5,371 results match your criteria Gardnerella


Primary and secondary prevention of preterm birth: a review of systematic reviews and ongoing randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions aimed at preventing PTB can be classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention.

Objective: To conduct a review of systematic reviews on the effectiveness and safety of primary and secondary preterm birth prevention interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.12.022DOI Listing
January 2019

Pilot Study of Vaginal Microbiome Using QIIME 2™ in Women With Gynecologic Cancer Before and After Radiation Therapy.

Oncol Nurs Forum 2019 Mar;46(2):E48-E59

Emory University.

Objectives: To characterize the vaginal microbiome using QIIME 2™ (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology 2) in women with gynecologic cancer.

Sample & Setting: 19 women with gynecologic cancer before and after radiation therapy at a comprehensive cancer center in Atlanta, Georgia.

Methods & Variables: This pilot study analyzed vaginal microbiome communities using a microbiome analysis pipeline, beginning with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and processing through use of a bioinformatics pipeline to downstream microbial statistical analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/19.ONF.E48-E59DOI Listing
March 2019
2.830 Impact Factor

Does Male Circumcision Reduce Women's Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections, Cervical Cancer, and Associated Conditions?

Front Public Health 2019 31;7. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, United States.

Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce men's risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a detailed systematic review of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. Database searches by "circumcision women" and "circumcision female" identified 68 relevant articles for inclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365441PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Anticandidal activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the vagina

Turk J Med Sci 2019 Feb 11;49(1):375-383. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Background/aim: Lactic acid bacteria prevent the overgrowth of pathogenic agents and opportunistic pathogens in the vagina. Moreover, lactic acid bacteria contribute to the preservation of vaginal microbiota by producing antimicrobial agents. Previous studies showed that some lactic acid bacteria exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida species causing yeast vaginosis as well as many bacterial pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1709-143DOI Listing
February 2019

Antimicrobial and inflammatory properties of South African clinical Lactobacillus isolates and vaginal probiotics.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 13;9(1):1917. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (IDM), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes genital inflammation and increased HIV acquisition risk. The standard-of-care for BV, antibiotic therapy, is associated with high recurrence rates. Probiotics may improve treatment outcomes, although substantial heterogeneity in efficacy has been observed during clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-38253-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Susceptibility of Endometrial Isolates Recovered from Women with Clinical Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or Histological Endometritis to Antimicrobial Agents.

Anaerobe 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Magee-Womens Research Institute, 204 Craft Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; University of Pittsburgh, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Magee-Womens Hospital, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

The CDC recommended outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an intramuscular dose of ceftriaxone plus 14 days of doxycycline, with or without metronidazole. European guidelines (2017) include moxifloxacin plus ceftriaxone as a first line regimen, particularly for women with Mycoplasma genitalium-associated PID. However, the susceptibility of bacteria recovered from the endometrium of women with PID to moxifloxacin is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Vulvovaginal Discomfort Is Common in Both Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objectives: We surveyed women from a primary care population to assess the prevalence of unreported vulvovaginal symptoms.

Materials And Methods: A random sample of women aged 18 to 84 years without a diagnosis of vulvovaginitis or vulvodynia in the past year were surveyed anonymously about prevalence and severity of vulvar and vaginal symptoms of itching, burning, irritation, vaginal discharge, vaginal dryness, and vulvovaginal pain in the past month. Women reporting at least 1 moderate-severe symptom were considered symptomatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000460DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Vaginal Ureaplasma parvum serovars and spontaneous preterm birth.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Ureaplasma species (spp.) are the bacteria most often isolated from the amniotic cavity of women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes, thus, the link between intrauterine Ureaplasma spp. infection and adverse pregnancy outcome is clearly established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.01.237DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read
4.704 Impact Factor

Evaluation of Lactobacilli for Antagonistic Activity Against the Growth, Adhesion and Invasion of and .

Indian J Microbiol 2019 Mar 27;59(1):81-89. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

2Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung City, 43301 Taiwan, ROC.

Urinary tract infections are the most common infectious diseases in babies and the elderly and are often acquired as nosocomial infections. The purpose of the present study was to identify strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which could be used as alternatives to antibiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections because of their ability to inhibit urinary tract pathogens ( BCRC 10694 and BCRC 17040). We screened 370 LAB strains using spent culture supernatants by inhibition zone assay to assess their antimicrobial effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-018-0753-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328402PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Cervical microbiota in women with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia, prior to and after local excisional treatment, a Norwegian cohort study.

