Genes (Basel) 2022 Jun 11;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 11.
Department of Medicine and Genetics, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
Clinical studies have revealed that the gene encodes the phospholipid transporter on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, and its mutations and variants are the genetic basis of low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC), a rare type of gallstone disease caused by a single-gene mutation or variation. The main features of LPAC include a reduction or deficiency of phospholipids in bile, symptomatic cholelithiasis at <40 years of age, intrahepatic sludge and microlithiasis, mild chronic cholestasis, a high cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in bile, and recurrence of biliary symptoms after cholecystectomy. Needle-like cholesterol crystals, putatively "anhydrous" cholesterol crystallization at low phospholipid concentrations in model and native bile, are characterized in ABCB4 knockout mice, a unique animal model for LPAC. Read More