5,722 results match your criteria Gardnerella


The impact of cervical cytobrush sampling on cervico-vaginal immune parameters and microbiota relevant to HIV susceptibility.

Sci Rep 2020 May 22;10(1):8514. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The immunology and microbiota of the female genital tract (FGT) are key determinants of HIV susceptibility. Cervical cytobrush sampling is a relatively non-invasive method permitting the longitudinal assessment of endocervical immune cells, but effects on FGT immunology are unknown. Blood, cervico-vaginal secretions and cervical cytobrushes were collected from sexually transmitted infection (STI)-free women at baseline and after either 6 hours or 48 hours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65544-6DOI Listing

[Ten questions about bacterial vaginosis].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Maternité des Diaconnesses 12-18 rue du Sergent Bauchat, 75012 Paris, France.

The physiopathology of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the ultimate stage of vaginal dysbiosis, has benefited from recent advances in molecular biology, highlighting, among others, the important role of Atopobium vaginae. Certain immunological specificities (variants of TLR4, elevation of IL-1β for example) explain the variations in the prevalence of this infection, the poor clinical and cellular inflammatory response and the promoting influence of BV on the acquisition and progression of some sexually transmitted infections. These advances do not fully elucidate the causes of the high rate of recurrences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gofs.2020.05.003DOI Listing

Vaginal probiotic adherence and acceptability in Rwandan women with high sexual risk participating in a pilot randomised controlled trial: a mixed-methods approach.

BMJ Open 2020 May 19;10(5):e031819. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK

Objectives: To evaluate adherence and acceptability of intermittent vaginal probiotic or antibiotic use to prevent bacterial vaginosis (BV) recurrence.

Design: Repeated adherence and acceptability assessments using mixed methods within a pilot randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Research clinic in Kigali, Rwanda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031819DOI Listing

Sex work is associated with increased vaginal microbiome diversity in young women from Mombasa, Kenya.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Durban, South Africa.

Background: While non-optimal vaginal bacteria and inflammation have been associated with increased HIV risk, the upstream drivers of these phenotypes are poorly defined in young African women.

Setting: Mombasa, Kenya.

Methods: We characterized vaginal microbiome and cytokine profiles of sexually active young women aged 14-24 years (n=168) in three study groups: those engaging in formal sex work, in transactional sex, and non-sex workers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002406DOI Listing

Women's multisite microbial modulation during pregnancy.

Microb Pathog 2020 May 16:104230. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo, Brazil; School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, 03828-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

The composition of female microbiome varies with age, physiological and socio-behavior conditions. Also, changes in microbiome composition are observed as pregnancy progresses, especially in the vaginal site. Together with the physiological adaptations of gestation, changes in microbiome composition seem to be fundamental for proper fetal development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104230DOI Listing

Randomized Trial of Lactin-V to Prevent Recurrence of Bacterial Vaginosis.

N Engl J Med 2020 05;382(20):1906-1915

From the Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences (C.R.C., S.N., A.H.) and Laboratory Medicine (L.G., S. Miller), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, the Department of Family Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego (S. Morris), and Osel, Mountain View (T.P.) - all in California; Emmes, Rockville, MD (M.R.W., J.P.); the Department of Medicine, Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center and Stroger Hospital of Cook County Health, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago (A.L.F.); and the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis (H.R.).

Background: Bacterial vaginosis affects 15 to 50% of women of reproductive age, and recurrence is common after treatment with an antibiotic agent. The high incidence of recurrence suggests the need for new treatments to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to evaluate the ability of CTV-05 (Lactin-V) to prevent the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915254DOI Listing

Electrospun Metronidazole-Loaded Nanofibers for Vaginal Drug Delivery.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2020 May 12:1-37. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330- Etiler, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To develop and characterize innovative vaginal dosage forms for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