BMC Womens Health 2019 Feb 6;19(1):30. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Østfold Hospital Trust, Kalnes, Norway.

Background: Local treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) by Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) has been correlated with reproductive morbidity, while the cervicovaginal microbiota is also known to affect the risk of preterm delivery. CIN and treatment by LEEP might change the cervical microbiota. The main aim of this study was to describe the cervical microbiota before and after LEEP and assess its associaton with cone depth and HPV persistence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0727-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364458PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Identification and characterization of NanH2 and NanH3, the enzymes responsible for sialidase activity in the vaginal bacterium .

J Biol Chem 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Molecular Microbiology, Washington University, United States.

is abundant in bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition associated with adverse reproductive health. Sialidase activity is a diagnostic feature of BV and is produced by a subset of strains. While its genetic basis has not been formally identified, sialidase activity is presumed to derive from the gene, named here In this study, BLAST searches predicted two additional sialidases, NanH2 and NanH3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006221DOI Listing
February 2019

Quantitation of all Four Gardnerella vaginalis Clades Detects Abnormal Vaginal Microbiota Characteristic of Bacterial Vaginosis More Accurately than Putative G. vaginalis Sialidase A Gene Count.

Mol Diagn Ther 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Gonorrhoea and other STIs, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Södra Grevrosengatan 2, 701 85, Örebro, Sweden.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a vaginal disorder characterized by a depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of mainly anaerobic bacteria.

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the distribution and abundance of the Gardnerella vaginalis clades and sialidase A gene in vaginal samples from Russian women, and investigate if the G. vaginalis sialidase A gene count detects an abnormal vaginal microbiota characteristic of BV more accurately than G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40291-019-00382-5DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia Trigger Distinct and Overlapping Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Bacterial Vaginosis.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rheumatology Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common imbalance of the vaginal microbiota characterized by overgrowth of diverse Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Gram-negative anaerobes. Women with BV are at increased risk of secondary reproductive tract infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, which specific bacteria cause clinical features of BV is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy704DOI Listing
February 2019
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Gardnerella and Prevotella: Co-conspirators in the Pathogenesis of Bacterial Vaginosis.

J Infect Dis 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, New York University School of Medicine, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy705DOI Listing
February 2019

Vaginal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: A conceptual analysis.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031, PR China.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), caused by the vaginal dysbacteriosis as well as the excessive growth of pathogenic bacteria, is a pathological condition of the vagina; its treatment using the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin often causes high recurrence rates. Considering the similar physiological environments of the intestinal tract and vaginal tract, as well as the pathological mechanism of intestinal infection and vaginal infection, we first propose the conception of vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT) and discuss its potential use in BV. This review focuses on the pathology of BV and the side effects caused by its standardised treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz025DOI Listing
January 2019
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Association between obesity and bacterial vaginosis as assessed by Nugent score.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Biomedical and Health Informatics, University of Missouri, Kansas City School of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common vaginal conditions in the U.S. Recent studies have suggested obese women have an abnormal microbiota reminiscent of BV; however, few studies have investigated the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in overweight and obese populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.01.229DOI Listing
January 2019

A pyo-hydropneumothorax with sepsis, secondary to infection in a post-partum female.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 10;26:189-192. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Limerick, Dooradoyle, Co.Limerick, Ireland.

A 20 year old female, 14 days post partum, presented to the Emergency Department in severe respiratory distress. Imaging of her chest revealed a left tension hydropneumothorax with significant mediastinal displacement. A chest drain was inserted and over 4L of cloudy-brown malodourous fluid was drained. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22130071183027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2019.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349301PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Probiotics and vaginal microecology: fact or fancy?

BMC Womens Health 2019 Jan 31;19(1):25. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Gynaecology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda, 12 - 20122, Milan, Italy.

Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, should confer a health benefit to the host. Media sources tend to present probiotics as an appealing health promotion method able to prevent or treat a wide variety of clinical conditions. In obstetrics and gynaecology, Lactobacilli species are mainly used to restore the physiologic vaginal microbiota in order to treat bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and prevent preterm birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0723-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357464PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Adolescent and young adult couples' views of intravaginal practices: a qualitative analysis of a pilot study.

Int J Womens Health 2019 18;11:49-56. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL33136, USA,

Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the risk behaviors that are drivers of the HIV epidemic among adolescent girls and young women in Zambia using a focus group research technique.

Subjects And Methods: Eighteen adolescent couples (n=18 females and 18 males) aged 16-24 participated in six focus groups discussions (3 per gender) convened at three health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Focus group moderators utilized a set of open-ended questions to guide the 60-minute sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S180233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342147PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objectives: Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053769DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Total and Free 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant African American Women.

Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2019 1;2019:9426795. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Lipids, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Objective: This study sought to investigate associations between serum total and free 25(OH)D and bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early and later pregnancy among US black women to provide insight into the most clinically relevant measure of vitamin D status among pregnant black women with respect to risk for BV as well as insights into critical time points for measuring and/or addressing vitamin D status in pregnancy.

Methods: Data and biospecimens were derived from a subsample (N = 137) of women from the Emory University African American Vaginal, Oral, and Gut Microbiome in Pregnancy Cohort, for whom data related to vitamin D status (serum assays for total and free 25(OH)D) and Nugent score of Gram stained vaginal specimens in early (8-14 weeks) and later (24-30 weeks) were available. We compared total and free 25(OH)D concentrations for women according to Nugent score category (normal flora, intermediate flora, and BV) and assessed the odds of BV according to measures of vitamin D status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9426795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332941PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Interaction of and vaginolysin with the apical versus basolateral face of a 3-dimensional model of vaginal epithelium.

Infect Immun 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA

Studies have implicated as an important etiological agent in bacterial vaginosis (BV). It produces a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, vaginolysin (VLY). In this study, we sought to characterize the interaction between vaginal epithelium, , and VLY using EpiVaginal tissues from MatTek. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00646-18DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Accuracy of the BD MAX™ vaginal panel in the diagnosis of infectious vaginitis.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario de Álava, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, BioAraba, Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud. c/ Francisco Leandro de Viana, s/n., 01009, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Álava, Spain.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the BD MAX™ vaginal panel in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and trichomoniasis by comparing it with conventional methods: (i) combination of Hay criteria and presence of clue cells with predominant growth of Gardnerella vaginalis, (ii) yeast culture, and (iii) combination of culture, wet mount microscopic examination, and an alternative molecular assay. One thousand vaginal samples of women ≥ 14 years were analyzed; 5% of the samples belonged to pregnant women. 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03480-8DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Rapid detection of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners in vaginal specimens by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

J Microbiol Methods 2019 Jan 22;158:18-20. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Microbiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1, Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

A rapid detection method for Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners, which are important for maintaining a healthy vaginal environment, was developed using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP assay had a lower limit of detection of 10 fg DNA and could detect both species within 45 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2019.01.011DOI Listing
January 2019

Association between preterm delivery and bacterial vaginosis with or without treatment.

Sci Rep 2019 Jan 24;9(1):509. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan.

The relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and preterm delivery has become well known in recent years, although there are few studies on: (i) the differences in test results during the early gestational (EGP) and middle gestational (MGP) periods; (ii) the significance of the intermediate (I) group that does not develop overt BV; or (iii) the therapeutic effects of metronidazole. We performed a retrospective study to analyze the relationship between the vaginal bacterial status and the preterm delivery rate. Without treatment, the preterm delivery rate was higher in the BV subgroup than in the I and normal (N) subgroups (p = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36964-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345902PMC
January 2019

Association between vaginal washing and vaginal bacterial concentrations.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(1):e0210825. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Vaginal washing is a common practice associated with adverse outcomes including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. Prior studies have not examined the associations between vaginal washing and individual vaginal bacteria, or whether these associations are independent of the effect of vaginal washing on BV. The purpose of this study was to characterize the association between vaginal washing and the presence and concentrations of vaginal bacteria associated with optimal and sub-optimal vaginal states. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210825PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345501PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Through the Microbial Looking Glass: Premature Labor, Preeclampsia, and Gestational Diabetes: A Scoping Review.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2019 Jan/Mar;33(1):35-51

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Dunn); Nurse-Midwifery Program at the Marquette University College of Nursing, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Dr Hanson); Marquette University College of Nursing, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Dr VandeVusse); and Woodruff Health Sciences Center Library at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (Ms Leslie).

