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    1 OF 56

    Sliding free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for closure of a massive abdominal wall defect: A case report.
    Microsurgery 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Hand and Plastic Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Despite considerable advances in reconstructive surgery, massive abdominal wall defects continue to pose a significant surgical challenge. We report the case of a 72-year-old morbidly obese female patient with Clostridium septicum-related gas gangrene of the abdominal wall. After multidisciplinary treatment and multiple extensive debridements, a massive full-thickness defect (40 cm × 35 cm) of the right abdominal wall was present. Read More

    Metabolic dependent and independent pH-drop shuts down VirSR quorum sensing in Clostridium perfringens.
    J Biosci Bioeng 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Graduate School, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan. Electronic address:
    Clostridium perfringens produces various exotoxins and enzymes that cause food poisoning and gas gangrene. The genes involved in virulence are regulated by the agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system, which consists of a QS signal synthesis system and a VirSR two-component regulatory system (VirSR TCS) which is a global regulatory system composed of signal sensor kinase (VirS) and response regulator (VirR). We found that the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) was transiently expressed during mid-log phase of bacterial growth; its expression was rapidly shut down thereafter, suggesting the existence of a self-quorum quenching (sQQ) system. Read More

    Thigh emphysema as the initial presentation of colon ischemia.
    Am J Emerg Med 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    The incidence of colon ischemia has increased in recent years, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The typical presentations of colon ischemia include abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and in severe case, ileus, fever and peritonitis. Here, we document a rare case of colon ischemia presenting with subcutaneous and intramuscular emphysema of the thigh. Read More

    Treatment of severe skin and soft tissue infections: a review.
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis.

    Recent Findings: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs. Read More

    Immunization with a nontoxic naturally occurring Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits.
    Anaerobe 2017 Dec 12;49:48-52. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Read More

    Combined therapy with gas gangrene antitoxin and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin for Clostridium perfringens sepsis in a rat model.
    Toxicon 2018 Jan 12;141:112-117. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Pharmacology, Kagawa University Hospital, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan. Electronic address:
    Cases of Clostridium perfringens septicemia, such as liver abscess, often develop a rapidly progressive intravascular hemolysis and coagulation; the mortality rate with current standard care including antibiotics and surgery is high. Herein, we firstly investigated the effects of gas gangrene antitoxin (GGA) (antitoxin against C. perfringens) and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) on the hemolysis, coagulation status, inflammatory process, and mortality in α-toxin-treated rats. Read More

    Complete genome sequences ofDel1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis.
    Gut Pathog 2017 21;9:69. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service-US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, MD 20705 USA.
    Background: is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia,causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Read More

    Deadly combination:and colorectal malignancy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 2;2017. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    General Surgery, University Hospital Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Gas gangrene is a life-threatening, necrotising soft tissue infection. Colorectal malignancy-associatedis a rare cause of gas gangrene. This case outlines an initial presentation of colonic malignancy as gas gangrene frominfection. Read More

    Biotechnological Applications of Microbial (Per)chlorate Reduction.
    Microorganisms 2017 11 24;5(4). Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    While the microbial degradation of a chloroxyanion-based herbicide was first observed nearly ninety years ago, only recently have researchers elucidated the underlying mechanisms of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] respiration. Although the obvious application of these metabolisms lies in the bioremediation and attenuation of (per)chlorate in contaminated environments, a diversity of alternative and innovative biotechnological applications has been proposed based on the unique metabolic abilities of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB). This is fueled in part by the unique ability of these organisms to generate molecular oxygen as a transient intermediate of the central pathway of (per)chlorate respiration. Read More

    Effect of transfer status on outcomes for necrotizing soft tissue infections.
    J Surg Res 2017 Dec 1;220:372-378. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Surgery Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.
    Background: Whether patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) who presented to under-resourced hospitals are best served by immediate debridement or expedited transfer is unknown. We examined whether interhospital transfer status impacts outcomes of patients requiring emergency debridement for NSTI.