Significance: This study is the first comparative evaluation of the metronidazole loaded PVP nanofiber formulations on Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) treatment. Vaginal nanofibers are one of the potential innovative dosage forms for BV treatment because of their flexible, mucoadhesive and easy application in vaginal application which can be applied by the mucosal route. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2020.1767125DOI Listing

as a Cause of Bacterial Vaginosis: Appraisal of the Evidence From Models.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 24;10:168. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Koch's postulates dictate the use of experimental models to illustrate features of human disease and provide evidence for a singular organism as the cause. The underlying cause(s) of bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been debated in the literature for over half a century. In 1955, it was first reported that a bacterium now known as may be the cause of a condition (BV) resulting in higher vaginal pH, thin discharge, a fishy odor, and the presence of epithelial cells covered in bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193744PMC

Effect of oral consumption of capsules containing Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-S01 on the vaginal microbiota of healthy adult women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Food Microbiology and Bioprocesses, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Oral consumption of probiotics is practical and can be an effective solution to preserve vaginal eubiosis. Here, we studied the ability of orally administered Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-S01 (DSM26760) to affect the composition of the vaginal microbiota and colonize the vaginal mucosa in nondiseased adult women. Forty volunteers took oral probiotic (24 billion CFU) or placebo capsules daily for four weeks, and after a four-week washout, they switched to placebo or probiotic capsules according to the crossover design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiaa084DOI Listing

Antibacterial Activity of Strains Isolated from Mongolian Yogurt against .

Biomed Res Int 2020 22;2020:3548618. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

College of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 201100, China.

Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria such as and for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Probiotics have demonstrated beneficial properties including strengthening the body's natural defense system, inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and regulating mental activity, but their effects on the human vagina have not been fully elucidated. The primary purpose of our study was to isolate strains from old yogurt, a traditional dairy product, and investigate their probiotic potential with respect to the human vaginal system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3548618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195648PMC

Bladder Bacterial Diversity Differs In Continent and Incontinent Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Since the discovery of the bladder microbiome (urobiome), interest has grown in learning whether urobiome characteristics have a role in clinical phenotyping and/or provide opportunities for novel therapeutic approaches for women with common forms of urinary incontinence (UI).

Objectives: To test our hypothesis that the bladder urobiome differs between continent women and women affected by UI by assessing associations between UI status and the cultured urobiome.

Study Design: With IRB oversight, transurethral catheterized urine specimens were collected from 309 adult women, who were categorized into three groups using response to the validated Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI): Continent Controls (N=150) and 2 Urinary Incontinence (UI cohorts) - Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI) (N=50) and Urgency Urinary Incontinence (UUI) (N=109). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.033DOI Listing

Extra-vaginal Bacterial Colonization and Risk for Incident Bacterial Vaginosis in a Population of Women who Have Sex with Men.

J Infect Dis 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginal discharge and associated with vaginal acquisition of BV-associated bacteria (BVAB). We used quantitative PCR assays to determine if presence or concentrations of BVAB in the mouth, anus, vagina, or labia prior to BV predict risk of incident BV in 72 women who have sex with men. Baseline vaginal and extra-vaginal colonization with Gardnerella spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa233DOI Listing

Five Percent Monolaurin Vaginal Gel for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA.

Objective: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that 5% monolaurin vaginal gel, a naturally occurring monoglyceride shown to have antimicrobial effects on vaginal pathogens without affecting Lactobacillus species, cures bacterial vaginosis (BV).

Materials And Methods: This was a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing 5% monolaurin vaginal gel to vehicle placebo (glycol-based) gel administered twice daily for 3 days. Nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding women between ages 18 and 50 years were recruited and BV confirmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000543DOI Listing

-Based Probiotics as Novel Antimicrobial Agents to Prevent and Treat Vaginal Infections.

Front Microbiol 2020 21;11:718. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, Medical Microbiology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Vaginal infections affect 70% of women during their lifetimes and account for millions of annual doctors' visits. These infections are predominantly represented by vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Although standard antimicrobial agents remain the major strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal infections, both VVC and BV are difficult to treat due to high rates of resistance and recurrence, high probability of complications, and negative effects on the vaginal microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186379PMC

The neovaginal microbiome of transgender women post-gender reassignment surgery.

Microbiome 2020 May 5;8(1):61. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Gender reassignment surgery is a procedure some transgender women (TW) undergo for gender-affirming purposes. This often includes the construction of a neovagina using existing penile and scrotal tissue and/or a sigmoid colon graft. There are limited data regarding the composition and function of the neovaginal microbiome representing a major gap in knowledge in neovaginal health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00804-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201977PMC

Thoughts about .

