5,319 results match your criteria Gardnerella


Contraceptive use and the risk of sexually transmitted infection: systematic review and current perspectives.

Open Access J Contracept 2018 12;9:91-112. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Global Health, Population and Nutrition, FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA,

Purpose: Evidence on the association between contraceptive use and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking, with few prospective studies. We systematically reviewed the last 10 years' evidence on the association between contraception and STI/BV, building on the most recent systematic reviews published in 2006 and 2009.

Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and POPLINE databases for peer-reviewed articles p ublished between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2018 reporting prospective studies that assessed the association between contraceptive use and incident STI and/or incident or recurrent BV. Read More

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November 2018

Results from a cross-sectional sexual and reproductive health study among school girls in Tanzania: high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis.

Sex Transm Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and may partly explain the high incidence of STI/HIV among girls and young women in East and southern Africa. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between BV and sexual debut, to investigate other potential risk factors of BV and to estimate associations between BV and STIs.

Methods: Secondary school girls in Mwanza, aged 17 and 18 years, were invited to join a cross-sectional study. Read More

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December 2018

The biofilm in bacterial vaginosis: implications for epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment: 2018 update.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Biofilms, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Bacterial vaginosis is conventionally appreciated as a temporary community disturbance of the vaginal microbiota, though really involving self-organization as a resilient biofilm community. We will briefly review here how recent findings on this matter may affect practice and research in this field.

Recent Findings: The rapidly expanding literature base on the vaginal microbiome is largely based on 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and cpn60 gene sequencing, with few studies accounting thus far for spatial microbiota organization. Read More

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November 2018

Etiology of Vaginal/Cervical Discharge Syndrome: Analysis of Data from a Referral Laboratory in Eastern India.

Indian J Dermatol 2018 Nov-Dec;63(6):484-489

Department of VD Serology and Department of STD, Institute of Serology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) constitute important public health problem worldwide. Syndromic diagnosis of vaginal/cervical discharge (VCD) is often inaccurate leading to over- or under-treatment.

Aims: This study aimed to ascertain the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of VCD and their relative frequency in a group of patients presenting to a STI clinic in eastern India and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Sexual risk behaviour in a cohort of HIV-negative and HIV-positive Rwandan women.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Dec 3:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology,University of Gothenburg,Gothenburg,Sweden.

Here we wanted to assess whether sexual risk behaviour differs dependent by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status by following 100 HIV- and 137 HIV+ women recruited at two university teaching hospitals in Rwanda. Women were tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs; trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis B and C) and for reproductive tract infections (RTIs; candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis (BV)) and were interviewed at baseline and 9 months later. BV was the most prevalent infection, while syphilis was the most common STI with a 9-month incidence of 10. Read More

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December 2018

Bacterial Vaginosis: An insight into the prevalence, alternative regimen treatments and it's associated resistance patterns.

Microb Pathog 2018 Nov 28;127:21-30. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Atta-Ur-Rahman School of Applied Bio-Sciences, Department of Healthcare Biotechnology, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a complex polymicrobial infection of vagina that shifts the paradigms of vaginal flora from lactobacilli to opportunistic pathogens. BV is catagorized by greyish white discharge, pH greater than 4.5. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Characterization of vaginal microbiota in Thai women.

PeerJ 2018 21;6:e5977. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Microbiology and Research and Diagnostic Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: The vaginal microbiota (VMB) plays a key role in women's reproductive health. VMB composition varies with ethnicity, making it necessary to characterize the VMB of the target population before interventions to maintain and/or improve the vaginal health are undertaken. Information on the VMB of Thai women is currently unavailable. Read More

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November 2018

Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis and Potential Pathogens Other Than Group B Streptococcus in Vaginal Swab of Pregnant Women in Dhaka Medical College Hospital.

Mymensingh Med J 2018 Oct;27(4):834-842

Dr Mst Naznin Tarana, Research Student, Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Pathogenic microorganisms are important cause of maternal and neonatal infections which are transmitted from colonized vagina of mother. The purpose of the present study was to detect the potential pathogens other than Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swab of pregnant women. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

SNPs in 3'-UTR region of MBL2 increases susceptibility to recurrent vulvovaginal infections by altering sMBL levels.