    Methods And Materials: We conducted a retrospective review studying patients with an operative diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis, Fournier's gangrene, or gas gangrene in the 2010-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data Files. Read More

    Fusobacterium emphysematous pyomyositis with necrotizing fasciitis of the leg presenting as compartment syndrome: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Nov 28;11(1):332. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, 60612, IL, USA.
    Background: Fusobacterium necrophorum is a common agent of disease in humans, but the occurrence of primary infections outside the head and neck area is extremely rare. While infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum has a rather benign course above the thorax, the organism is capable of producing very severe disease when located in unusual sites, including various forms of septic thrombophlebitis. No infections of the leg have been documented before; thus, antibiotic coverage for Fusobacterium is currently not recommended in this area. Read More

    Liver abscess and sepsis caused by Clostridium perfringens and Klebsiella oxytoca.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 5;41:180-183. Epub 2017 Nov 5.
    Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Schwanebecker Chaussee 50, 13125 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Clostridium (C) perfringens and Klebsiella (K) oxytoca are pathogenous human bacteria. Due to the production of several toxins C. perfringens is virulent by causing i. Read More

    Uterineinfection related to gynecologic malignancy.
    Gynecol Oncol Rep 2017 Nov 21;22:55-57. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States.
    Uterine gas gangrene caused byis a serious, often life-threatening infection that is rarely encountered in the practice of gynecologic oncology. However, the hypoxic nature of gynecologic cancers due to necrosis and/or prior radiation therapy creates a microenvironment optimal for proliferation of anaerobic bacteria such as thespecies. Early recognition and aggressive treatment with IV antibiotics and surgical debridement remain the cornerstones of management in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Rare postoperative complication:septic shock following elective abdominal surgery.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Oct 9;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of General Surgery, Bedford Hospital NHS Trust, Bedford, UK.
    Postoperative infections are one of the most common complications in general surgery, and while rates have reduced with the routine administration of perioperative antibiotics, around 5% of patients undergoing a surgical procedure will develop an infective complication.The Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe,, is a well-known pathogen that forms part of both the environmental and gastrointestinal flora.While more commonly associated with food poisoning, anaerobic cellulitis and traumatic gas gangrene, rare cases of spontaneous non-traumatic gas gangrene of abdominal viscera have also been recorded. Read More

    Design, synthesis and collagenase inhibitory activity of some novel phenylglycine derivatives as metalloproteinase inhibitors.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 6;107(Pt B):1491-1500. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:
    Metalloproteases are a class of proteases having metal ion(s) at their catalytic sites. Bacterial collagenases are involved in human gas gangrene, periodontal diseases, food etc. The Clostridium collagenase occurs in two isoforms COL_G and Col_H. Read More

    Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes for patients with Fournier's gangrene: a retrospective study.
    Int Wound J 2017 Dec 25;14(6):1352-1358. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Surgery, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Fournier's gangrene is a gas-forming, necrotising soft tissue infection affecting the perineum. It spreads rapidly along the deep fascial planes and is associated with a high mortality rate. With a growing elderly population with comorbidities, the frequency of severe cases of Fournier's gangrene is expected to increase. Read More

    Anal Canal Gas Gangrene in Aplastic Anaemia: Rare yet Lethal Entity - A Caveat.
    Cureus 2017 Jul 13;9(7):e1469. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.
    Gas gangrene is one of the most serious infections of traumatic and surgical wounds. The importance lies in the fact that, if not managed at the right time, the condition is fatal. Though perianal cellulitis and gangrene are commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, we report the case of a patient with gas gangrene involving only the anal canal extending to the rectum, a rare presentation to be reported in literature. Read More

    Mode of action of plectasin-derived peptides against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens type A.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0185215. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    NZ2114 and MP1102 are novel plectasin-derived peptides with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial characteristics and mechanism of NZ2114 and MP1102 against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens were studied for the first time. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NZ2114 and MP1102 against resistant C. Read More

    SPECTRUM OF DISEASE AND OUTCOME OF PRIMARY AMPUTATION FOR DIABETIC FOOT SEPSIS.
    S Afr J Surg 2017 Sep;55(3):79
    Madadeni Hospital, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal.
    Background: Guillotine amputation for diabetic foot sepsis followed by an elective refashioning of the stump is regarded as standard practice. Primary amputation is associated with higher reamputation rates.