Sex Transm Infect 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Infectious Diseases, Imperial College London, London, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2020-054479DOI Listing

A phase 2, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose‑ranging study of the efficacy and safety of Astodrimer Gel for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(5):e0232394. Epub 2020 May 4.

Royal Hallamshire and Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Background: Astodrimer Gel contains a novel dendrimer intended to treat and prevent bacterial vaginosis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of Astodrimer Gel for treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

Methods: 132 women with bacterial vaginosis were randomized 1:1:1:1 to Astodrimer 0. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232394PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197797PMC

Is Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Autoimmune Antibody Positivity?

Cytopathology 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and autoimmune antibody positivity.

Method: We evaluated Pap-stained cervicovaginal smears of 210 patients with poor obstetric history who were admitted to a special preconception counseling program. Cytological specimens with various types of microorganisms except for BV, epithelial cell abnormalities and other non-neoplastic findings, including inflammation were excluded from the cohort in addition to patients with autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12846DOI Listing

Pathobionts in the Vaginal Microbiota: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis of Three Sequencing Studies.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 15;10:129. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Sequencing studies have shown that optimal vaginal microbiota (VMB) are lactobacilli-dominated and that anaerobes associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV-anaerobes) are commonly present. However, they overlooked a less prevalent but more pathogenic group of vaginal bacteria: the pathobionts that cause maternal and neonatal infections and pelvic inflammatory disease. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of three VMB sequencing studies that included diverse groups of women in Rwanda, South Africa, and the Netherlands (2,044 samples from 1,163 women in total). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174631PMC
April 2020
2.620 Impact Factor

Diagnosis and Treatment of Vaginal Discharge Syndromes in Community Practice Settings.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Although vaginal symptoms are common, diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is not standardized. Diagnostic approaches and appropriateness of treatment were evaluated for women with symptoms of vaginitis who were seeking care at community practice sites.

Methods: Three hundred three symptomatic women, across 8 University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-affiliated clinics, were evaluated per standard office-based practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa260DOI Listing

Conformal, waterproof electronic decals for wireless monitoring of sweat and vaginal pH at the point-of-care.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Apr 17;160:112206. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, 315 N. Grant Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA; Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 206 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA. Electronic address:

While the monitoring of pH has demonstrated to be an effective technique to monitor an individual's health state, the design of wearable biosensors is subject to critical challenges, such as high fabrication costs, thermal drift, sensitivity to moisture, and the limited applicability for users with metal allergies. This work describes the low-cost fabrication of waterproof electronic decals (WPEDs): highly conformable disposable biosensors capable of monitoring sweat and vaginal pH. WPEDs contain a polyaniline/silver microflakes sensing layer optimized for accurate impedance-based pH quantification across the clinically relevant range of variation of most biofluids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112206DOI Listing

The vaginal microbiota associates with the regression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 lesions.

Nat Commun 2020 Apr 24;11(1):1999. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute for Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London, W12 0NN, UK.

Emerging evidence suggests associations between the vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN); however, causal inference remains uncertain. Here, we use bacterial DNA sequencing from serially collected vaginal samples from a cohort of 87 adolescent and young women aged 16-26 years with histologically confirmed, untreated CIN2 lesions to determine whether VMB composition affects rates of regression over 24 months. We show that women with a Lactobacillus-dominant microbiome at baseline are more likely to have regressive disease at 12 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15856-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181700PMC

A Randomized Controlled Open Label Crossover Trial to Study Vaginal Colonization of Orally Administered Lactobacillus Reuteri RC-14 and Rhamnosus GR-1 in Pregnant Women at High Risk for Preterm Labor.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 19;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Emek Medical Center, Afula 1834111, Israel.

Lactobacilli administration has been suggested for the treatment and prevention of bacterial vaginosis, which increases the risk for preterm birth. We aimed to evaluate the vaginal colonization of lactobacilli orally administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm birth. We performed a randomized and controlled crossover study between January 2016 and May 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230520PMC

Incidence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of in Pregnant Females, Ehime University Hospital.