Immunobiology 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India. Electronic address:

Recurrent vulvovaginal infections (RVVI), owing to their adverse health consequences, have become a serious dilemma worldwide. Low serum levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin (sMBL), a main component of innate immunity, was found to be associated with RVVI risk, though complete genetic bases are still elusive. To reveal unrecognised regulatory variants, 3'-UTR region of MBL2 with six putative functional SNPs i. Read More

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November 2018

Aerobic vaginitis in late pregnancy and outcomes of pregnancy.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No.154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors and pregnancy outcomes for aerobic vaginitis (AV) in late pregnancy. A total of 624 pregnant women who were treated in the perinatal unit at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and 365 nonpregnant women who were evaluated at a health management center from January 2015 to June 2016 were recruited for this case-control study. A questionnaire covering personal hygiene habits and sociodemographic factors was administered to pregnant women to analyze risk factors for AV. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Culture- and PCR-based detection of BV associated microbiological profile of the removed IUDs and correlation with the time period of IUD in place and the presence of the symptoms of genital tract infection.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Nov 22;17(1):40. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Semmelweis St. 6, Szeged, 6725, Hungary.

Objectives: The long-term use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) may lead to biofilm formation on the surface. The aim of this study was to perform the culture- and PCR-based detection of bacteria/fungi from the biofilm of the removed IUDs with different time periods in place.

Methods: For a 2-year period, 100 IUD users were involved in the study. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Calophyllum inophyllum in vaginitis treatment: Stimulated by electroporation with an in vitro approach.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Vaginitis is one of the most common problems in clinical medicine and is cited most often during visits to obstetricians and gynecologists. Most of the inflammation cases are caused by candidiasis trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis. Therefore, treatment of vaginal infections must use antibiotic or antifungal drugs, which often provide quick relief to the patient. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

[Interaction between vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2018 Nov;39(11):1486-1490

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.

To explore the effect of vaginal micro-environment alterations and HPV16 infection and their interaction in the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The participants of this study came from the cervical lesions study cohort in Shanxi province, including 623 women with normal cervical (NC), 303 patients with pathogenically diagnosed low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅠ) and 93 patients with pathogenically diagnosed high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINⅡ/Ⅲ). The data of the demographic characteristics of the study subjects and factors related to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected, and HPV16 infection were detected by using flow-through hybridization technology and H(2)O(2), β-glucuronidase, clotting enzyme, neuraminidase and leucocyte esterase in vaginal secretions were detected by using the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and factors associated among women who have sex with women.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2018 Nov 14;26:e3077. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Objective: to describe the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and factors associated among women who have sex with women.

Method: cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study with 150 women. The vaginal microbiota profile was analyzed by microscopic examination of vaginal swabs according to the Gram method. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Schistosoma mansoni infection and socio-behavioural predictors of HIV risk: a cross-sectional study in women from Uganda.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 19;18(1):586. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with increased risk of HIV transmission in African women. This association might be causal or mediated through shared socio-behavioural factors and associated co-infections. We tested the latter hypothesis in a cross-sectional pilot study in a cohort of women from a S. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Ecological dynamics of the vaginal microbiome in relation to health and disease.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

The bacterial composition of the vaginal microbiome is thought to be related to health and disease states of women. This microbiome is particularly dynamic, with compositional changes related to pregnancy, menstruation, and disease states such as bacterial vaginosis. In order to understand these dynamics and their impact on health and disease, ecological theories have been introduced to study the complex interactions between the many taxa in the vaginal bacterial ecosystem. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Impact of asymptomatic genital tract infections on in vitro Fertilization (IVF) outcome.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(11):e0207684. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (LA.M.M.B.), Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Background: Infertility is estimated to affect approximately 9-30% of reproductive-aged couples. Several conditions involving one or both partners may contribute to infertility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of asymptomatic genital tract infections in the outcome of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in couples with infertility. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Bacterial vaginosis: a primer for clinicians.

