14,025 results match your criteria Gastroenteritis Viral


The role of staff and contaminated environmental surfaces in spreading of norovirus infection in a long-term health care facility in Italy.

Vet Ital 2021 Dec 31;57(4):311-318. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise "G. Caporale", Teramo, Italy.

Some residents and people from the staff of a geriatric health care facility in Teramo province, developed acute gastroenteritis from March 8th to March 21st 2017. A prompt epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the etiological agent, the trace back the potential ways of transmission and control the infection. Information on the outbreak was collected through an epidemiological questionnaire. Read More

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December 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of the Rotavac and Rotasiil rotavirus vaccines administered in an interchangeable dosing schedule among healthy Indian infants: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 4, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Division of Epidemiology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India; Division of Bacteriology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:

Background: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. Two vaccines-Rotavac and Rotasiil-are used in routine immunisation in India. The safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines administered in a mixed regimen is not documented. Read More

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What is the Potential Cause for the Predominance of GII.2[P16] Norovirus in Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in China?

Authors:
Jie-Mei Yu

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jan;4(2):27-30

College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China.

GII.2[P16] noroviruses (NoV) reemerged and rapidly became the main epidemic strain in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in Asian countries since 2016. The current GII. Read More

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January 2022

Swine coronaviruses (SCoVs) and their emerging threats to swine population, inter-species transmission, exploring the susceptibility of pigs for SARS-CoV-2 and zoonotic concerns.

Vet Q 2022 May 18:1-39. Epub 2022 May 18.

Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok-10700, Thailand.

Swine coronaviruses (SCoVs) are one of the most devastating pathogens affecting the livelihoods of farmers and swine industry across the world. These include transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), and porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV). Coronaviruses infect a wide variety of animal species and humans because these are having single stranded-RNA that accounts for high mutation rates and thus could break the species barrier. Read More

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Natural extracts, honey, and propolis as human norovirus inhibitors.

Sci Rep 2022 May 17;12(1):8116. Epub 2022 May 17.

Schaller Research Group at the University of Heidelberg and the DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany.

Norovirus is the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis, yet there are still no antivirals, vaccines, or treatments available. Several studies have shown that norovirus-specific monoclonal antibodies, Nanobodies, and natural extracts might function as inhibitors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the antiviral potential of additional natural extracts, honeys, and propolis samples. Read More

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Impact and effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Tajik children.

Vaccine 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In 2015, Tajikistan became the second country in Central Asia to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus was estimated to cause > 40% of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in Tajikistan. We aimed to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus disease burden and estimate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE). Read More

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Epidemiological Impact of GII.17 Human Noroviruses Associated With Attachment to Enterocytes.

Front Microbiol 2022 27;13:858245. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

National Reference Centre for Gastroenteritis Viruses, Laboratory of Virology, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France.

For the last 30 years, molecular surveys have shown that human norovirus (HuNoV), predominantly the GII.4 genotype, is one of the main causative agents of gastroenteritis. However, epidemiological surveys have revealed the worldwide emergence of GII. Read More

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Whole genome sequence of an uncommon G9P[4] species A rotavirus containing DS-1-like (genotype 2) genes in Japan.

Arch Virol 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Division of Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Species A rotaviruses (RVAs) have been recognized as one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Here, the complete coding sequences of 11 RNA segments of an uncommon G9P[4] RVA strain, which was detected in feces of a diarrheal child in Japan, were determined by next-generation sequencing technology. Its genomic constellation, VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5, was determined as G9-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Read More

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Changing Predominance of Norovirus Recombinant Strains GII.2[P16] to GII.4[P16] and GII.4[P31] in Thailand, 2017 to 2018.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 12:e0044822. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai Universitygrid.7132.7, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Human norovirus is a major virus that causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. Recently, norovirus recombinant strains have been reported as the cause of norovirus outbreaks. This study has investigated the distribution of norovirus genotypes and recombinant strains circulating in children hospitalized with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2017 to 2018. Read More

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Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis Due to Norovirus in Schools and Summer Camps in Catalonia, 2017-2019.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 11:e0011922. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

We studied outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis due to norovirus in schools and summer camps during 2017-2019 in Catalonia (Spain). The overall attack rate was 21.27% in schools and 33. Read More

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Novel fold of rotavirus glycan-binding domain predicted by AlphaFold2 and determined by X-ray crystallography.

Commun Biol 2022 May 5;5(1):419. Epub 2022 May 5.

Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

The VP8* domain of spike protein VP4 in group A and C rotaviruses, which cause epidemic gastroenteritis in children, exhibits a conserved galectin-like fold for recognizing glycans during cell entry. In group B rotavirus, which causes significant diarrheal outbreaks in adults, the VP8* domain (VP8*B) surprisingly lacks sequence similarity with VP8* of group A or group C rotavirus. Here, by using the recently developed AlphaFold2 for ab initio structure prediction and validating the predicted model by determining a 1. Read More

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Rotavirus and adenovirus prevalence in patients with acute viral gastroenteritis in Denizli, Turkey, 2017-2021.

