48-52. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Centre of Excellence in Mental Health, PGIMER Dr RML Hospital, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are often present in persons with schizophrenia. Adequately powered studies to evaluate the effect of such symptoms in the course of the disorder, are few.

Aim: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and type of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in persons with schizophrenia. Read More

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November 2018

One-carbon metabolism nutrient intake and the association between body mass index and urinary arsenic metabolites in adults in the Chihuahua cohort.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 12;123:292-300. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Environmental Science and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Curriculum in Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) via drinking water is a serious global health threat. Various factors influence susceptibility to iAs-associated health outcomes, including differences in iAs metabolism. Previous studies have shown that obesity is associated with iAs metabolism. Read More

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December 2018
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Protective effects of REM sleep without atonia against obstructive sleep apnea in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

Sleep Med 2018 Nov 19;54:116-120. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: This study investigated the protective effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia against obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).

Methods: In this case-control study, patients with idiopathic RBD and OSA (RBD-OSA) were consecutively enrolled and OSA controls without RBD were matched for age, sex, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics were compared between RBD-OSA patients and OSA controls. Read More

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November 2018

A comparison between physical and biopsychosocial measures of frailty: Prevalence and associated factors in Brazilian older adults.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Dec 6;81:111-118. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National School of Public Health/Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Department of Epidemiology and Quantitative Methods, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480/room 817b, Manguinhos, 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of frailty, according to Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) and CHS index, to investigate the correlation between both instruments and to identify the factors associated with this condition in older users of primary health care.

Methods: This is a sectional study with 302 individuals aged 60 years or more of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Sociodemographic, health, functional dependence and lifestyle variables were collected. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between anxiety, depression, sex, obesity, and internet addiction in Chinese adolescents: A short-term longitudinal study.

Addict Behav 2018 Dec 7;90:421-427. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Associations between anxiety, depression and adolescent Internet addiction have been well documented in the literature; however, few published studies have examined these relationships considering the developmental trajectory courses of adolescent Internet addiction as well as the individual differences over time. Using a sample of 1545 Chinese adolescents and 3 waves of data over six months, we examined the longitudinal associations between anxiety and depression and Internet addiction, considering sex and obesity. We used latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) to examine the overall conditions of Internet addiction, and latent class growth modeling (LCGM) to determine adolescent developmental membership for Internet addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Weighted vest effects on impact forces and joint work during vertical jump landings in men and women.

Hum Mov Sci 2018 Dec 12;63:156-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Kinesiology & Nutrition Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 3034, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA.

Weighted vest (WV) use during vertical jump landings (VJL) does not appear to alter peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF) or peak joint torques. However, WV effects on joint work and sex differences during VJL are not well understood. This study assessed WV effects on vertical GRF and sagittal joint work during VJL in men and women. Read More

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December 2018

Evidence based survey of the distribution volume of ethanol: Comparison of empirically determined values with anthropometric measures.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 13;294:124-131. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Principal Forensic Services, Bromley, Kent, UK.

The Widmark equation is commonly used when blood alcohol calculations are required in forensic and legal medicine, such as in road-traffic cases and alcohol-related deaths. An important biological variable in this connection is the volume of distribution (V) of ethanol, which is commonly referred to as the rho-factor. Although a person's V can be determined empirically through controlled drinking experiments, this approach is not very practical in reality. Read More

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November 2018

'There is no point giving cash to women who don't spend it the way they are told to spend it' - Exploring women's agency over cash in a combined participatory women's groups and cash transfer programme to improve low birthweight in rural Nepal.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Dec 6;221:9-18. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Cash transfer programmes form an integral part of nutrition, health, and social protection policies worldwide, but the mechanisms through which they achieve their health and nutritional impacts are incompletely understood. We present results from a process evaluation of a combined participatory women's groups and cash transfer programme to improve low birth weight in rural Nepal. We explored the ways in which context, implementation, and mechanism of the intervention affected beneficiary women's agency over cash transfers. Read More

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December 2018
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Are parents at a higher risk for secondary traumatic stress?: How interviewing child victims impacts relationships with forensic interviewer's friends and family.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 12;88:275-287. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Arts & Sciences, University of Houston-Victoria, 3007 N. Ben Wilson, Victoria, TX, 77904, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Forensic interviewers are at a heightened risk for secondary traumatic stress (STS) due to their frequent interactions with victims of child maltreatment (Bonach & Heckert, 2012). To date, however, few studies have examined the negative effects of this work on interviewers' social and emotional well-being.

Objective: The present study seeks to explore the effect of STS on the relationships of forensic interviewers, including those with friends, family, and their respective children. Read More

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December 2018

Reduction of cerebral blood flow in community-based adults with subclinical cerebrovascular atherosclerosis: A 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), one of the major metrics for cerebral perfusion, is associated with many brain disorders. Therefore, early characterization of CBF prior to occurrence of symptoms is essential for prevention of cerebral ischemic disorders. We hypothesized that large artery atherosclerosis might be a potential indicator for decline in cerebral perfusion. Read More

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December 2018
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Higher sleep spindle activity is associated with fewer false memories in adolescent girls.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences.

Methods: 196 adolescents (mean age 16. Read More

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December 2018

Human meibum chain branching variability with age, gender and meibomian gland dysfunction.

Ocul Surf 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

NMR spectroscopy was used to measure hydrocarbon chain branching variability in meibum with age, gender and Meibomian gland dysfuction (MGD). A cohort of 65 meibum donors without dry eye and 31 donors with MGD was studied. Heteronuclear 2D NMR was used to confirm CH resonance assignments allowing us to positively identify 23 of the 27 proton resonances of cholesteryl ester and H resonances due to straight chain, iso-branched and anteiso-branched hydrocarbons. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of sex and menstrual cycle phase on cardiac response and alpha- amylase levels in psychosocial stress.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Social Cognitive Neuroscience, IDOCAL, Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

The impact of sex and the menstrual cycle phase on the autonomic response to psychosocial stress remains controversial. This study explored autonomic nervous system activity through salivary alpha-amylase, heart rate, and heart rate variability responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in healthy young people. The sample was composed of 25 men, 26 women in the luteal phase, and 25 women in the follicular phase, from 18 to 25 years of age. Read More

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December 2018

Machine learning for predicting psychotic relapse at 2 years in schizophrenia in the national FACE-SZ cohort.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France; Faculté de Médecine, Université d'Auvergne, CMP B, CHU, EA 7280, Clermont-Ferrand Cedex 69 63003, France.

Background: Predicting psychotic relapse is one of the major challenges in the daily care of schizophrenia.

Objectives: To determine the predictors of psychotic relapse and follow-up withdrawal in a non-selected national sample of stabilized community-dwelling SZ subjects with a machine learning approach.

Methods: Participants were consecutively included in the network of the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical and cognitive assessment, including recording of current treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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Association of age-related macular degeneration with mortality in patients with AIDS; role of systemic inflammation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships among age-related macular degeneration (AMD), mortality, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Design: Case control study.

Participants: Participants with intermediate-stage AMD at enrollment in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) and 2:1 controls matched for age and gender. Read More

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December 2018

Young Cohorts of Russians Drink Less: Age-Period-Cohort Modelling of Alcohol Use Prevalence 1994-2016.

Addiction 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 11 Myasnitskaya, Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.

Background and aims Young Russians have been drinking less alcohol, and less strong spirits in particular, in recent years. This study aimed to disentangle age, period and birth cohort effects for the first time in Russia to improve our understanding of these trends. Design Age, period and cohort analysis of annual nationally representative repeated cross-sectional surveys (RLMS-HSE) using separate logistic models for each gender. Read More

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December 2018

Breast lesion detection and characterization with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: Prospective randomized intraindividual comparison of gadoterate meglumine (0.15 mmol/kg) and gadobenate dimeglumine (0.075 mmol/kg) at 3T.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the breast is highly sensitive for breast cancer detection. Multichannel coils and 3T scanners can increase signal, spatial, and temporal resolution. In addition, the T -reduction effect of a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) is higher at 3T. Read More

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December 2018

Depressive symptoms and cerebral microvascular disease in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Diabet Med 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms, comparing a sample of middle-aged adults with and without juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and to determine if depressive symptoms were associated with white matter hyperintensity volume among those with Type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Depressive symptoms and white matter hyperintensities were compared between adults (age range 30-65 years) with juvenile-onset Type 1 diabetes (n=130) and adults without Type 1 diabetes (n=133). The association of Type 1 diabetes with depression was computed before and after adjustment for white matter hyperintensities. Read More

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December 2018

Blood pressure reactivity at onset of mental stress determines sympathetic vascular response in young adults.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(24):e13944

School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

We have previously shown in young males that the rate of rise in blood pressure (BP) at the onset of mental stress determines whether or not muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) has a role in driving the pressor response. The aim of this study was to investigate these interactions in young females. BP and MSNA were recorded continuously in 19 females and 21 males during 2-min mental stressors (mental arithmetic and Stroop test). Read More

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December 2018

Maternal and offspring MTHFR genotypes interact in a mouse model to induce ASD-like behavior.

Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 15:e12547. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. Read More

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December 2018

Brucellosis knowledge and preventive practices among herders in Western Mongolia.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Lack of knowledge regarding brucellosis may lead to highly risky practices. Among herders in Mongolia, little research was conducted assessing the extent of knowledge related to brucellosis, the type of preventive behaviours that were practiced, and the relationship between knowledge and behaviour regarding brucellosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two provinces of Mongolia where herders were randomly selected to participate in the study. Read More

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December 2018

A molecular approach combined with American Thyroid Association classification better stratifies recurrence risk of classic histology papillary thyroid cancer.

Cancer Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Prognosis among patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is widely variable. Better understanding of biologic subtypes is necessary to stratify patients and improve outcomes.

Methods: In patients diagnosed with classic histology papillary thyroid cancer treated from 1973 to 2009, BRAF V600E mutation status was determined on surgical tumor specimens by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Read More

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December 2018

EFFECT OF TIME OF THE DAY AND SPECIALITY ON POLYP DETECTION RATES IN AUSTRALIA.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Medicine, the University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background And Aim: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important quality metric in colonoscopy. However, there is conflicting evidence around factors that influence ADR. This study aims to investigate the effect of time of day and endoscopist background on ADR and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp detection rate (SSA/P-DR) for screening colonoscopies. Read More

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December 2018
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Genetic polymorphisms of miRNA let7a-2 and pri-mir-34b/c are associated with an increased risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma and clinical/pathological features.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

microRNAs (miRNAs) as a group of short noncoding RNAs are crucial molecules in transcriptional and translational regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Evidence showed there was an association between the miRNA polymorphisms and various cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The present study aims to evaluate the possible effects of let7a-2 rs1143770 and pri-mir-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphisms on PTC susceptibility. Read More

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December 2018

The expression levels of miRNA-15a and miRNA-16-1 in circulating tumor cells of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cancer Genetics, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have major roles in nearly all cellular process including gene expression, and may behave as oncogene or tumor suppressor gene by binding to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The circulating microRNA-15a (miRNA-15a) and microRNA-16-1 (miRNA-16-1) of 15 healthy adults and of 40 untreated patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC) were recruited to investigate the expression levels. The expression levels of miRNA-15a, and miRNA-16-1 genes of the untreated DLBCL patients, and healthy individuals with matched age, sex and ethnicity were examined. Read More

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December 2018
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Media Psychological Reflections on the Organizational Framework of Sexual Media's Influence on Users' Short- vs. Long-Term Sexual Quality.

Arch Sex Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Leuven School for Mass Communication Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, KU Leuven, Parkstraat 45, 3000, Louvain, Belgium.

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December 2018

"The Prostitution Problem": Insights from Senegal.

Authors:
Ellen E Foley

Arch Sex Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

International Development, Community, and Environment, Clark University, Worcester, MA, 01610, USA.

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December 2018

Sexual Aggression in Brazilian Nightclubs: Associations with Patron's Characteristics, Drug Use, and Environmental Factors.

Arch Sex Behav 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, USA.

Bars and nightclubs are main locations for sexual assault outcomes such as rape, attempted rape, stalking, and other forms of sexual harassment. Alcohol use is strongly associated with violence in nightlife settings. The present study aimed to identify individual and environmental factors, such as different types of nightclubs, music styles, and physical environment associated with nightclub patron's report of being victims of sexual aggression inside nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. Read More

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December 2018

Gender Stereotypes and Preconception Health: Men's and Women's Expectations of Responsibility and Intentions to Engage in Preventive Behaviors.

Matern Child Health J 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA.

Introduction As mounting evidence underscores the importance of both men and women taking steps before pregnancy to improve reproductive outcomes, public health priorities are shifting toward a more gender-inclusive program of promoting preconception health (PCH). This study examined whether prescriptive gender stereotypes, defined as men's and women's beliefs about PCH behavioral norms each gender should uphold, were positively associated with intentions to engage in behaviors to protect a future child's health. Methods Data came from a June 2017 online survey of 609 U. Read More

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December 2018

Sex differences in somatomotor representations of others' pain: a permutation-based analysis.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Sex differences in empathy for pain have been repeatedly observed. However, it is unclear whether this is due to sex differences in "bottom-up" somatomotor representations of others' pain (self-other resonance) or to "top-down" prefrontal control of such responses. Here, we provide data from 70 subjects suggesting that sex differences in empathy for pain lie primarily in pre-reflective, bottom-up resonance mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Five-year outcome of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: the NEPHROVIR population-based cohort study.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hôpital Robert-Debré, APHP, 48 Bd Serurier, 75019, Paris, France.

Background: The optimal therapeutic regimen for children at onset of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is still under debate. A better knowledge of the disease's course is necessary to design more appropriate and/or personalized treatment protocols.

Methods: We report the 5-year outcome of patients included from December 2007 to May 2010 in the prospective multicentric and multiethnic population-based NEPHROVIR study. Read More

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December 2018
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Substance Use and Depression Among Recently Migrated African Gay and Bisexual Men Living in the United States.

J Immigr Minor Health 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Read More

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December 2018

A Review Update on Gender Dysphoria and ASD and Response to Corrections.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Education, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Here we address the earlier published review by Øien et al. (J Autism Dev Disord, https://doi.org/10. Read More

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December 2018

Complex gastric surgery in Germany-is centralization beneficial? Observational study using national hospital discharge data.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Thoraxchirurgie, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany.

Purpose: This observational study explored the association between hospital volume and short-term outcome following gastric resections for non-bariatric indication, aiming to contribute to the discussion on centralization of complex visceral surgery in Germany.

Methods: Based on complete national hospital discharge data from 2010 to 2015, the association between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality was evaluated according to volume quintiles and volume deciles. Case-mix differences regarding surgical indication, age, sex, and comorbidities were considered for risk adjustment. Read More

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December 2018

Altered structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Symbiosis Center for Medical Image Analysis and Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis International University, Lavale, Mulshi, Pune, Maharashtra, 412115, India.

Objectives: To investigate the structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features (MSA-C), a distinct subtype of MSA, characterized by predominant cerebellar symptoms.

Methods: Twenty-three patients with MSA-C and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Disease severity was quantified using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). Read More

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December 2018
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Sex-specific differences in genotoxic and epigenetic effects of 1,3-butadiene among mouse tissues.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Exposure to environmental chemicals has been shown to have an impact on the epigenome. One example is a known human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene which acts primarily by a genotoxic mechanism, but also disrupts the chromatin structure by altering patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and histone modifications. Sex-specific differences in 1,3-butadiene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are well established; however, it remains unknown whether 1,3-butadiene-associated epigenetic alterations are also sex dependent. Read More

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December 2018

Radiographic stool quantification: an equivalence study of 484 symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Michigan Medicine, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose: To determine if symptomatic patients referred for radiographic stool quantification have equivalent stool burden to asymptomatic patients.

Method: This was an IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective equivalence cohort study. An a priori equivalence power calculation was performed. Read More

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December 2018

Spasticity and preservation of skeletal muscle mass in people with spinal cord injury.

Spinal Cord 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Study Design: Cross-sectional OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between skeletal muscle mass and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Setting: Tertiary level hospital in Seoul, Korea METHODS: Spasticity was evaluated in 69 participants with SCI using the spasticity sum score (SSS), Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), and Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATS). Skeletal muscle mass was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, and skeletal muscle index was calculated by dividing skeletal muscle mass by height squared. Read More

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December 2018

Inappropriate left ventricular mass after preeclampsia: another piece of the puzzle Inappropriate LVM and PE.

Hypertens Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Maternal Fetal Medicine Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Excessive left ventricular (LV) mass (LVM) increase results in inefficient LV work with high energy waste and a negative prognostic effect. We aimed to investigate the presence of inappropriate LVM and to calculate the myocardial mechanoenergetic efficiency index (MEEi) in asymptomatic women with a history of early-onset (EO) or late-onset (LO) pre-eclampsia (PE). Among all women diagnosed with PE in the years 2009-2013, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and cost-effectiveness analysis, we randomly selected thirty women who experienced EO-PE, thirty with a previous LO-PE and thirty healthy controls to undergo echocardiography from 6 months to 4 years after delivery. Read More

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December 2018

Determinants of pulse pressure amplification in hypertensive and diabetic patients.

Hypertens Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Paris-Descartes University; Diagnosis and Therapeutic Center, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Prevention Unit, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France.

Hypertensive diabetic patients remain at high cardiovascular risk despite adequate blood pressure and glycemic control. Pulse pressure amplification (PPA) is expressed as the peripheral-to-central PP ratio and provides complementary information for use in assessing cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical and biological determinants of PPA in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Read More

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December 2018

Gender-specific discrepancy in subjective global assessment for mortality in hemodialysis patients.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17846. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Although subjective global assessment (SGA) is a widely used representative tool for nutritional investigations even among dialysis patients, no studies have examined gender-specific differences in the ability of SGA to predict mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A total of 2,798 dialysis patients were enrolled from clinical research center for end-stage renal disease (CRC for ESRD) between 2009 and 2015. The cohort was divided into two groups based on nutritional status as evaluated by SGA: 'good nutrition' and 'mild to severe malnutrition'. Read More

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December 2018
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Miniscule differences between sex chromosomes in the giant genome of a salamander.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17882. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

In the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), sex is determined by a single Mendelian factor, yet its sex chromosomes do not exhibit morphological differentiation typical of many vertebrate taxa that possess a single sex-determining locus. As sex chromosomes are theorized to differentiate rapidly, species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes provide the opportunity to reconstruct early events in sex chromosome evolution. Whole genome sequencing of 48 salamanders, targeted chromosome sequencing and in situ hybridization were used to identify the homomorphic sex chromosome that carries an A. Read More

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December 2018

Female adipose tissue-specific Bscl2 knockout mice develop only moderate metabolic dysfunction when housed at thermoneutrality and fed a high-fat diet.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17863. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Mutations affecting the BSCL2 gene cause the most severe form of congenital generalised lipodystrophy. Affected individuals almost completely lack adipose tissue and suffer from severe diabetes and metabolic complications. Likewise, mice lacking Bscl2 in all tissues have dramatically reduced adipose mass, glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia. Read More

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December 2018

Human sex reversal is caused by duplication or deletion of core enhancers upstream of SOX9.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 14;9(1):5319. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, 3052, VIC, Australia.

Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are conditions affecting development of the gonads or genitalia. Variants in two key genes, SRY and its target SOX9, are an established cause of 46,XY DSD, but the genetic basis of many DSDs remains unknown. SRY-mediated SOX9 upregulation in the early gonad is crucial for testis development, yet the regulatory elements underlying this have not been identified in humans. Read More

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December 2018

Variable gender-dependent platelet responses to combined antiplatelet therapy in patients with stable coronary-artery disease.

J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Aug 9;69(4). Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

Antiplatelet therapy is considered as a standard procedure against atherosclerotic cardiovscular disease but this therapy has limited effect if resistance to acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel is present. Important factors associated with resistance are gender; or inflammation possibly associated with membrane microparticles (MP). It was decided to challenge the hypothesis that differential responses to dual antiplatelet therapy are conditioned by gender and/or proinflammatory status. Read More

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Proteins, transcripts, and genetic architecture of seminal fluid and sperm in the mosquito .

Mol Cell Proteomics 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Biology & Biochemistry, Syracuse University, United States of America

The yellow fever mosquito, , transmits several viruses causative of serious diseases, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Some proposed efforts to control this vector involve manipulating reproduction to suppress wild populations or to replace them with disease-resistant mosquitoes. The design of such strategies requires an intimate knowledge of reproductive processes, yet our basic understanding of reproductive genetics in this vector remains largely incomplete. Read More

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December 2018
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Effectiveness of self-testing kits availability on improving HIV testing frequency for chinese men who have sex with men and their sexual partners: a protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024423. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Xiangya Nursing School of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: HIV epidemic is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, yet HIV testing uptake remains low. As an emerging approach, HIV self-testing (HIVST) has the potential to promote HIV testing coverage and frequency in this population. However, evidence of the effectiveness on implementation of HIVST among Chinese MSM and their sexual partners is scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Risk factors for opioid-induced respiratory depression in surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e024086. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate the risk factors associated with postoperative opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: PubMed-MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed and Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018
2.063 Impact Factor

Survival and new-onset morbidity after critical care admission for acute pancreatitis in Scotland: a national electronic healthcare record linkage cohort study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023853. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Introduction: Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) requiring critical care admission (ccAP) impacts negatively on long-term survival.

Objective: To document organ-specific new morbidity and identify risk factors associated with premature mortality after an episode of ccAP.

Design: Cohort study. Read More

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December 2018
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