Postgrad Med 2018 Nov 14:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

b Center for Pelvic Medicine, LLC , Rosemont , PA , USA.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects approximately one third of women in the United States. While often asymptomatic, BV infection may be accompanied by serious health consequences, such as preterm birth and pelvic inflammatory disease, and may facilitate acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Identifying appropriate patients for screening, such as pregnant women, women planning pregnancy, and women with multiple and/or new sexual partners, is imperative for treatment. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

MDPbiome: microbiome engineering through prescriptive perturbations.

Bioinformatics 2018 Sep;34(17):i838-i847

Center for Plant Biotechnology and Genomics UPM - INIA, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Motivation: Recent microbiome dynamics studies highlight the current inability to predict the effects of external perturbations on complex microbial populations. To do so would be particularly advantageous in fields such as medicine, bioremediation or industrial scenarios.

Results: MDPbiome statistically models longitudinal metagenomics samples undergoing perturbations as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

The demographic and clinical profiles of women presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome at primary care facilities in South Africa: Associations with age and implications for management.

S Afr Med J 2018 Oct 2;108(10):876-880. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Centre for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa; School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Current South African guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) do not recommend treatment for sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens for women aged ≥35 years whose partners do not have male urethritis syndrome. The guideline assumes that older women are unlikely to have an STI and that their partners do not have asymptomatic infections.

Objectives: To describe the demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of women with VDS, comparing older women (≥35 years) with younger women, and to determine the performance of age alone as a criterion for predicting the presence of STI. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Impact of Standard Bacterial Vaginosis Treatment on the Genital Microbiota, Immune Milieu, and Ex Vivo Human Immunodeficiency Virus Susceptibility.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Genital immunology is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility. Both factors are modulated by bacterial vaginosis (BV) and, to some extent, by Lactobacillus iners, the genital Lactobacillus spp. that predominates in African, Caribbean, and other Black (ACB) women. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Cervicovaginal Fungi and Bacteria Associated With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections in a Hispanic Population.

Front Microbiol 2018 23;9:2533. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Medicine and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

The human cervicovaginal microbiota resides at an interface between the host and the environment and may affect susceptibility to disease. Puerto Rican women have high human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer rates. We hypothesized that the population structure of the cervicovaginal bacterial and fungal biota changed with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and HPV infections. Read More

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October 2018
11 Reads
3.941 Impact Factor

Factors Associated with Previable Delivery following Second Trimester Rupture of Membranes.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Objective:  To identify factors associated with previable delivery in second trimester preterm rupture of membranes (PROM).

Materials And Methods:  We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of women with pregnancies complicated by second trimester PROM (14.0-21. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Compounding to Prevent and Treat Dysbiosis of the Human Vaginal Microbiome.

Authors:
Mike Riepl

Int J Pharm Compd 2018 Nov-Dec;22(6):456-465

Gateway Pharmacy North, Bismarck, North Dakota.

Homeostasis of the human vaginal microbiome, which consists of the bacteriome (colonizing bacteria) and the mycobiome (resident fungi), is essential to the health of the female reproductive system. Dysbiosis of either microbial community can be caused by a variety of factors ranging from behavioral issues (personal-hygiene practices, the choice of contraceptives, smoking, etc.) to biological variables (the host-microbiome composition, menstruation, the robustness of the host's immune response). Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The human microbiome: implications for health and disease, including HIV infection.

Top Antivir Med 2018 Sep;26(3):75-78

University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Our increased understanding of the human microbiome has brought insight into the role it plays in health and disease, including HIV infection. Studies have shown that the gut microbiome is less diverse in individuals with HIV infection than in noninfected control subjects. Efforts to modify the microbiome to bolster immune reconstitution in people with HIV infection have so far been unsuccessful. Read More

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September 2018

Characterization of the Genital Mucosa Immune Profile to Distinguish Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

J Infect Dis 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Winnipeg, Canada.

Background: Inflammation and immune activation are key factors in sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to define the impact of hormonal cycling on the mucosal immune environment and HIV risk in sex workers with a natural menstrual cycle.

Methods: We compared soluble mucosal immune factors and cervical mononuclear cells during hormone titer-defined phases of the menstrual cycle among 37 sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Longitudinal association of gonorrhea and bacterial vaginosis with repeat chlamydia diagnoses among U.S. Army women: a retrospective cohort analysis.

Mil Med Res 2018 10 30;5(1):37. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch, Public Health Division, Defense Health Agency, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Historically, sexually transmitted infections have affected the health of the U.S. military. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Comparing the effect of sucrose gel and metronidazole gel in treatment of clinical symptoms of bacterial vaginosis: a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2018 Oct 26;19(1):585. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: Lactobacilli, as normal vaginal flora, have a central role in controlling body environment and preventing the growth of pathogens. Sucrose, by promoting the growth of Lactobacilli, accelerates the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this research was to compare the effects of sucrose gel with those of metronidazole gel in treating women with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Read More

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October 2018
13 Reads

Potential of Maintaining a Healthy Vaginal Environment by Two Strains Isolated from Cocoa Fermentation.

Biomed Res Int 2018 30;2018:7571954. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Imunologia, Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Salobrinho, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Km 16, 45662-900 Ilhéus, BA, Brazil.

Bacteria in the genera and do not have cell walls and therefore interact with host cells through lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP). These lipoproteins are important for both surface adhesion and modulation of host immune responses. and have been implicated in cases of bacterial vaginosis (BV), which can cause infertility, abortion, and premature delivery. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

PROVISION OF STI SERVICES IN A MOBILE CLINIC REVEALS HIGH UNMET NEED IN REMOTE AREAS OF SOUTH AFRICA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

Sex Transm Dis 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Anova Health Institute, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in areas of sub-Saharan Africa with poor access to healthcare services is not well documented. In remote areas of South Africa we investigated the prevalence of STIs and approaches to providing STI services through a mobile clinic.

Methods: We recruited 251 adult women visiting a mobile clinic that normally provides general health education and screening services, but not STI care. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Mycoplasma genitalium Infections in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in New Orleans.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA.

Background: Several studies have reported statistically significant associations of Mycoplasma genitalium with cervicitis, urethritis, or vaginal discharge, although non-significant associations have also been reported. This study examined the associations of M. genitalium with selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs), demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors among women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in New Orleans. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Common Cervicovaginal Microbial Supernatants Alter Cervical Epithelial Function: Mechanisms by Which Contributes to Cervical Health.

Front Microbiol 2018 8;9:2181. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal and Child Health Research Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Cervicovaginal (CV) microbiota is associated with vaginal health and disease in non-pregnant women. Recent studies in pregnant women suggest that specific CV microbes are associated with preterm birth (PTB). While the associations between CV microbiota and adverse outcomes have been demonstrated, the mechanisms regulating the associations remain unclear. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Prevalence of and risk factors for abnormal vaginal flora and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in a rural district in north-east Bangladesh.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

International Center for Maternal and Newborn Health, Health Systems Program, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: The role of screening and treatment for abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) on adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Using data from women who participated in a population-based cluster randomized trial who were screened and treated for AVF, we report risk factors for AVF and association of persistent AVF with adverse perinatal outcomes.

Material And Methods: Pregnant women (n=4,221) <19 weeks of gestation provided self-administered mid-vaginal swabs; smears were Nugent scored. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis in healthy women and patients with flora alterations.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Femicare Clinical Research for Women, 3300, Gasthuismolenstraat 31, Tienen, Belgium; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Antwerp University, 2000, Prinsstraat 13, Antwerp, Belgium.