Rinsho Biseibutshu Jinsoku Shindan Kenkyukai Shi 2020 Apr;29(2):53-58

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Ehime University Hospital. Department of Infection Control Team, Ehime University Hospital.

Objective: usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and has been occasionally associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, postpartum fever, preterm labor in pregnant females. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated from the urogenital tracts of pregnant females.

Methods: Specimens were obtained from the urogenital tract of pregnant females at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ehime University Hospital, between November 2014 and December 2017. Read More

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[Etiology of purulent-inflammatory processes in the genital tract: suspicions of clinicians and problems of laboratory confirmation.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2020 ;65(5):328-331

E.A. Vagner Perm State Medical University, 614990, Perm, Russian Federation.

Despite the long history of the study, laboratory diagnosis of gonococcal infection remains a complex task that does not have a clearly regulated effective solution. Aim of investigation was to assess the species diversity of the microbiota of the genital tract of men and women with suspected acute genital gonococcal infection (AGGI) using test systems of Russian manufacturers. A study of samples of the contents of the urethra of 69 men and posterior vaginal fornix fluids of 33 women of reproductive age with characteristic clinical manifestations and a presumptive diagnosis of AGGI was made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2020-65-5-328-331DOI Listing
January 2020

Comparative Metagenome-Assembled Genome Analysis of " Lachnocurva vaginae", Formerly Known as Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Bacterium-1 (BVAB1).

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 31;10:117. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 (BVAB1) is an as-yet uncultured bacterial species found in the human vagina that belongs to the family within the order . As its name suggests, this bacterium is often associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common vaginal disorder that has been shown to increase a woman's risk for HIV, , and infections as well as preterm birth. BVAB1 has been further associated with the persistence of BV following metronidazole treatment, increased vaginal inflammation, and adverse obstetrics outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136613PMC

Crosstalk Between Female Gonadal Hormones and Vaginal Microbiota Across Various Phases of Women's Gynecological Lifecycle.

Front Microbiol 2020 31;11:551. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Bio-Sciences R&D Division, TCS Research, Tata Consultancy Services, Pune, India.

Functional equilibrium between vaginal microbiota and the host is important for maintaining gynecological and reproductive health. Apart from host genetics, infections, changes in diet, life-style and hygiene status are known to affect this delicate state of equilibrium. More importantly, the gonadal hormones strongly influence the overall structure and function of vaginal microbiota. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136476PMC

Trichomonas vaginalis in Pregnancy: Patterns and Predictors of Testing, Infection, and Treatment.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 May;135(5):1136-1144

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; and the Emory University School of Medicine, and the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, and the Division of Family Planning, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Objective: To identify factors associated with testing for and diagnosis of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and to describe patterns of treatment and tests of reinfection or persistence.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered from July 2016 to June 2018 at one institution. Testing for Trichomonas vaginalis infection was done by wet mount microscopy or by nucleic acid amplification testing for routine prenatal testing or symptomatic visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003776DOI Listing

Inflammatory and antimicrobial properties differ between vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from South African women with non-optimal versus optimal microbiota.

Sci Rep 2020 Apr 10;10(1):6196. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (IDM), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Female genital tract (FGT) inflammation increases HIV infection susceptibility. Non-optimal cervicovaginal microbiota, characterized by depletion of Lactobacillus species and increased bacterial diversity, is associated with increased FGT cytokine production. Lactobacillus species may protect against HIV partly by reducing FGT inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62184-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148372PMC

Research and business - the yin and yang in modern medicine.

Reprod Biomed Online 2020 May 4;40(5):613-616. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, and the Fertility Clinic Skive, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark.

Yin and yang is a concept of dualism in Chinese philosophy, describing how opposite or contrary forces may be complementary, interconnected and interdependent, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate with one another. In line with this, modern clinical research and business can definitely be described as yin and yang. With the increasing need for funding, researchers at a very early stage during the development of a new concept may be forced or tempted to enter the business world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2020.01.023DOI Listing

Prepubertal and Adolescent Vulvovaginitis: What to Do When a Girl Reports Vaginal Discharge.

Pediatr Ann 2020 Apr;49(4):e170-e175

Vaginitis presents with vaginal discharge, odor, pruritis, and/or discomfort and affects up to 75% of girls and women over the course of their lifetimes, with most women experiencing their first episode during adolescence. Given the prevalence of this disorder, this article aims to provide an overview of vaginitis for the general pediatrician. We start with prepubertal etiologies of vaginitis, then discuss pubertal and normal physiologic discharge, and then focus on the most common etiologies of adolescent vulvovaginitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20200317-01DOI Listing

An unusual case of fulminant generalized peritonitis secondary to purulent salpingitis caused by - case report with literature review.

Germs 2020 Mar 2;10(1):51-54. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

MD, Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Medical University Pleven, Bulgaria; Bul. Georgi Kochev 8A, Pleven, Bulgaria.

Introduction: bacilli are prevalent in the body as members of the normal flora and in some cases they can be involved in infections throughout the body. is a member of a nonpigment group found in the resident flora of the female genital tract and it is occasionally seen in the oral cavity.

Case Report: We describe the very rare case of a 39-year-old woman with fulminant generalized peritonitis secondary to purulent salpingitis caused by . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18683/germs.2020.1185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117888PMC

Association between Vaginal Infections and the Types and Viral Loads of Human Papillomavirus: A Clinical Study Based on 4,449 Cases of Gynecologic Outpatients.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2020 24;2020:9172908. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan, China.

Objective: We here evaluated the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Methods: A total of 4,449 women were enrolled in this study and given gynecological examinations. HPV genotyping and viral load determination were performed using a real-time PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9172908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7128038PMC
March 2020
0.487 Impact Factor

Complementing 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing with Total Bacterial Load To Infer Absolute Species Concentrations in the Vaginal Microbiome.

mSystems 2020 Apr 7;5(2). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Whereas 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing quantifies relative abundances of bacterial taxa, variation in total bacterial load between samples restricts its ability to reflect absolute concentrations of individual bacterial species. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can quantify individual species, but it is not practical to develop a suite of qPCR assays for every bacterium present in a diverse sample. We sought to determine the accuracy of an inferred measure of bacterial concentration using total bacterial load and relative abundance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00777-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141891PMC

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Persons to Prevent Preterm Delivery: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1286-1292

Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Bacterial vaginosis is common and is caused by a disruption of the microbiological environment in the lower genital tract. In the US, reported prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women ranges from 5.8% to 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2684DOI Listing

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Adolescents and Women to Prevent Preterm Delivery: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1293-1309

RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center.

Importance: Preterm delivery results in adverse outcomes; identifying and treating bacterial vaginosis may reduce its occurrence.

Objective: To update the evidence on screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and trial registries through May 29, 2019; bibliographies from retrieved articles, experts, and surveillance of the literature through December 31, 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.0233DOI Listing

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis During Pregnancy.

Authors:
Jill Jin

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1324

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3690DOI Listing

USPSTF 2020 Recommendations on Screening for Asymptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy.

JAMA 2020 04;323(13):1253-1255

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.22311DOI Listing

Growth Forms of spp. and spp. on Vaginal Cells.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 28;10:71. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal condition in women of reproductive age. During BV development, BV-associated bacteria may form a polymicrobial biofilm, which predispose women to recurrent BV. The aim of the study was to investigate the growth forms of spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093019PMC
February 2020

Urinary tract infection caused by Gardnerella vaginalis in a 2-month-old infant.

Pediatr Int 2020 Apr 6;62(4):506-507. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14113DOI Listing

Vaginal pH and microbiota during fluconazole maintenance treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC).

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Jun 14;97(2):115024. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Femicare Clinical Research for Women, Tienen, Belgium.

Background: It is commonly stated that Candida in the vagina prefers a low pH to develop infection. However, mixed infections of Candida with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV) are rather common and may challenge the rule that Candida should only be looked for in low vaginal pH settings. In this study we tested whether the vaginal pH in acute vaginal candidosis is lower than in women successfully treated to prevent Candida recurrences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115024DOI Listing

The penile microbiota of Black South African men: relationship with human papillomavirus and HIV infection.

BMC Microbiol 2020 Apr 6;20(1):78. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: To date, the microbiota of the human penis has been studied mostly in connection with circumcision, HIV risk and female partner bacterial vaginosis (BV). These studies have shown that male circumcision reduces penile anaerobic bacteria, that greater abundance of penile anaerobic bacteria is correlated with increased cytokine levels and greater risk of HIV infection, and that the penile microbiota is an important harbour for BV-associated bacteria. While circumcision has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the relationship of the penile microbiota with HPV is still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01759-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137192PMC

Differential Expression of Local Immune Response Genes in the Vagina: Implication for the Diagnosis of Vaginal Infections.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2020 Mar 4;168(5):646-650. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Transcription profiles of genes of local immune response were determined in the vagina of women with bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, and vulvovaginal candidosis for detection of the most specific immune markers for these vaginal infections. Laboratory diagnosis of the vaginal infections was performed microscopically; the inflammatory reaction in the vagina (leukorrhea) was defined as the presence of >10 white blood cells per field of view. Transcription profiles of IL1b, IL10, IL18, TNFα, TLR4, GATA3, and CD68 were determined using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10517-020-04771-3DOI Listing

Comparison of vaginal microbiota in gynecologic cancer patients pre- and post-radiation therapy and healthy women.

Cancer Med 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: While the importance of commensal microbes in vaginal health is well appreciated, little is known about the effects of gynecological cancer (GynCa) and radiation therapy (RT) on the vaginal microbiome (VM) of postmenopausal women.

Methods: We studied women with GynCa, pre- (N = 65) and post-RT (N = 25) and a group of healthy controls (N = 67) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from vaginal swabs and compared the diversity and composition of VMs between the three groups accounting for potential confounding factors in multivariate analysis of variance.

Results: Comparisons of cancer vs healthy groups revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have significantly higher relative abundance in the healthy group, while the cancer group was enriched in 16 phylogroups associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammation, including Sneathia, Prevotella, Peptoniphilus, Fusobacterium, Anaerococcus, Dialister, Moryella, and Peptostreptococcus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3027DOI Listing

A cross-sectional pilot study of birth mode and vaginal microbiota in reproductive-age women.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(4):e0228574. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Recent studies suggest that birth mode (Cesarean section [C-section] or vaginal delivery) is an important event in the initial colonization of the human microbiome and may be associated with long-term health outcomes. We sought to determine the association between a woman's birth mode and her vaginal microbiota in adulthood. We re-contacted 144 adult women from two U. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228574PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112195PMC

A Narrative Review of Current Challenges in the Diagnosis and Management of Bacterial Vaginosis.

Sex Transm Dis 2020 Mar 26. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

Despite the availability of a number of oral and intravaginal antibiotic medications for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV), management of this condition remains challenging. Recurrent BV occurs in >50% of patients receiving guideline-recommended treatments. This may be due to persistence or resurgence of the BV biofilm after treatment cessation, failure to re-establish an optimal vaginal microbiome after treatment, re-infection from an untreated sexual partner, or a combination of these factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001178DOI Listing

Prevalence and predictors of bacterial vaginosis in HIV-infected women in Maharashtra, India.

Int J STD AIDS 2020 May 31;31(6):541-552. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Research Triangle Institute, International-India, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419878333DOI Listing

Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in women with bacterial vaginosis.

BMC Womens Health 2020 Mar 26;20(1):62. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

SpeeDx Pty. Ltd., Sydney, Australia.

Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition in reproductive-age women and is known to be positively associated with risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging STI that has been linked to increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and infertility. In the present study we sought to examine whether women diagnosed with symptomatic BV were at increased risk of having concurrent infection with Mycoplasma genitalium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00926-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099815PMC

Cervicovaginal microbiome and natural history of HPV in a longitudinal study.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Mar 26;16(3):e1008376. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics (Genetic Medicine), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. However, only a small percentage of high-risk (HR) HPV infections progress to cervical precancer and cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of the cervicovaginal microbiome (CVM) in the natural history of HR-HPV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098574PMC