J Med Virol 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

This study aims to determine retrospectively the prevalence of rotavirus and enteric adenovirus in patients with gastroenteritis symptoms and the distribution of pathogens by gender, age, seasons, and years. The stool samples sent to Pamukkale University Healthcare Research and Practice Hospital's Medical Microbiology laboratory between January 2017 and December 2021 were evaluated for rotavirus/adenovirus antigen positivity. Rotavirus and adenovirus antigens were studied with the Rotavirus-Adenovirus Combo Rapid Cassette Test (Acro Biotech) kit. Read More

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Association of Gut Microbiota with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and COVID-19 Severity: A Possible Outcome of the Altered Immune Response.

Curr Microbiol 2022 May 5;79(6):184. Epub 2022 May 5.

Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Inflammatory bowel disease could be induced by SARS-CoV-2, involved in alteration of gut microbiota during the respiratory viral infection. Presence of viral RNA in fecal samples for longer period, even after the clearance of the virus from respiratory tract, is suggestive of dysbiosis leading to the poor prognosis of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. Gut microbiome (GM) plays a significant role to stimulate the modulated antiviral immune response against invading pathogens regulating the physiological homeostasis. Read More

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Diversity of Rotavirus Strains among Children with Acute Diarrhea in Karachi, Pakistan.

Biomed Res Int 2022 23;2022:5231910. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology, Women University, Swabi, Pakistan.

One of the common viral pathogens in infectious diarrhea is ; in developing countries, it is a primary cause of deaths in children less than five years of age. This study was planned to find out the etiologic agents of acute watery diarrhea. In this study, 1465 stool samples were analyzed with the symptoms of acute diarrhea. Read More

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Seizure along with gastroenteritis: An atypical manifestation of appendicitis- A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Apr 28;76:103535. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Sina Hospital, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction And Importance: Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdomen in children. Due to its distinct clinical manifestations, often, its diagnosis is not very challenging. At younger age cases with atypical manifestations of appendicitis have been reported in the literature. Read More

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Phylodynamic and genetic diversity of parvoviruses of cats in southern India.

Virusdisease 2022 Mar 12;33(1):108-113. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research, Puducherry, 605 009 India.

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and Canine parvovirus (CPV) infections are highly contagious diseases causing severe gastroenteritis with high fatality rates in cats. Realising the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses, the present study trace the evolutionary history and dynamics of parvovirus variants by characterizing the full-length viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats and cats from rescue shelters in Southern India. The study confirmed the presence of both CPV and FPV infections among the cat population. Read More

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Rotavirus-Induced Lipid Droplet Biogenesis Is Critical for Virus Replication.

Front Physiol 2022 23;13:836870. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

A variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, target cellular lipid droplets for their replication. Rotaviruses (RVs) infect the villous epithelium of the small intestine and are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RVs induce and require lipid droplets for the formation of viroplasms, sites of virus genome replication, and nascent particle assembly. Read More

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(GTG)-PCR fingerprinting of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli bacteria isolates from hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

BMC Microbiol 2022 04 29;22(1):118. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology, University Joseph KI-ZERBO, BP 7021, Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common bacterial species implicated in various types of infections including septicemia, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, meningitis and others pathologies. These involve several bacterial clones with multidrug resistance making them difficult to treat. Read More

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A tale of antiviral counterattacks in rotavirus infection.

Microbiol Res 2022 Jul 22;260:127046. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Virology, ICMR-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, MH, India. Electronic address:

Human rotaviruses are the utmost etiologic agents of infantile gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. To reduce childhood morbidity and mortality caused by this rotavirus infection, numerous efforts are being made worldwide in the form of better and universal immunisation programmes. Though few vaccines are in action, the lack of approved antiviral agents that have potential combative effects against the rotavirus infection in the host, remains a point of concern. Read More

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Global and regional circulation trends of norovirus genotypes and recombinants, 1995-2019: A comprehensive review of sequences from public databases.

Rev Med Virol 2022 Apr 28:e2354. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Division of Viral Products, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Human noroviruses are the leading global cause of viral gastroenteritis. Attempts at developing effective vaccines and treatments against norovirus disease have been stymied by the extreme genetic diversity and rapid geographic distribution of these viruses. The emergence and replacement of predominantly circulating norovirus genotypes has primarily been attributed to mutations on the VP1 capsid protein leading to genetic drift, and more recently to recombination events between the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Read More

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Molecular Detection of Enteric Viruses in Under-Five Children with Diarrhea in Debre Tabor, Northwest Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2022 20;15:1981-1994. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Institute of Virology, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Viral gastroenteritis belongs to the major public health problems of infant and children worldwide. The largest proportion of morbidity and mortality occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Purpose: Aimed to assess the burden and genetic diversity of enteric viruses among children with diarrhea. Read More

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[Determination and Genotype Distribution of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Pediatric Patients Admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2022 Apr;56(2):304-314

Anadolu Health Center Hospital, Clinic of Medical Microbiology, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Acute infectious gastroenteritis is a prevalent disease worldwide, and most of the cases are caused by viral pathogens. Many different viruses, including Rotavirus (RV), Norovirus, Adenovirus, and Astroviruses, are responsible for most acute viral gastroenteritis cases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), viral gastroenteritis infections cause more than 200 000 child mortalities each year worldwide. Read More

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Control of common viral epidemics but not of SARS-CoV-2 through the application of hygiene and distancing measures.

J Clin Virol 2022 Jun 16;150-151:105163. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

IHU Méditerranée Infection, 19-21 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Microbes Evolution Phylogeny and Infections (MEPHI), 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: We systematically survey respiratory and gastrointestinal infections of viral origin in samples sent to our university hospital institute in Marseille, southern France. Here, we evaluated whether the measures implemented to fight COVID-19 had an effect on the dynamics of viral respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Methods: We analysed PCR performed and positive for the diagnoses of viral respiratory and gastrointestinal infections over five years (January 2017-February 2021). Read More

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Inactivation Mechanism and Efficacy of Grape Seed Extract for Human Norovirus Surrogate.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2022 May 25;88(9):e0224721. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Proper disinfection of harvested food and water is critical to minimize infectious disease. Grape seed extract (GSE), a commonly used health supplement, is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols. Polyphenols possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, but antiviral effects are not well-known. Read More

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Epidemiology of major entero-pathogenic viruses and genetic characterization of Group A rotaviruses among children (≤5 years) with acute gastroenteritis in eastern India, 2018-2020.

J Appl Microbiol 2022 Apr 23. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Division of Virology, ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.

Aims: This study was carried out from January 2018 to March 2020 in Kolkata, eastern India to determine the prevalence rates and epidemiological patterns associated with the major viral agents of gastroenteritis among children ≤5 years of age. Molecular characterization of GARV, the predominant agent of viral gastroenteritis, was done to understand their genotype diversity.

Methods And Results: 1284 of 3157 stool samples (~40%) from children (≤5 years) with acute gastroenteritis tested positive for one or more enteric viruses with positivity rates 25. Read More

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Human Norovirus Induces Aquaporin 1 Production by Activating NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Viruses 2022 Apr 18;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 18.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is one of the major pathogens of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Due to the lack of a robust and reproducible in vitro culture system and an appropriate animal model, the mechanism underlying HuNoV-caused diarrhea remains unknown. In the current study, we found that HuNoV transfection induced the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), which was further confirmed in the context of virus infection, whereas the enterovirus EV71 (enterovirus 71) did not have such an effect. Read More

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The Complexity of Swine Caliciviruses. A Mini Review on Genomic Diversity, Infection Diagnostics, World Prevalence and Pathogenicity.

Pathogens 2022 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Caliciviruses are single stranded RNA viruses, non-enveloped structurally, that are implicated in the non-bacterial gastroenteritis in various mammal species. Particularly in swine, viral gastroenteritis represents a major problem worldwide, responsible for significant economic losses for the pig industry. Among the wide range of viruses that are the proven or suspected etiological agents of gastroenteritis, the pathogenicity of the members of Caliciviridae family is among the less well understood. Read More

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Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Immunodeficiency: Imaging Spectrum.

Radiographics 2022 May-Jun;42(3):759-777. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Mo (M.I., V.M.M.); Department of Radiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky (N.K.); Department of Radiology, VA Medical Center, Fayetteville, NC (A.R.); Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wis (M.G.L.); Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa (A.K.D.); Department of Radiology, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Dr, San Antonio, TX 78229 (L.K., V.S.K.); and Department of Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tex (S.R.P.).

There is a wide spectrum of hereditary and acquired immunodeficiency disorders that are characterized by specific abnormalities involving a plethora of humoral, cellular, and phagocytic immunologic pathways. These include distinctive primary immunodeficiency syndromes due to characteristic genetic defects and secondary immunodeficiency syndromes, such as AIDS from HIV infection and therapy-related immunosuppression in patients with cancers or a solid organ or stem cell transplant. The gut mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (the largest lymphoid organ in the body), along with diverse commensal microbiota, play complex and critical roles in development and modulation of the immune system. Read More

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Longitudinal gut virome analysis identifies specific viral signatures that precede necrotizing enterocolitis onset in preterm infants.

Nat Microbiol 2022 May 21;7(5):653-662. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious consequence of preterm birth and is often associated with gut bacterial microbiome alterations. However, little is known about the development of the gut virome in preterm infants, or its role in NEC. Here, using metagenomic sequencing, we characterized the DNA gut virome of 9 preterm infants who developed NEC and 14 gestational age-matched preterm infants who did not. Read More

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