13,303 results match your criteria Gastroenteritis Viral

Hepatitis E: an update on One Health and clinical medicine.

Liver Int 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Wilhelmstrasse 27, 72074, Tübingen, Germany.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis and the de facto global burden is underestimated. HEV-related clinical complications are often undetected and are not considered in the differential diagnosis. Convincing findings from studies suggest that HEV is clinically relevant not only in developing countries but also in industrialized countries. Read More

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Rotavirus gastroenteritis in Pakistan, 2018: updated disease burden.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 6;21(1):426. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: Rotavirus A (RVA) is a significant cause of severe diarrheal illness and one of the common causes of death in children under the age of five. This study was aimed at detecting the prevalence of RVA in Pakistan after rotavirus vaccines were introduced. Fecal samples were obtained from 813 children from different hospitals in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from January 2018 to December 2018. Read More

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A rare case of emphysematous gastritis caused by Lactobacillus fermentum in a patient with diabetes.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Gastroenterología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México.

A 42-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (complicated by end stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis) and chronic diarrhea was admitted to the emergency department for having an exacerbation in the number of evacuations. The patient was hypotensive and lethargic. Arterial blood gases were obtained and reported pH 7. Read More

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Measuring transfer of human norovirus during sandwich production: Simulating the role of food, food handlers and the environment.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Mar 11;348:109151. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Gastrointestinal Infections, UK.

Foodborne outbreaks associated with transmission of norovirus are increasingly becoming a public health concern. Foods can be contaminated with faecal material at the point of production or during food preparation, in both the home and in commercial premises. Transmission of norovirus occurs through the faecal-oral route, either via person-to-person contact or through faecal-contamination of food, water, or environmental surfaces. Read More

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J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 16;139:104825. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Servicio de Infectología. Hospital General del Oeste "Dr. José Gregorio Hernández". Catia, Sector Los Magallanes de Catia. Caracas, Venezuela.

Background: Human cosavirus (HCoSV) is a new member of the Picornaviridae family, geographically widespread among humans. It has been suggested as a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but its pathogenicity is not currently certain. In HIV-infected subjects, diarrhoea is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal manifestations, whose aetiology remains often unexplained. Read More

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Evaluation of mobile real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Sci Rep 2021 04 30;11(1):9387. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), calls for prompt and accurate diagnosis and rapid turnaround time for test results to limit transmission. Here, we evaluated two independent molecular assays, the Biomeme SARS-CoV-2 test, and the Precision Biomonitoring TripleLock SARS-CoV-2 test on a field-deployable point-of-care real-time PCR instrument, Franklin three9, in combination with Biomeme M1 Sample Prep Cartridge Kit for RNA 2.0 (M1) manual extraction system for rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of SARS-COV-2 in cell culture, human, and animal clinical samples. Read More

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Identification of a blockade epitope of human norovirus GII.17.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 30:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Human noroviruses are the dominant causative agent of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. During the winter of 2014-2015, genotype GII.17 cluster IIIb strains emerged as the leading cause of norovirus infection in Asia and later spread to other parts of the world. Read More

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Free Chlorine and Peroxynitrite Alter the Capsid Structure of Human Norovirus GII.4 and Its Capacity to Bind Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:662764. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LCPME, Nancy, France.

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoVs are frequently detected in water and foodstuffs. Free chlorine and peroxynitrite (ONOO) are two oxidants commonly encountered by HuNoVs in humans or in the environment during their natural life cycle. Read More

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Understanding the Central Nervous System Symptoms of Rotavirus: A Qualitative Review.

Viruses 2021 04 11;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

This qualitative review on rotavirus infection and its complications in the central nervous system (CNS) aims to understand the gut-brain mechanisms that give rise to CNS driven symptoms such as vomiting, fever, feelings of sickness, convulsions, encephalitis, and encephalopathy. There is substantial evidence to indicate the involvement of the gut-brain axis in symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not rotavirus specific, they represent evolutionarily conserved survival mechanisms for protection against pathogen entry and invasion. Read More

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Glycan-Induced Protein Dynamics in Human Norovirus P Dimers Depend on Virus Strain and Deamidation Status.

Molecules 2021 Apr 7;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis and re-emerge worldwide every year, with GII.4 currently being the most frequent human genotype. The norovirus capsid protein VP1 is essential for host immune response. Read More

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Arq Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):1-4

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Mass vaccination offers the best strategy to fight against COVID-19 pandemic, and SARS-CoV2 vaccines are being approved in several countries for emergency use. In Brazil, vaccine approval is expected in the next few days, however potential concerns exist regarding vaccine recommendations for specific populations, such as patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To address these questions, the Brazilian IBD Study Group (GEDIIB) provides this practical advice with key recommendations about the COVID-19 vaccines in IBD population. Read More

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The utility of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea in a tropical country.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Raebareli Road, Lucknow, 226014, India.

Purpose: The etiology of infective diarrheaoften remains undiagnosed. We studied the role of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of etiological agents of diarrhoea.

Method: Fast track diagnostics (FTD)gastroenteritis panel for bacterial and viral pathogens was used to test stool samples from patients with diarrhoea. Read More

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Emergence in 2017-2019 of novel reassortant equine-like G3 rotavirus strains in Palermo, Sicily.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza "G. D'Alessandro" (PROSAMI), Università di Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, Palermo, Italy.

Rotavirus A (RVA) is a major etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Hospital-based surveillance of viral gastroenteritis in paediatric population in Palermo (Italy) from 2017 onwards revealed a sharp increase in G3P[8] RVAs, accounting for 71% of all the RVAs detected in 2019. This pattern had not been observed before in Italy, with G3 RVA usually being detected at rates lower than 3%. Read More

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Whole genome analysis of Aichivirus A, isolated from a child, suffering from gastroenteritis, in Pakistan.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 24;299:198437. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University (CUI), Park Road, Tarlai Kalan, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, 45550, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Viruses are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in children all over the world. Understanding the emergence and genetic variation of these viruses may help to prevent infections. Aichivirus (AiV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus, which currently contains six officially recognized species: Aichivirus A-F. Read More

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Evaluating the potential economic and health impact of rotavirus vaccination in 63 middle-income countries not eligible for Gavi funding: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Middle-income countries (MICs) that are not eligible for funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, have been slow to adopt rotavirus vaccines. Few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness and benefit-risk of rotavirus vaccination in these settings. We aimed to assess the potential economic and health impact of rotavirus vaccination in 63 MICs not eligible for funding from Gavi. Read More

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Downregulation of miR-218 by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus facilitates viral replication via inhibition of type I interferon responses.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 19:100683. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National Poultry Laboratory Animal Resource Center, Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are reported to be involved in virus-host interaction. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing and microRNAs inhibitors to screen possible microRNAs that can inhibit PRRSV infection on its target cell, porcine alveolar macrophages. Read More

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Phylogenetic molecular evolution and recombination analysis of complete genome of human parechovirus in Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8572. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Human parechovirus (HPeV), which is a member of the Picornavirus group of viruses, is a pathogen that is reported to be associated with manifestations that include respiratory tract involvement, gastroenteritis, sepsis-like symptom, and central nervous system complication. Until now, nineteen genotypes have been identified. The lack of proofreading property of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) together with recombination among the intra- and inter-genotypes of the virus results in high diversity. Read More

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Paediatric viral gastroenteritis and regional predominant viral pathogens in the post-rotavirus vaccination year: prospective Irish regional study.

Zakaria Barsoum

Sudan J Paediatr 2021 ;21(1):36-41

Consultant Paediatrician, South West Acute Hospital-Paediatric Department, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Acute gastroenteritis harbours a significant global burden. Rotavirus is the primary cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We aim to determine the predominant enteric viral pathogens detected in the post-rotavirus vaccine period (2016-2017) in our region in county Mayo (west of Ireland), United Kingdom. Read More

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January 2021

Study on the effectiveness and safety of Xingpi Yanger granule combined with Saccharomyces boulardii for rotavirus enteritis in children: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(16):e25593

Department of Pediatrics, Haikou Hospital of the Matemal and Child Health, NO.6 Wentan Road, Guoxing Avenue, Qiongshan District, Haikou City, Hainan Province, China.

Background: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine preparation XPYEG combined with SBI and SBI alone in the treatment of REC, and to provide the reference in drugs for the clinical treatment of children with rotavirus enteritis.

Methods: Retrieving the English databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase; Chinese databases: CNKI, CBM and WANFANG Data. Retrieving a randomized controlled trial of XPYEG and SBI in the treatment of REC. Read More

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Application of whole-genome sequencing for norovirus outbreak tracking and surveillance efforts in Orange County, CA.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 26;98:103796. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Chapman University, Schmid College of Science and Technology, Food Science Program, One University Drive, Orange, CA, 92866, USA. Electronic address:

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illness in the United States. Traditional Sanger sequencing of short genomic regions (~300-600 bp) is the primary method for differentiation of this pathogen; however, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers a valuable approach to further characterize strains of this virus. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of WGS compared to Sanger sequencing to differentiate norovirus strains and enhance outbreak investigation and surveillance efforts. Read More

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September 2021

Induction of Immune Responses and Immune Evasion by Human Bocavirus.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Virology Research Group, Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Respiratory tract infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), a member of the Parvoviridae family causes a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases in children, and gastroenteritis in adults. The mechanisms of latency, persistence, and reinfection of Bocavirus are poorly understood at present due to the lack of permissive cell lines and efficient animal models. Read More

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Emerging Pathogenic Unit of Vesicle-Cloaked Murine Norovirus Clusters is Resistant to Environmental Stresses and UV Disinfection.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 15;55(9):6197-6205. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052, United States.

An individual virion was long believed to act as an independent infectious unit in virology, until the recent discovery of vesicle-cloaked virus clusters which has greatly challenged this central paradigm. Vesicle-cloaked virus clusters (also known as viral vesicles) are phospholipid-bilayer encapsulated fluid sacs that contain multiple virions or multiple copies of viral genomes. Norovirus is a global leading causative agent of gastroenteritis, and the reported prevalence of vesicle-cloaked norovirus clusters in stool has raised concerns whether the current disinfection, sanitation, and hygiene practices can effectively control environmental pollution by these pathogenic units. Read More

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Molecular characterization of the first human G15 rotavirus strain of zoonotic origin from the bovine species.

J Gen Virol 2021 Apr;102(4)

Department of Pediatrics, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian species. Animals act as a potential reservoir to RVA human infections by direct virion transmission or by contributing genes to reassortants. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a rare human RVA strain Ni17-46 with a genotype G15P[14], isolated in Japan in 2017 during rotavirus surveillance in a paediatric outpatient clinic. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and plasma antibody titer of patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):955-960

Research Center of Blood Transfusion Medicine, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Department of Blood Transfusion, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first affected humans in China on December 31, 2019 (Shi et al., 2020). Coronaviruses generally cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans, such as the common cold, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis (To et al. Read More

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Fatal case of hospital-acquired hypernatraemia in a neonate: lessons learned from a tragic error.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 6;14(4):1277-1283. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

A 3-week-old boy with viral gastroenteritis was by error given 200 mL 1 mmol/mL hypertonic saline intravenously instead of isotonic saline. His plasma sodium concentration (PNa) increased from 136 to 206 mmol/L. Extreme brain shrinkage and universal hypoperfusion despite arterial hypertension resulted. Read More

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Infection of zebrafish larvae with human norovirus and evaluation of the in vivo efficacy of small-molecule inhibitors.

Nat Protoc 2021 04 9;16(4):1830-1849. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

KU Leuven-Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, Leuven, Belgium.

We have recently established that human norovirus (HuNoV) replicates efficiently in zebrafish larvae after inoculation of a clinical sample into the yolk, providing a simple and robust in vivo system in which to study HuNoV. In this Protocol Extension, we present a detailed description of virus inoculation by microinjection, subsequent daily monitoring and harvesting of larvae, followed by viral RNA quantification. This protocol can be used to study viral replication of genogroup (G)I and GII HuNoVs in vivo within 3-4 d. Read More

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Antigenic cartography reveals complexities of genetic determinants that lead to antigenic differences among pandemic GII.4 noroviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Division of Viral Products, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993

Noroviruses are the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis, with a single genotype (GII.4) responsible for the majority of infections. This prevalence is characterized by the periodic emergence of new variants that present substitutions at antigenic sites of the major structural protein (VP1), facilitating escape from herd immunity. Read More

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Comparison of a one-step real-time RT-PCR and a nested real-time RT-PCR for a genogroup II norovirus reveals differences in sensitivity depending upon assay design and visualization.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248581. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Bioprocessing Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis and a major source of foodborne illness. Detection of NoV in food and environmental samples is typically performed using molecular techniques, including real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and less frequently, nested real-time PCR. In this study, we conducted a controlled comparison of two published NoV detection assays: a broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR and a two-step nested real-time PCR assay. Read More

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Paediatrics: how to manage viral gastroenteritis.

Drugs Context 2021 26;10. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Background: Viral gastroenteritis is the most common diarrhoeal disorder seen in general practice and emergency departments. This article aims to provide a narrative updated review on the evaluation and management of viral gastroenteritis in children.

Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term 'viral gastroenteritis'. Read More

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J Zoo Wildl Med 2021 Apr;52(1):343-347

Division of Pathology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India.

Pygmy hogs () are the smallest and rarest wild suid. It is categorized as a Critically Endangered species as per the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This study reports the first detection of a single-stranded RNA virus species, , belonging to the genus (KobV) and the family , in pygmy hogs. Read More

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