    Method: A prospective cohort study of 85 patients who underwent surgery for diabetic foot sepsis from 2014 to 2016 at Madadeni Provincial Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal was done. Read More

    Risk factors for delayed oral dietary intake in patients with deep neck infections including descending necrotizing mediastinitis.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Nov 20;274(11):3951-3958. Epub 2017 Aug 20.
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryomachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan.
    Although clinical outcomes of descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) and/or deep neck infection (DNI) have been extensively reported, no study has addressed delay in recovering oral ingestion after surgical interventions other than sporadic case reports. We herein compared clinical features of DNM and DNI cases over the same period, and clarified precipitating factors of delay in recovering oral ingestion by logistic regression analysis. We reviewed records of patients with DNI and DNM at our institution from August 2005 to July 2015. Read More

    The obesity paradox in patients with severe soft tissue infections.
    Am J Surg 2017 Sep 9;214(3):385-389. Epub 2016 Jul 9.
    Center for Surgery and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Heath, Boston, MA, USA; Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care Division, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: The "obesity paradox" has been demonstrated in chronic diseases but not in acute surgery. We sought to determine whether obesity is associated with improved outcomes in patients with severe soft tissue infections (SSTIs).

    Methods: The 2006 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify adult patients with SSTIs. Read More

    Scrotal Abscess Drained by Iatrogenic Urethral Fistula in an Adult Diabetic Male.
    Case Rep Urol 2017 17;2017:9820245. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    Urology Unit, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.
    A 46-year-old Caucasian male has been transferred to our urology department with a history of septic fever, uncompensated diabetes, pain, and scrotal swelling. On clinical examination, the left inguinal and scrotal area was swollen, tender, and painful; scrotal MR had been performed, showing the catheter tip in scrotal cavity and presence of gas. The case was diagnosed as scrotal abscess with urethroscrotal fistula. Read More

    Fatal liver gas gangrene after biliary surgery.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2017 28;39:5-8. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Surgery, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Okamoto 1370-1, Kamakura City, Kanagawa, 247-8533, Japan.
    Introduction: Liver gas gangrene is a rare condition with a highly mortality rate. It is mostly associated with host factors, such as malignancy and immunosuppression.

    Presentation Of Case: A 57-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with abnormalities of her serum hepato-biliary enzymes. Read More

    Spontaneous C. septicum gas gangrene: A literature review.
    Anaerobe 2017 Dec 2;48:165-171. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Boise VA Medical Center, Boise, ID 83702, USA. Electronic address:
    As the infectious disease paradigm undergoes a subtle shift, unusual infections associated with malignancy and immunosuppression are being increasingly reported. Spontaneous or non-traumatic Clostridium septicum infection is one such unusual infection which has gained prominence. This article aims to understand the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and current trends in diagnosing and treating this rare but deadly infection. Read More

    Gas Gangrene of Different Origin Associated with Clostridium perfringens Type A in Three Patients Simultaneously Hospitalized in a Single Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology in Poland.
    Pol J Microbiol 2017 Jan;65(4):399-406
    Department of Infection Epidemiology, Chair of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
    The objective of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of phenotypic and genetic similarity, determination of resistance profiles, detection of toxin-encoding genes and molecular typing of Clostridium perfringens isolates originating from patients with gas gangrene. The study encompassed three patients with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene who were hospitalized in one of the hospitals of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie province in the same period of time between 8April 2015 and 20April 2015. The three C. Read More

    Assessment of Cultivable Oral Bacterial Flora from Important Venomous Snakes of India and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities.
    Curr Microbiol 2017 Nov 21;74(11):1278-1286. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation Limited, Pune, India.
    Snakebite is a common, frequently devastating, occupational, socio-economic hazard, and it has a great impact on the rural population of India. Snakebite is a major cause of the human morbidity and mortality since ancient times, as it not only affects the victim by systemic envenomation but also by wound infections originating from deadly pathogenic microorganisms from the oral cavity of the offending snake. The pathogens from the oral cavity of the snake tend to initiate an infection, resulting in gas gangrene, soft tissue necrosis, and permanent physical disabilities. Read More

    Identifying and acting on potentially inappropriate care? Inadequacy of current hospital coding for this task.
    Diving Hyperb Med 2017 Jun;47(2):88-96
    Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
    Introduction: Recent Australian attempts to facilitate disinvestment in healthcare, by identifying instances of 'inappropriate' care from large Government datasets, are subject to significant methodological flaws. Amongst other criticisms has been the fact that the Government datasets utilized for this purpose correlate poorly with datasets collected by relevant professional bodies. Government data derive from official hospital coding, collected retrospectively by clerical personnel, whilst professional body data derive from unit-specific databases, collected contemporaneously with care by clinical personnel. Read More

    A rapid qualitative assay for detection of Clostridium perfringens in canned food products.
    Acta Biochim Pol 2017 9;64(2):207-213. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Biotechnology, P D Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421, India.
    Clostridium perfringens (MTCC 1349) is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, endospore forming, and rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium produces a variety of toxins under strict anaerobic environment. C. Read More

    Complete genome sequence ofCBA7123 isolated from a faecal sample from Korea.
    Gut Pathog 2017 2;9:32. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Microbiology and Functionality Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, 61755 Republic of Korea.
    Background: is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis, mild diarrhea, clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene, sepsis, etc. In this study, we aim to determine the pathogenesis of this bacterium at the genomic level. The genome of strain CBA7123 was sequenced, and a comparative genomic analysis between strain CBA7123 and four other relatedstrains was performed. Read More

    Benign Subcutaneous Emphysema of the Upper Limb: A Case Report.
    Malays Orthop J 2016 Nov;10(3):39-41
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.
    Subcutaneous emphysema is the presence of gas or air in the subcutaneous tissue plane. The term is generally used to describe any soft tissue emphysema of the body wall or limbs, it can result from benign causes, most commonly secondary to trauma or from a life-threatening infection by gas gangrene or necrotising fasciitis. A case of subcutaneous emphysema involving the upper limb resulting from a trivial laceration to the elbow is reported and the importance of distinguishing between the two causes of subcutaneous emphysema is highlighted. Read More

    Clinical Serum Therapy: Benefits, Cautions, and Potential Applications.
    Keio J Med 2017 Dec 28;66(4):57-64. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Blood serum from immunized humans or animals (e.g., horses) contains relevant antibodies and has been used as serum therapy to treat many diseases or envenomation events. Read More

    A Recombinant Probiotic, Lactobacillus casei, Expressing the Clostridium perfringens α-toxoid, as an Orally Vaccine Candidate Against Gas Gangrene and Necrotic Enteritis.
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2017 Apr 11. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Anaerobic Bacterial Vaccine Research and Production, Kerman Branch, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kerman, Iran.
    The alpha-toxin is one of the virulence factors of Clostridium perfringens for gas gangrene in humans and animals or necrotic enteritis in poultry. The C-terminal domain of this toxin ( cpa) was synthesized and cloned into pT1NX vector to construct the pT1NX-alpha plasmid. This surface-expressing plasmid was electroporated into Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393, generating the recombinant L. Read More

    Identification, Isolation, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Type A and Type C from Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in the People's Republic of China.
    J Wildl Dis 2017 Jul 22;53(3):642-648. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    1 National Research Center for Wildlife-Borne Diseases, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1-5 Beichenxi Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People's Republic of China 100101.
    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that can induces gas gangrene or enteritis in poultry and humans and many other mammalian species. Here, we report an outbreak of C. perfringens type A and type C coinfection in wild boars ( Sus scrofa ). Read More

    A fatal Clostridium perfringens infection with hemolysis after chemotherapy in an adolescent.
    Arch Argent Pediatr 2017 04;115(2):e92-e95
    Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University.
    Gas gangrene, clostridial myonecrosis, is one of the most serious infectious diseases, characterized by rapidly progressive destruction of deep soft tissues and production of gas within the tissues. We presented a case of fatal spontaneous gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during remission induction chemotherapy phase. Read More

    [Necrotizing fasciitis of the upper and lower extremities].
    Chirurg 2017 Apr;88(4):353-366
    Klinik für Plastische Chirurgie und Schwerbrandverletzte, Handchirurgie-Zentrum, operatives Referenzzentrum für Gliedmaßentumoren, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789, Bochum, Deutschland.
    Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal soft tissue infection that may affect the upper and lower extremities, scrotum, perineum and abdominal wall. Typically, the infection demonstrates rapid spreading along the fascial planes leading to sepsis with mortality rates of 15-46%. Without adequate treatment, the mortality rate increases to close to 100%. Read More

    Preparation and characterization of a human scFv against the Clostridium perfringens type A alpha-toxin.
    Toxicon 2017 May 1;130:79-86. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Institute of Military Veterinary, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:
    Alpha-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is an important virulence factor, causing food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. As such, it is considered a potential bioterrorism threat. To date, there is still no human effective therapeutic drug against alpha-toxin. Read More

    Effect of continuous sub-culturing on infectivity of Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124 in mouse gas gangrene model.
    Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2017 Jul 17;62(4):343-353. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Biotechnology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, 474002, India.
    Clostridium perfringens is a Validated Biological Agent and a pathogen of medical, veterinary, and military significance. Gas gangrene is the most destructive of all the clostridial diseases and is caused by C. perfringens type A strains wherein the infection spreads quickly (several inches per hour) with production of gas. Read More

    Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases: a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis.
    Vet Res 2017 Feb 16;48(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820, Merelbeke, Belgium.
    Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. Read More

    Lipidomic profile of GM95 cell death induced by Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.
    Chem Phys Lipids 2017 Mar 16;203:54-70. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Unidad de Biofísica (CSIC, UPV/EHU), and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:
    Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (ATX) is considered as a prototype of cytotoxic bacterial phospholipases C, and is the major virulence factor in C. perfringens-induced gas gangrene. It is known that, depending on the dose, ATX causes membrane disruption and cytolysis or only limited hydrolysis of its substrates. Read More

    Role of p38MAP Kinase in Cell Susceptibility to Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium difficile Toxin B.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 12 22;9(1). Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Institute for Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.
    Lethal Toxin from(TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. Read More

    Clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of spondylodiscitis case report and review of the literature.
    Br J Neurosurg 2016 Dec 14:1-3. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    a Department of Orthopaedic , Study Conducted at the University Hamburg Eppendorf , Hamburg , Germany.
    Presented is a case of a 64-year old male with a unique and yet unreported case of a spondylodiscitis caused by Clostridium perfringens. Becoming symptomatic with massive neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) revealed typical signs of spondylodiscitis involving the vertebral body L5 with extensive vacuum phenomenon. Read More

    Fulminant Clostridium perfringens Sepsis in Kidney Transplant: A Case Report.
    Transplant Proc 2016 Nov;48(9):3112-3114
    Transplant Division, Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
    Background: Infections, particularly urinary tract infections, and cardiovascular accidents are the main causes of morbidity and mortality during the 1st year after kidney transplantation (KT). Bacteria and viruses, such as Escherichia coli, Enteroccoci, and Polyoma BK virus are common in the 1st 6 months, so they are controlled routinely. On the other hand, Clostridium perfringens infection is a rare life-threatening condition, associated with a high mortality rate especially in the transplant population, that is not controlled routinely. Read More

    Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 11 21;8(11). Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas CEP 96160-000, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
    is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Read More

    Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets.
    Toxins (Basel) 2016 11 19;8(11). Epub 2016 Nov 19.
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Room 420, Bridgeside Point II Building, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA.
    is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. Read More

    Soft Tissue Reconstruction Pyramid for the Diabetic Charcot Foot.
    Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2017 Jan 3;34(1):69-76. Epub 2016 Sep 3.
    Division of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, MSC 7776, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
    Foot and ankle ulcerations in patients with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (DCN) occur frequently and can be challenging to address surgically when conservative care fails. Patients with acute or chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are at continued risk for development of osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, gas gangrene, and potential lower extremity amputation. Concurrent vasculopathy and peripheral neuropathy as well as uncontrolled medical comorbidities complicate the treatment approach. Read More

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