The influence of microbial factors on adverse perinatal outcomes has become the focal point of recent investigations, with particular interest in the role of the microbiome and probiotic interventions. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and critique the most recent evidence about these factors as they relate to pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PEC), preterm birth (PTB), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were searched for articles published in English in the last 10 years with the concepts of the microbiome, probiotics, and PEC, PTB, or GDM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349420PMC
January 2020
2 Reads

Unveiling the role of Gardnerella vaginalis in polymicrobial Bacterial Vaginosis biofilms: the impact of other vaginal pathogens living as neighbors.

ISME J 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Centre of Biological Engineering (CEB), Laboratory of Research in Biofilms Rosário Oliveira (LIBRO), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a highly structured polymicrobial biofilm, which is strongly adhered to the vaginal epithelium and primarily consists of the bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. However, despite the presence of other BV-associated bacteria, little is known regarding the impact of other species on BV development. To gain insight into BV progress, we analyzed the ecological interactions between G. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41396-018-0337-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-018-0337-0DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Univariate Statistical Analysis as a Guide to ¹H-NMR Spectra Signal Assignment by Visual Inspection.

Metabolites 2019 Jan 15;9(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Agri-Food Science and Technology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

In Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy, the signals assignment procedure is normally conducted by visual inspection of the spectra, by taking advantage of the innate predisposition of human eye for pattern recognition. In the case of untargeted metabolomics investigations on food and body fluids, the complexity of the spectra may lead the user to overlook signals, independently from their biological relevance. Here, we describe a four steps procedure that is designed to guide signals assignment task by visual inspection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo9010015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359365PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Innate immune components affect growth and virulence traits of bacterial-vaginosis-associated and non-bacterial-vaginosis-associated Gardnerella vaginalis strains similarly.

Pathog Dis 2018 Dec 1;76(9). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Centre of Biological Engineering (CEB), Laboratory of Research in Biofilms Rosário Oliveira (LIBRO), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Mucosal surfaces of the female reproductive tract contain a variety of antimicrobial components that provide the first line of defense against bacteria involved in the development of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Microbiological analysis of BV has shown Gardnerella vaginalis to be a prominent species in BV development. However, G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/fty089DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Emended description of Gardnerella vaginalis and description of Gardnerella leopoldii sp. nov., Gardnerella piotii sp. nov. and Gardnerella swidsinskii sp. nov., with delineation of 13 genomic species within the genus Gardnerella.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

4​Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Whole genome sequence analysis (digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity) was carried out for 81 sequenced full genomes of the genus Gardnerella, including ten determined in this study, and indicated the existence of 13 genomic species, of which five consist of only one strain and of which only five contain more than four sequenced genomes. Furthermore, a collection of ten Gardnerella strains, representing the emended species G. vaginalis and the newly described species Gardnerella leopoldii, Gardnerella piotii and Gardnerella swidsinskii, was studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.003200DOI Listing
January 2019

Vaginal pH measured in vivo: lactobacilli determine pH and lactic acid concentration.

BMC Microbiol 2019 Jan 14;19(1):13. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

ReProtect Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Lactic acid (protonated lactate) has broad antimicrobial activity. Vaginal lactobacilli produce lactic acid, and are known to confer protection against reproductive tract infections when they are predominant in the vaginal microbiota. Using novel ex vivo methods, we showed that cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) from women with a predominantly lactobacilli-morphotype microbiota contains significantly more lactic acid than previously thought, sufficient to inactivate reproductive tract pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-019-1388-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332693PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

The evolving facets of bacterial vaginosis: implications for HIV transmission.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Burnet Institute, 104125, Disease Elimination Program, Life Sciences Discipline, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common yet poorly understood vaginal condition that has become a major focus of HIV transmission and immunology research. Varied terminologies are used by clinicians and researchers to describe microbial communities that reside in the female reproductive tract, which is driven in part by microbial genetic and metabolic complexity, evolving diagnostic and molecular techniques, and multidisciplinary perspectives of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and immunologists who all appreciate the scientific importance of understanding mechanisms that underlie "BV". This Perspectives article aims to clarify the varied terms used to describe the cervicovaginal microbiota and its "non-optimal" state, under the overarching term of BV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2018.0304DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Association of human papillomavirus and bacterial vaginosis with increased risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, Clinical Cytology Laboratory, State University of Maringá (UEM), Paraná, Brazil

Objective: To assess the rates of co-infections between human papillomavirus (HPV) and 13 key markers of bacterial vaginosis in cervical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in a population with a high rate of abnormal cytology and a positive HPV test.