The objective was to estimate the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in healthy women and patients with altered vaginal microflora. Vaginal samples from 2594 unselected female patients were divided into normal, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and aerobic vaginitis (AV) groups and tested for U. parvum, U. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Association of cervical microbial community with persistence, clearance and negativity of Human Papillomavirus in Korean women: a longitudinal study.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 19;8(1):15479. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Management, Center for Uterine Cancer, National Cancer Center, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

The present study aimed to identify the cervical microbes that are associated with HPV negativity, HPV clearance and HPV persistence and to assess the microbes' longitudinal associations as related to HPV infection dynamics among Korean women. We enrolled 41 women with 107 samples, and classified them according to the HPV infection dynamics: HPV negativity (21 samples, 10 subjects), HPV clearance (42 samples, 15 subjects), and HPV persistence (44 samples, 16 subjects). Cervical swabs were collected at the baseline and six-month-interval follow-up visits. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Treatment of bacterial vaginosis to prevent preterm birth.

Lancet 2018 Nov 12;392(10160):2141-2142. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute for Genome Sciences, The University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

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November 2018

Early clindamycin for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy (PREMEVA): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2018 Nov 12;392(10160):2171-2179. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Lille, France; Recherche Translationelle Relation Hôte-Pathogènes, Université de Lille, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Preterm delivery during pregnancy (<37 weeks' gestation) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Treating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy can reduce poor outcomes, such as preterm birth. We aimed to investigate whether treatment of bacterial vaginosis decreases late miscarriages or spontaneous very preterm birth. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Diversity of vaginal microbiota in sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on HIV transmission and prevention.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Oct 12. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Electronic address:

The vaginal microbial community ("microbiota") is a key component of the reproductive health of women, providing protection against urogenital infections. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by bacterial overgrowth and a shift away from a lactobacillus-dominated profile towards increased percentages of strict anaerobic species. BV is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as an increased risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections , pre-term births and pelvic inflammatory disease. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Clinical Chorioamnionitis at Term: New Insights into the Etiology, Microbiology, and the Fetal, Maternal and Amniotic Cavity Inflammatory Responses.

Nogyogyaszati Szuleszeti Tovabbkepzo Szemle 2018 Jun;20(3):103-112

Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, and Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Clinical chorioamnionitis is the most common infection related diagnosis made in labor and delivery units worldwide. It is traditionally believed to be due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, which elicits a maternal inflammatory response characterized by maternal fever, uterine tenderness, maternal tachycardia and leukocytosis. The condition is often associated with fetal tachycardia and a foul smelling amniotic fluid. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Epigenetics and the vaginal microbiome: influence of the microbiota on the histone deacetylase level in vaginal epithelial cells from pregnant women.

Minerva Ginecol 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Biological Sciences and the Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) influences the acetylation status of histones at gene promotor loci, providing an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression. We determined if variations in the composition of the vaginal microbiome in pregnant women were associated with alterations in the level of HDAC1 in vaginal epithelial cells and whether this influenced the concentration of compounds present in vaginal fluid. Vaginal epithelial cells were obtained from 150 women in their first trimester of pregnancy, lysed and assayed for HDAC1 by ELISA. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Single-dose versus 7-day-dose metronidazole for the treatment of trichomoniasis in women: an open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 5;18(11):1251-1259. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; Section of Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Among women, trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and is associated with serious reproductive morbidity, poor birth outcomes, and amplified HIV transmission. Single-dose metronidazole is the first-line treatment for trichomoniasis. However, bacterial vaginosis can alter treatment efficacy in HIV-infected women, and single-dose metronidazole treatment might not always clear infection. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of Japanese women.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 3;54:172-177. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan; Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University, 1-1, Yazakokarimata, Nagakute-shi, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan. Electronic address:

The composition of vaginal microbiota changes throughout life in response to health status, sexual activity, and pregnancy. Here the constitution of the vaginal microbiota among non-pregnant women, pregnant woman, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Japan were compared. Vaginal samples were obtained from 54 women between January 2014 and February 2015 and the microbiota of each was analyzed by 16S metagenomics as well as cluster and diversity analyses to identify differences. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Atopobium vaginae intrapartum bacteremia: A case report with a literature review.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Atopobium vaginae is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis and associated with preterm delivery. Invasive infection and bacteremia have been rarely reported. We describe the case of a woman expecting her firstborn child who presented with a A. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

A high burden of asymptomatic genital tract infections undermines the syndromic management approach among adolescents and young adults in South Africa: implications for HIV prevention efforts.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Oct 3;18(1):499. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Youth in southern Africa, particularly adolescent girls and young women, are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. Untreated genital tract infections (GTIs) increase both HIV transmission and acquisition risks. South African GTI treatment guidelines employ syndromic management, which relies on individuals to report GTI signs and symptoms. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

ProteoStorm: An Ultrafast Metaproteomics Database Search Framework.

Cell Syst 2018 Oct 26;7(4):463-467.e6. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Shotgun metaproteomics has the potential to reveal the functional landscape of microbial communities but lacks appropriate methods for complex samples with unknown compositions. In the absence of prior taxonomic information, tandem mass spectra would be searched against large pan-microbial databases, which requires heavy computational workload and reduces sensitivity. We present ProteoStorm, an efficient database search framework for large-scale metaproteomics studies, which identifies high-confidence peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) while achieving a two-to-three orders-of-magnitude speedup over popular tools. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Bacteriocin production of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus KS400.

AMB Express 2018 Sep 27;8(1):153. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Labfit-HPRD: Health Products Research and Development, Lda, Covilhã, Portugal.

In the last years, the use of probiotics, including Lactobacillus species, has received much attention to prevent and treat vaginal disorders. These species have been described as having the ability to colonize the epithelial surface and produce antimicrobial metabolites that are able to control the remaining vaginal microflora. This study aimed to identify and characterize, for the first time, a bacteriocin natively produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus KS400 (probiotic strain from Gynoflor-Medinova AG, Switzerland) and its antimicrobial activity against relevant urogenital pathogens. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Complications related to induced abortion: a combined retrospective and longitudinal follow-up study.

BMC Womens Health 2018 Sep 25;18(1):158. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.

Background: Induced abortion is one of the most common gynecological procedures in Sweden, but there is still little knowledge about the adverse effects. The aims of this study are to provide an overview of complications of medical and surgical abortions and to evaluate the impact of bacterial screening to prevent postabortal infections.

Methods: All women who underwent induced abortion at Skaraborg Hospital between 2008 and 2015 are included in the study. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 754: The Utility of and Indications for Routine Pelvic Examination.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Oct;132(4):e174-e180

The pelvic examination has long been considered a fundamental component of the well-woman visit, and many women and gynecologic care providers view this visit as an opportunity to discuss sexual and reproductive health issues. Traditionally, a pelvic examination is performed for asymptomatic women as a screening tool for gynecologic cancer, infection, and asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease; some obstetrician-gynecologists and patients consider it important in detecting subclinical disease, despite evidence to the contrary. Given changes in screening recommendations and the ability to screen for sexually transmitted infections using less-invasive methods, reevaluation of the role of the pelvic examination for asymptomatic, nonpregnant women is warranted. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

ACOG Committee Opinion No. 754 Summary: The Utility of and Indications for Routine Pelvic Examination.

Authors:

Obstet Gynecol 2018 Oct;132(4):1080-1083

The pelvic examination has long been considered a fundamental component of the well-woman visit, and many women and gynecologic care providers view this visit as an opportunity to discuss sexual and reproductive health issues. Traditionally, a pelvic examination is performed for asymptomatic women as a screening tool for gynecologic cancer, infection, and asymptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease; some obstetrician-gynecologists and patients consider it important in detecting subclinical disease, despite evidence to the contrary. Given changes in screening recommendations and the ability to screen for sexually transmitted infections using less-invasive methods, reevaluation of the role of the pelvic examination for asymptomatic, nonpregnant women is warranted. Read More

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October 2018
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Association between unhygienic menstrual management practices and prevalence of lower reproductive tract infections: a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Odisha, India.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Sep 21;18(1):473. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

School of Life Sciences, AIPH University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Background: The extent to which reproductive tract infections (RTIs) are associated with poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices has not been extensively studied. We aimed to determine whether poor menstrual hygiene practices were associated with three common infections of the lower reproductive tract; Bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV).

Methods: Non-pregnant women of reproductive age (18-45 years) and attending one of two hospitals in Odisha, India, between April 2015 and February 2016 were recruited for the study. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads