879 results match your criteria Gender Identity Disorders Transsexualism

Clinical practice guidelines for transsexual, transgender and gender diverse minors.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2022 Apr 6;96(4):349.e1-349.e11. Epub 2022 May 6.

Sección Endocrinología Pediátrica, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), ISCIII, EndoERN, Barcelona, Spain.

Some people, including minors, have a gender identity that does not correspond to the sex assigned at birth. They are known as trans* people, which is an umbrella term that encompasses transgender, transsexual, and other identities not conforming to the assigned gender. Healthcare units for trans* minors require multidisciplinary working, undertaken by personnel expert in gender identity, enabling, when requested, interventions for the minor and their social-familial environment, in an individualized and flexible way during the gender affirmation path. Read More

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The Epidemiology of Gender Dysphoria in Iran: The First Nationwide Study.

Arch Sex Behav 2022 May 5;51(4):1881-1889. Epub 2022 May 5.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Gender dysphoria (GD) is defined as a persistent and distressful incongruence between one's gender identity and one's at-birth-assigned sex. Sex reassignment has been religiously accepted for transgender individuals in postrevolutionary Iran since 1987; however, very little is known about how many individuals seek and receive such treatment annually. This study provides the first nationwide effort to assess the prevalence of GD in Iran as a function of diagnosis. Read More

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Self-Perception of Transgender Adolescents After Gender-Affirming Treatment: A Follow-Up Study into Young Adulthood.

LGBT Health 2022 May-Jun;9(4):238-246. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Early medical treatment for transgender adolescents should contribute to healthy psychological development, including the development of positive self-perception. However, at present, there are no longitudinal studies that have examined whether current treatment approaches meet this expectation. Therefore, the aim of this single-arm retrospective study was to examine transgender adolescents' self-perception changes over the course of irreversible medical gender-affirming treatment. Read More

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Gender Dysphoria and Sexual Well-Being Among Trans Masculine and Nonbinary Individuals.

Arch Sex Behav 2022 May 21;51(4):2049-2063. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD, 21252, USA.

Prior qualitative research has noted that gender dysphoria impacts sexual engagement and satisfaction for many trans masculine and nonbinary individuals. As such, the current cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the exact relations between distinct aspects of gender dysphoria (i.e. Read More

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Gender Affirming Medical Treatment Desire and Treatment Motives in Binary and Non-Binary Transgender Individuals.

J Sex Med 2022 Jul 10;19(7):1173-1184. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Maastricht University, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: It is currently unknown whether there are differences in desire for gender affirming medical treatment (GAMT) between binary and non-binary transgender individuals, although the latter seek treatment less prevalently.

Aim: To investigate differences between binary and non-binary individuals on received GAMT, desire for GAMT, and motives for (not) wanting GAMT, and to explore the association between having an unfulfilled treatment desire and general and sexual well-being.

Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire in a community sample of 125 transgender men, 72 transgender women, and 62 non-binary transgender individuals (age: M = 30. Read More

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Gender Identity and Non-Binary Presentations in Adolescents Attending Two Specialized Services in Italy.

J Sex Med 2022 Jun 31;19(6):1035-1048. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, and Health Studies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Recently, the variability and heterogeneity of gender presentations in transgender youths have gained significant attention worldwide. Alongside this, specialized gender services have reported an increase in referrals of youths reporting non-binary identities. In Italy, studies investigating gender identity and expression in gender non-conforming youths are lacking, as are data regarding the non-binary population. Read More

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Characteristics of a Population with Gender Incongruence Assisted at a Specialized Outpatient Service in the City of Ribeirão Preto.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2022 Mar 9;44(3):258-263. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Human Reproduction Division, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Objective:  To identify the age when individuals first perceive gender incongruence (GI) and to compare sociodemographic data of female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transgender individuals assisted at an outpatient service.

Methods:  The present cross-sectional study was conducted through a review of the medical records of individuals diagnosed with GI at a single specialized outpatient service in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Results:  A total of 193 medical records from 2010 to 2018 were evaluated, and 109 (56. Read More

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Negative Media Coverage as a Barrier to Accessing Care for Transgender Children and Adolescents.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 02 1;5(2):e2138623. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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February 2022

Association of Media Coverage on Transgender Health With Referrals to Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinics in Sweden.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 02 1;5(2):e2146531. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Importance: Increasing numbers of transgender and gender diverse children and adolescents have been referred to gender identity clinics in Sweden in the past decade, and previous studies have found an association between media attention and referral counts. Whether the tone of media stories is associated with referrals is not yet known.

Objective: To investigate whether positive or negative media coverage on transgender and gender diverse issues is associated with referral counts to child and adolescent gender identity clinics. Read More

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February 2022

Assigned-Female-at-Birth Trans Masculine and Non-Binary Individuals Differ in Their Body Satisfaction and Desire for Gender Affirming Treatments.

Arch Sex Behav 2022 May 31;51(4):2037-2047. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Biology, Hall of Science, American University, 4400 Mass. Ave. N.W, Washington, DC, 20016, USA.

Many non-binary individuals physically affirm their gender, but the binary/non-binary component of gender identity is rarely reported, and when it is, assigned-male- and assigned-female-at-birth individuals are often grouped together. We compared the experience of assigned-female-at-birth trans masculine and non-binary individuals via an anonymous online survey and found that patterns of overall body satisfaction and strength of intention to modify the body support the idea that the lower engagement in physical affirmation by non-binary individuals reflects less need to undergo body modifications. Trans masculine and non-binary participants who had had at least one gender affirming treatment (GAT) mostly identified as trans and expressed a similar ranking of GAT preferences. Read More

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Neuroradiology in Transgender Care: Facial Feminization, Laryngeal Surgery, and Beyond.

Radiographics 2022 Jan-Feb;42(1):233-249

From the Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd S, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (J.T.S., E.H.M., D.F.B., A.A.B.); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif (P.J.); and Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn (J.M.J.).

Transgender individuals experience incongruence between their gender identity and the sex assigned to them at birth. This incongruence can cause many transgender individuals to experience distressing physical and mental discord, a diagnosis known as gender dysphoria. Craniofacial structures have distinct anthropometric characteristics that affect perceived masculinity and femininity. Read More

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Gender Dysphoria: A Medical and Ethical Perplexity as Distinct from Reality and the Rational Approach for Muslim Young People.

Psychiatr Danub 2021 ;33(4):475-484

Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University Dammam, PO box 1982, 31442, Saudi Arabia,

Gender dysphoria (GD), a conflict between one's self-perceived gender identity and the biological sex has been a wholly enigma and a source of contention between experts of various disciplines since long. This is a narrative review of the medical literature utilizing PubMed, Scopus, and Web of science databases, on the social status of GD patients, their therapeutic options, as well as the medical and ethical debate on GD that are of especial interest to the Muslim readers. Gender dysphoric patients or transgender people have a long history of social discrimination, marginalization, abuse, and neglect all around the world. Read More

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December 2021

Change in Gender on Record and Transgender Adults' Mental or Behavioral Health.

Am J Prev Med 2022 05 16;62(5):696-704. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University-Portland State University, Portland, Oregon.

Introduction: Within gender-diverse populations, gender-affirming changes in gender on record may improve mental or behavioral health. This study uses claims data to investigate whether sex assigned at birth modifies the association between change in gender on record and mental or behavioral health.

Methods: Adult Oregon Medicaid beneficiaries with gender identity-related diagnoses and enrolled during 2010-2019 were included. Read More

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Characterization of a transgender population in Portugal.

Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2022 Feb 3;83(1):35-39. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, E.P.E., Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine and Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde of Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which the individual's gender identity does not correspond to their biological sex, causing significant distress. Biological males who identify as females are referred to as transgender females or as showing male-to-female GD (MtF GD) and biological females who identify as males are referred to as transgender males or as showing female-to-male GD (FtM GD). In our center, there is a multidisciplinary consultation to approach and follow patients with GD. Read More

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February 2022

Psychosis in transgender and gender non-conforming individuals: A review of the literature and a call for more research.

Psychiatry Res 2021 12 6;306:114272. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Michigan State University, United States. Electronic address:

Epidemiological studies have described higher rates of psychotic disorder diagnoses in transgender, as compared to cisgender, individuals. With the exception of this work and a small number of published case studies, however, there has been little consideration of gender diversity in psychosis research or clinical care. In this paper, we will review and critically evaluate the limited literature on gender diversity and clinical psychosis and articulate the critical need for more work in this field, more specifically on the following areas and how they bear on clinical care: 1) diagnostic biases; 2) how chronic non-affirmation and bias, gender dysphoria, and other gender minority stressors may operate as trauma and can contribute to clinically significant psychotic symptoms; 3) the potential impact of gender-affirming care, such as hormone therapies, on mental health and barriers for receiving such care in transgender and nonbinary individuals; and 4) culturally-sensitive and gender-affirming approaches for addressing psychosis. Read More

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December 2021

Gender detransition: a case study.

Lisa Marchiano

J Anal Psychol 2021 09;66(4):813-832

Philadelphia, USA.

Within the last decade, there has been a sharp global rise in the number of young people identifying as transgender. More recently, there appears to be an increase in the numbers of young people detransitioning or returning to identifying with their natal sex after pursuing medical transition. A case is presented of a young woman who pursued a gender transition and returned to identifying as female after almost two years on testosterone. Read More

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September 2021

Psychological Wellbeing and Perceived Social Acceptance in Gender Diverse Individuals.

J Sex Med 2021 11;18(11):1933-1944

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology and Gender Incongruence Unit, Florence University Hospital, 50139 Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Over the last few years, the gender binary has been questioned, highlighting the existence of gender diverse people, who identify as neither (exclusively) male nor female.

Aim: The present study evaluated the possible differences in terms of psychological wellbeing between binary and gender diverse individuals, as well as the role of perceived social acceptance and religious fundamentalism as possible mediators of psychopathology in gender diverse people. Furthermore, the diversity of gender-affirming hormonal treatment requests according to gender identification was investigated. Read More

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November 2021

Dramaturgical Accounts of Transgender Individuals: Impression Management in the Presentation of Self to Specialist Gender Services.

Arch Sex Behav 2021 11 5;50(8):3539-3549. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Bamford Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA, UK.

Demand for gender dysphoria (GD) treatment has increased markedly over the past decade. Access to gender-affirming treatments is challenging for most people. For dysphoric individuals, much is at stake. Read More

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November 2021

Comparative Outcomes of Partial and Full Facial Feminization Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Oct;32(7):2397-2400

Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Langone Health, New York City, NY.

Background: The demand for facial feminization surgery (FFS) amongst transgender women is on the rise, and requests for a single-stage full FFS (F-FFS) are becoming more frequent. The specific aim of this article is to present our institutional experience with both partial-FFS (P-FFS) and F-FFS with a specific emphasis on safety of each approach.

Methods: We examined the electronic medical record of all patients with the diagnosis of gender dysphoria that were referred to the senior author for FFS consultation at our institution, between June 2017 and October 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Brain connectivity dynamics in cisgender and transmen people with gender incongruence before gender affirmative hormone treatment.

Sci Rep 2021 10 26;11(1):21036. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Facultad de Psicologia, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Large-scale brain network interactions have been described between trans- and cis-gender binary identities. However, a temporal perspective of the brain's spontaneous fluctuations is missing. We investigated the functional connectivity dynamics in transmen with gender incongruence and its relationship with interoceptive awareness. Read More

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October 2021

A cohort study on factors impairing semen quality in transgender women.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 03 22;226(3):390.e1-390.e10. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Reproduction & Development Research Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Transgender women (people assigned male genders at birth with female gender identities) can choose to cryopreserve semen before their medical transition, to retain the possibility to parent genetically related offspring later in life. Our previous retrospective study showed that semen quality in transgender women was decreased compared with the general population. The etiology of this impaired semen quality remains largely unknown. Read More

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It Might Take Time: A Study on the Evolution of Quality of Life in Individuals With Gender Incongruence During Gender-Affirming Care.

J Sex Med 2021 12 16;18(12):2045-2055. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Center for Sexology and Gender, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Introduction: The distress caused by gender incongruence has been shown to be reduced with gender-affirming care. The current study follows a cohort of patients that requested gender-affirming care at Ghent University Hospital and examines the outcome of the procedures.

Methods: The prospective design with 4 assessment times allows the study to assess the evolution of self-reported quality of life (QoL) and gender incongruence throughout a medical transition process. Read More

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December 2021

"These Laws Will Be Devastating": Provider Perspectives on Legislation Banning Gender-Affirming Care for Transgender Adolescents.

J Adolesc Health 2021 12 7;69(6):976-982. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Colonial Penn Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: The standards of care for transgender and gender diverse youth (TGDY) experiencing gender dysphoria are well-established and include gender-affirming medical interventions. As of July 2021, 22 states have introduced or passed legislation that bans the provision of gender-affirming medical care to anyone under the age of 18 even with parent or guardian consent. The purpose of this study is to understand what providers who deliver gender-affirming medical care to TGDY think about this legislation. Read More

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December 2021

Comparison of Cervical Cancer Screen Results on Female-to-Male Transgender Patients With Female Patients.

Am J Clin Pathol 2022 04;157(4):540-545

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: There are limited data on cervical screen results from female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients. Herein, we compiled demographic information and cervical screen testing on FTM transgender patients and compared with age-appropriate controls.

Methods: A search of our previous and current databases was performed for Papanicolaou (Pap) tests from patients taking testosterone and/or with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, or transvestism. Read More

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Anatomical and sexual health considerations among transfeminine individuals who have undergone vaginoplasty: A review.

Int J STD AIDS 2022 02 6;33(2):106-113. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Medicine, 9967University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA.

As acceptance of transgender and gender diverse individuals continues to increase, gender-affirming surgery, a cornerstone in the management of gender dysphoria, is becoming more readily available. HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect these populations, but there are limited epidemiologic and management data on STIs in people who have undergone gender-affirming genital surgery such as vaginoplasty. This review will provide clinicians with anatomical details about the various vaginoplasty procedures currently being performed, complications associated with these procedures, and an overview of the current literature describing HIV/STI epidemiology among transfeminine individuals who have undergone vaginoplasty. Read More

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February 2022

We Are all Responsible for Transgender Care.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 02;107(3):e1310-e1311

Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

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February 2022

Medicolegal issues surrounding legal sex designations.

Fertil Steril 2021 10;116(4):922-923

Medicine and Biological Sciences, the Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

The medical profession is deeply involved in designating and amending the sex designations on legal records that themselves are not used clinically. The assumptions inherent in the current legal sex designation system and the criteria for amending such are being reexamined. The harms of the current legal sex designation system, especially for transgender people, have become increasingly recognized. Read More

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October 2021

Healthcare for Trans*gender People in Germany: Gaps, Challenges, and Perspectives.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:718335. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

People whose gender does not correspond to the binary gender system, i.e., transgender people, face two main problems when it comes to healthcare in Germany: (1) They often suffer from general psychiatric comorbidities as well as specific and significant mental distress due to gender dysphoria, and (2) the German healthcare system lacks sufficiently educated and clinically experienced medical personnel who are able to provide specialized healthcare. Read More

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September 2021

Gender-Affirmative Eating Disorder Care: Clinical Considerations for Transgender and Gender Expansive Children and Youth.

Pediatr Ann 2021 Sep 1;50(9):e371-e378. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Transgender and gender expansive (TGE) children and youth suffer staggering rates of discrimination and are at higher risk of developing eating disorder symptoms and behaviors than cisgender youth. This article presents an overview of current research on identified risk factors for the development of eating disorders for TGE children and youth; provides clinical considerations for professionals in providing gender-affirming, collaborative eating disorder care; outlines specific concepts for staff training and for developing gender-affirming systems of care including policies and practices; and identifies numerous resources for TGE children and youth and their families. The clinical considerations and suggested practices reflect current research and clinical practice. Read More

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September 2021

Re Imogen: the role of the Family Court of Australia in disputes over gender dysphoria treatment.

Monash Bioeth Rev 2021 Dec 19;39(Suppl 1):42-66. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Melbourne Law School, University of Melbourne, Carlton, Australia.

This article examines Re Imogen (No 6) (2020) 61 Fam LR 344, a decision of the Family Court of Australia, which held that an application to the Family Court is mandatory if a parent or a medical practitioner of a child or adolescent diagnosed with gender dysphoria disputes the diagnosis, the capacity to consent, or the proposed treatment. First, we explain the regulatory framework for the medical treatment of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents, including the development of the welfare jurisdiction under Section 67ZC of the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth). We then provide an overview of the Re Imogen decision, and discuss the balancing exercise involved in determining a child's best interests in the medical treatment context. Read More

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December 2021