Methods: The study included a total of 213 women aged 18-72 years screened using Papanicolaou smears for determining cervical abnormalities and for HPV and bacterial vaginosis by single-target and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

Results: A total of 83 (39%) women were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy cytology and 130 (61%) had abnormal cytology. Read More

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http://ijgc.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/ijgc-2018-000076
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2018-000076DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Differential sexual network connectivity offers a parsimonious explanation for population-level variations in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis: a data-driven, model-supported hypothesis.

BMC Womens Health 2019 Jan 10;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginal microbiota types varies dramatically between different populations around the world. Understanding what underpins these differences is important, as high-diversity microbiotas associated with BV are implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes and enhanced susceptibility to and transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

Main Text: We hypothesize that these variations in the vaginal microbiota can, in part, be explained by variations in the connectivity of sexual networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0703-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327541PMC
January 2019
1 Read

High Global Burden and Costs of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sex Transm Dis 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of reproductive age and is associated with important adverse health outcomes. Estimates of the burden of BV and associated costs are needed to inform research priorities.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of global BV prevalence among reproductive-aged women in the general population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000972DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Evaluation of interobserver reliability of Nugent score for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2018 Jul-Dec;39(2):120-123

Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Puducherry, India.

Background: Vaginal discharge is the commonly narrated compliant of the female attendees of sexually transmitted infection clinic, among which bacterial vaginosis (BV) is responsible for one-third of the visits. BV is often diagnosed clinically which warrants laboratory confirmation.

Aims: The study aims to detect the reliability of the Nugent scoring system between observers for the diagnosis of BV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijstd.IJSTD_98_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298156PMC
January 2019

Vaginal microbiome variances in sample groups categorized by clinical criteria of bacterial vaginosis.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 31;19(Suppl 10):876. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Medicine, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Background: One of the most common and recurrent vaginal infections is bacterial vaginosis (BV). The diagnosis is based on changes to the "normal" vaginal microbiome; however, the normal microbiome appears to differ according to reproductive status and ethnicity, and even among individuals within these groups. The Amsel criteria and Nugent score test are widely used for diagnosing BV; however, these tests are based on different criteria, and so may indicate distinct changes in the vaginal microbial community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5284-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311936PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Vaginal microbiota and IVF outcomes: development of a simple diagnostic tool to predict patients at risk of a poor reproductive outcome.

J Infect Dis 2018 Dec 29. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Female reproductive tract microbiota may impact human reproduction. This study evaluated if a more detailed characterization of the vaginal microbiota could improve prediction of IVF patients at risk of a poor reproductive outcome.

Methods: Vaginal samples from 120 IVF patients were sequenced using the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene with clustering of G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy744DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologic lesions are primarily polymicrobial and invasive and do not contain biofilms.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jan 25;220(1):91.e1-91.e8. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The recent demonstration of a vaginal biofilm in bacterial vaginosis and its postulated importance in the pathogenesis of recurrent bacterial vaginosis, including relative resistance to therapy, has led to the hypothesis that biofilms are crucial for the development of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The histopathology and microbial architecture of vulvovaginal candidiasis have not been previously defined; neither has Candida, containing biofilm been reported in situ. The present study aimed at clarifying the histopathology of vulvovaginal candidiasis including the presence or absence of vaginal biofilm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.10.023DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Vaginosis. Vaginal microbiota.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Departamento de Biología Funcional, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, España; Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Instituto Oftalmológico Fernández-Vega, Oviedo, España; Fundación para la Investigación y la Innovación Biosanitaria del Principado de Asturias (FINBA), Oviedo, España.

The latest advances in the vaginal microbiome and molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis have allowed for a better knowledge of this entity, characterising aspects of its pathogenesis and the establishment of the vaginal biolayer, the models and new theories of its aetiology, how it is transmitted, with it being considered nowadays as a probable sexually transmitted infection, the separation of other entities such as aerobic vaginosis, its molecular diagnosis and treatment with new molecules to prevent frequent relapses. This entity and the study of the vaginal microbiome have made it possible to consider these infections as a polymicrobial syndrome, putting an end to the dogma: one microorganism, one disease. In addition, a lesser-known entity such as aerobic vaginosis and the methods for its detection are updated. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0213005X183038
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Gardnerella vaginalis in perinatology: An overview of the clinicopathological correlation.

Malays J Pathol 2018 Dec;40(3):267-286

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Departments of Pathology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) is a facultatively anaerobic gram-variable bacillus and is the major organism involved in bacterial vaginosis. GV-associated bacterial vaginosis has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes include preterm parturition and subclinical chorioamnionitis. Inflammatory response induced by GV presents paediatric problems as well. Read More

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December 2018
10 Reads

Bacterial Vaginosis and Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis.

N Engl J Med 2018 12;379(23):2246-2254

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (J.P.); and the Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (R.C.B.).

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMra1808418
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1808418DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Chitosan-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose tioconazole films: A promising alternative dosage form for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

Int J Pharm 2019 Feb 12;556:181-191. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Instituto de Química Rosario (IQUIR, CONICET-UNR), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK, Argentina; Área Técnica Farmacéutica, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK, Argentina. Electronic address:

Vaginal candidiasis is considered a frequent opportunistic mucosal infection and the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis. In this work, different vaginal films based on chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and blends of these polymers containing tioconazole, were developed and thoroughly characterized to improve the conventional therapeutics of vaginal candidiasis. Mechanical properties, swelling, adhesiveness, morphology, antifungal activity, hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity were evaluated. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03785173183091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Vaginal dysbiosis and the risk of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: The vaginal microbiota proposedly influence the association between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Our aim was to assess whether vaginal dysbiosis affects human papilloma virus acquisition, persistence, and progression to related cervical premalignancy.

Data Soruces: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science (inception until June 2018) were used for this study. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00029378183222
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.12.011DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Microbiota dysbiosis is associated with HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 26;16(6):7035-7047. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Molecular Virology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-712 Poznan, Poland.

Cervical microbial communities serve a crucial role in the persistence and development of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. In the present study, the authors hypothesised that disturbed heterogeneity of microbial flora was associated with HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Swabs of the cervical microbiota were collected from 250 women and the 16S ribosomal DNA was sequenced using a high throughput assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256731PMC
December 2018

In Silico and Experimental Evaluation of Primer Sets for Species-Level Resolution of the Vaginal Microbiota Using 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequencing.

J Infect Dis 2019 Jan;219(2):305-314

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Background: Identification of bacteria in human vaginal specimens is commonly performed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. However, studies utilize different 16S primer sets, sequence databases, and parameters for sample and database clustering. Our goal was to assess the ability of these methods to detect common species of vaginal bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy508DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Evidence-based mixture containing Lactobacillus strains and lactoferrin to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial.

Benef Microbes 2019 Feb 10;10(1):19-26. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

3 Institute for Maternal and Child Health-IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo, Department of Medical Science, University of Trieste, via dell`Istria 65/1, 34100 Trieste, Italy.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discomfort in women. It is characterised by abnormal vaginal microbiota with a depletion of lactobacilli and predominance of anaerobic microorganisms, mainly Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. Although antibiotics represent an effective therapeutic option in the short-term, recurrent infections still remain a serious problem. Read More

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https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/BM2018.0075
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/BM2018.0075DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Contraceptive use and the risk of sexually transmitted infection: systematic review and current perspectives.

Open Access J Contracept 2018 12;9:91-112. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Global Health, Population and Nutrition, FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA,

Purpose: Evidence on the association between contraceptive use and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking, with few prospective studies. We systematically reviewed the last 10 years' evidence on the association between contraception and STI/BV, building on the most recent systematic reviews published in 2006 and 2009.

Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and POPLINE databases for peer-reviewed articles p ublished between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2018 reporting prospective studies that assessed the association between contraceptive use and incident STI and/or incident or recurrent BV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S135439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6239113PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Results from a cross-sectional sexual and reproductive health study among school girls in Tanzania: high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.

Sex Transm Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and may partly explain the high incidence of STI/HIV among girls and young women in East and southern Africa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between BV and sexual debut, to investigate other potential risk factors of BV and to estimate associations between BV and STIs.

Methods: Secondary school girls in Mwanza, aged 17 and 18 years, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053680DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads