2,777 results match your criteria Frontiers in oncology[Journal]


BAG3 Suppresses Loading of Ago2 to IL6 mRNA in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:225. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are a subset of pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts, which play a critical role in pancreatic fibrosis, a characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer. The interplay between PSCs and pancreatic cancer cells is vital for promotion of tumor progression and metastasis. BAG3 is correlated with poor prognostics in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), however, the exact mechanisms remain largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454118PMC

Antiproliferative Effects of the Natural Oxadiazine Nocuolin A Are Associated With Impairment of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:224. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Porto, Portugal.

Natural products are interesting sources for drug discovery. The natural product oxadiazine Nocuolin A (NocA) was previously isolated from the cyanobacterial strain sp. LEGE 06071 and here we examined its cytotoxic effects against different strains of the colon cancer cell line HCT116 and the immortalized epithelial cell line hTERT RPE-1. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00224/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456697PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Phase 2 Multicenter Study of Gantry-Based Stereotactic Radiotherapy Boost for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer (PROMETHEUS).

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:217. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

To report feasibility, early toxicity, and PSA kinetics following gantry-based, stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) boost within a prospective, phase 2, multicenter study (PROMETHEUS: ACTRN12615000223538). Patients were treated with gantry-based SBRT, 19-20 Gy in two fractions delivered 1 week apart, followed by conventionally fractionated IMRT (46 Gy in 23 fractions). The study mandated MRI fusion for RT planning, rectal displacement, and intrafraction image guidance. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00217/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454110PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Heparanase Promotes Tumor Growth and Liver Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells by Activating the p38/MMP1 Axis.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:216. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Tissue Engineering, Beijing Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Beijing, China.

Heparanase (HPSE), the only known mammalian endoglycosidase responsible for heparan sulfate cleavage, is a multi-faceted protein affecting multiple malignant behaviors in cancer cells. In this study, we examined the expression of HPSE in different colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Gene manipulation was applied to reveal the effect of HPSE on proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of CRC. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00216/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454005PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Radiotherapy Both Promotes and Inhibits Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Function: Novel Strategies for Preventing the Tumor-Protective Effects of Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:215. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Cancer immunotherapies aimed at neutralizing the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune suppressive pathway have yielded significant therapeutic efficacy in a subset of cancer patients. However, only a subset of patients responds to antibody therapy with either anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies. These patients appear to have so-called "hot" tumors containing tumor-reactive T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454107PMC

Editorial: Metastasis: From Cell Adhesion and Beyond.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:214. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Cancer Biophysics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454140PMC

Over Expressed TKTL1, CIP-2A, and B-MYB Proteins in Uterine Cervix Epithelium Scrapings as Potential Risk Predictive Biomarkers in HR-HPV-Infected LSIL/ASCUS Patients.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:213. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Human Histology and Embryology Unit, University of Verona Medical School, Verona, Italy.

High oncogenic risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) promote cervical carcinoma development, the fourth most common feminine cancer. A slow oncodevelopmental phase-defined histopathologically as Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) grades 1-3, or cytologically as Low- or High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LSIL or HSIL)-precedes the malignancy. Cervical carcinoma screenings through HR-HPV genotyping and Pap smears are regularly performed in Western countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456695PMC

TET2 Function in Hematopoietic Malignancies, Immune Regulation, and DNA Repair.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:210. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Hematology, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Over the last decade, investigation of () gene function and mutation have become of increasing interest in the field of hematology. This heightened interest was sparked by the seminal discoveries that (1) mutation is associated with development of hematological malignancies and that (2) the TET family of proteins is critical in promoting DNA demethylation and immune homeostasis. Since then, additional studies have begun to unravel the question "Does TET2 have additional biological functions in the regulation of hematopoiesis?" Here, we present a mini-review focused on the current understanding of TET2 in hematopoiesis, hematological malignancies, and immune regulation. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00210/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454012PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Development of a Transplantable GFP+ B-Cell Lymphoma Tumor Cell Line From MHC-Defined Miniature Swine: Potential for a Large Animal Tumor Model.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:209. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Center for Transplantation Sciences, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States.

The lack of a reliable and reproducible large animal tumor model for the study of hemolymphatic malignancies limits the ability to explore the underlying pathophysiology and testing of novel therapies. The goal of this study was to develop an aggressive, trackable swine tumor cell line in mice for adoptive transfer into MHC matched swine. Two tumor cell lines, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) 13271 and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) 14736, were previously established from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) miniature swine herd. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454861PMC
April 2019
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A Review on the Special Radiotherapy Techniques of Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:208. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest cancers worldwide. Radiotherapy has been established as an indispensable component of treatment. Although conventional radiotherapy provides good local control, radiotherapy treatment side-effects, local recurrence and distant metastasis remain to be the concerns. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00208/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454863PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Genome-Wide and Phenotypic Evaluation of Stem Cell Progenitors Derived From -Deficient Murine Lung Adenocarcinoma With Somatic Mutations.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:207. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) with somatic mutations in the oncogene comprise the most common molecular subtype of lung cancer in smokers and present with overall dismal prognosis and resistance to most therapies. Our group recently demonstrated that tobacco carcinogen-exposed mice with knockout of the airway lineage G-protein coupled receptor, , develop LUADs with somatic mutations in . Earlier work has suggested that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play crucial roles in clonal evolution of tumors and in therapy resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454871PMC

Performance of Different Combination Models of High-Risk HPV Genotyping in Triaging Chinese Women With Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:202. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different combination models of high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) genotyping in triaging Chinese women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). We established a screening cohort of 3,997 Chinese women who underwent cervical cytology and HPV genotyping test. Women with ASCUS cytology underwent punch biopsy under colposcopy/endocervical curettage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456653PMC

Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Tumor Imaging.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:201. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Optical Coherence Tomography, Research Institute of Experimental Oncology and Biomedical Technologies, Privolzhsky Research Medical University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

This paper considers valuable visual assessment criteria for distinguishing between tumorous and non-tumorous tissues, intraoperatively, using cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT)-OCT with a functional extension, that enables detection of the polarization properties of the tissues in addition to their conventional light scattering. The study was performed on 176 human specimens obtained from 30 glioma patients. To measure the degree to which the typical parameters of CP OCT images can be matched to the actual histology, 100 images of tumors and white matter were selected for visual analysis to be undertaken by three "single-blinded" investigators. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00201/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455095PMC
April 2019
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Histone Modifications Drive Aberrant Notch3 Expression/Activity and Growth in T-ALL.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:198. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive blood cancer caused by the deregulation of key T-cell developmental pathways, including Notch signaling. Aberrant Notch signaling in T-ALL occurs by gain-of-function mutations and by overexpression. Although is assumed as a Notch1 target, machinery driving its transcription in T-ALL is undefined in leukemia subsets lacking Notch1 activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456714PMC

Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid-Derived Exosomes: A Novel Role Contributing to Lung Cancer Growth.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:197. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Exosomes are nanovesicles produced by a number of different cell types and regarded as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Although bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) has been shown to be involved in the development of tumors, its role in lung cancer (LC) remains unclear. In this article, we systemically studied BALF-derived exosomes in LC. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00197/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454045PMC
April 2019
1 Read

CACNA2D3 Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Cisplatin via Inducing Ca-Mediated Apoptosis and Suppressing PI3K/Akt Pathways.

Front Oncol 2019 2;9:185. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Resistance to platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the main cause of poor prognosis in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Previously, we showed that CACNA2D3 (voltage-dependent subunit alpha 2 delta 3 of a calcium channel complex) was significantly downregulated and functioned as a tumor suppressor in ESCC, but its role in the chemosensitivity of ESCC to cisplatin remained unknown. Here, we found that the expression of CACNA2D3 was significantly associated with poor platinum response in ESCC patients from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454090PMC

Whole Brain Radiation Therapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Brain Metastases Leading to Improved Survival in Patients With Favorable Prognostic Factors.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:205. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Significantly better local control is achieved with combination of whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of multiple brain metastases. However, no survival benefit was reported from this advantage in local control. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence whether better local control achieved with whole brain radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiosurgery leads to any benefit in survival in patients with favorable prognostic factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449627PMC
March 2019
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An Integrated Regulatory Network Based on Comprehensive Analysis of mRNA Expression, Gene Methylation and Expression of Long Non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:200. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Haematology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, defective differentiation of hematopoietic precursors, and expansion of the abnormal clones. The prevalence of MDS has raised great concerns worldwide, but its pathogenetic mechanisms remain elusive. To provide insights on novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and therapy of MDS, we performed high-throughput genome-wide mRNA expression profiling, DNA methylation analysis, and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) analysis on bone marrows from four MDS patients and four age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450213PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Palliative Radiation Therapy for Vertebral Metastases and Metastatic Cord Compression in Patients Treated With Anti-PD-1 Therapy.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:199. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

There is increasing use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) across multiple cancer types, including in patients at risk for vertebral metastases and cord compression. These patients are often treated with palliative radiotherapy (PRT); however, data evaluating the combination of PRT and ICB in patients with vertebral metastases is limited. Furthermore, patients with cord compression are generally excluded from prospective clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450051PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

A Changing of the Guard: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors With and Without Chemotherapy as First Line Treatment for Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:195. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

Inhibitory antibodies targeting programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have resulted in improved outcomes for many patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in (NSCLC) in the second-line setting due to their ability to lead to prolonged anti-tumor immune responses. Combining these immunotherapies with platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment has resulted in improved response rates and increased survival when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy alone. Certain patient populations may even benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors as monotherapy in the first-line setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450209PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Epigenetic Enzyme Mutations: Role in Tumorigenesis and Molecular Inhibitors.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:194. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, result in heritable changes in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence. Epigenetic regulatory enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases, histone methyltransferases, and histone deacetylases are involved in epigenetic modification. Studies have shown that the dysregulation caused by changes in the amino acid sequence of these enzymes is closely correlated with tumor onset and progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449417PMC

The Allele of rs11212617 Associates With Higher Pathological Complete Remission Rate in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Metformin.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:193. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Program Against Cancer Therapeutic Resistance (ProCURE), Metabolism and Cancer Group, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona, Spain.

The minor allele () of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) , located near the () gene, has been associated with an increased likelihood of treatment success with metformin in type 2 diabetes. We herein investigated whether the same SNP would predict clinical response to neoadjuvant metformin in women with early breast cancer (BC). DNA was collected from 79 patients included in the intention-to-treat population of the METTEN study, a phase 2 clinical trial of HER2-positive BC patients randomized to receive either metformin combined with anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and trastuzumab or equivalent regimen without metformin, before surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447648PMC
March 2019
1 Read

OSlms: A Web Server to Evaluate the Prognostic Value of Genes in Leiomyosarcoma.

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:190. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, Cell Signal Transduction Laboratory, Bioinformatics Center, School of Software, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

The availability of transcriptome data and clinical annotation offers the opportunity to identify prognosis biomarkers in cancer. However, efficient online prognosis analysis tools are still lacking. Herein, we developed a user-friendly web server, namely nline consensus urvival analysis of eioyoarcoma (OSlms), to centralize published gene expression data and clinical datasets of leiomyosarcoma (LMS) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00190/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449415PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Efficacy and Tolerance of Post-operative Hypo-Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in a Large Series of Patients With Brain Metastases.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:184. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Academic Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Oscar Lambret, University Lille II, Lille, France.

The aim of this study was to assess, in a large series, the efficacy and tolerance of post-operative adjuvant hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) for brain metastases (BMs). Between July 2012 and January 2017, 160 patients from 2 centers were operated for BM and treated by HFSRT. Patients had between 1 and 3 BMs, no brainstem lesions or carcinomatous meningitis. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00184/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448411PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Characterization of Insufficiency Fracture and Bone Metastasis After Radiotherapy in Patients With Cervical Cancer Detected by Bone Scan: Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:183. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Insufficiency fracture (IF) can show increased uptake on a bone scan (BS). IFs are often misinterpreted as bone metastases if the characteristic "Honda sign" (H-sign) is invisible. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone for the characterization of IF and bone metastasis after radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer detected by BS. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00183/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447664PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Radiopharmaceuticals for Relapsed or Refractory Ovarian Cancers.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:180. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Targeted radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic use deliver radionuclides directly to tumor anywhere in the body, and therefore, have renewed interest for clinical development in women with disseminated chemorefractory ovarian cancers. About two in every five women with advanced stage ovarian cancer outlive their disease after the first treatment phase, with the rest rendered incurable due to the chemorefractory nature of their disease. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program conducted 67 phase I or phase Ib trials among women with relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer between 1989 and 2017 in an effort to uncover tolerable and effective drug combinations intended to increase survival rates. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00180/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448015PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Prolonged Response Induced by Single Agent Vemurafenib in a Spinal Ganglioglioma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:177. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France.

Spinal ganglioglioma is a rare low-grade, slow-growing tumor of the central nervous system affecting mostly children and young adults. After surgery, some patients show tumor recurrence and/or malignant transformation. Gangliogliomas harbor molecular deficiencies such as mutations in the B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma () gene, resulting in activation of a downstream signaling pathway and cancer development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448025PMC

The Emergence of Universal Immune Receptor T Cell Therapy for Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:176. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great success in the treatment of CD19+ hematological malignancies, leading to their recent approval by the FDA as a new cancer treatment modality. However, their broad use is limited since a CAR targets a single tumor associated antigen (TAA), which is not effective against tumors with heterogeneous TAA expression or emerging antigen loss variants. Further, stably engineered CAR T cells can continually and uncontrollably proliferate and activate in response to antigen, potentially causing fatal on-target off-tumor toxicity, cytokine release syndrome, or neurotoxicity without a method of control or elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448045PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADC) Against Cancer Stem-Like Cells (CSC)-Is There Still Room for Optimism?

Front Oncol 2019 29;9:167. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) represent a subpopulation of tumor cells with peculiar functionalities that distinguish them from the bulk of tumor cells, most notably their tumor-initiating potential and drug resistance. Given these properties, it appears logical that CSCs have become an important target for many pharma companies. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have emerged over the last decade as one of the most promising new tools for the selective ablation of tumor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449442PMC

The Role of Inhibition of Apoptosis in Acute Leukemias and Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:192. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Avoidance of apoptosis is a key mechanism that malignancies, including acute leukemias and MDS, utilize in order to proliferate and resist chemotherapy. Recently, venetoclax, an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2, has been approved for the treatment of upfront AML in an unfit, elderly population. This paper reviews the pre-clinical and clinical data for apoptosis inhibitors currently in development for the treatment of AML, ALL, and MDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445951PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Perspectives of Induction With Chemo and/or Immune Check Point Inhibition in Head and Neck Organ Preservation Treatment.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:191. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Induction chemotherapy (ICT) is an attractive option for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients which has been prospectively evaluated in the context of a multimodality treatment approach. The theoretical benefit is the ability to suppress distant metastases and shrink the tumor while chemotherapy is better tolerated when given sequentially than concurrently. However, clinical trials have failed to show consistent benefit of ICT over concurrent radio-chemotherapy and due to so far lacking level 1 evidence ICT outside larynx organ preservation remains rather investigational. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443982PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

PD-L1 Expression Is Associated With VEGFA and LADC Patients' Survival.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:189. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

To elucidate the relationship between VEGFA and PD-L1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC). PD-L1 and VEGFA expression were determined by immunohistochemistry with H-score on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded resected LADC specimens of 129 cases. High PD-L1 expression in 53 (41. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443993PMC

Podoplanin Positive Myeloid Cells Promote Glioma Development by Immune Suppression.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:187. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Division of Signal Transduction and Growth Control, DKFZ/ZMBH Alliance, Heidelberg, Germany.

The dynamic and interactive tumor microenvironment is conceived as a considerable parameter in tumor development and therapy response. Implementing this knowledge in the development of future cancer treatments could provide novel options in the combat of highly aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors such as gliomas. One compartment of the tumor microenvironment that has gained growing interest is the immune system. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00187/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443903PMC
March 2019
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The Impact of Timing of Concurrent Chemoradiation in Patients With High-Grade Glioma in the Era of the Stupp Protocol.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:186. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of current evidence for the impact of time to initiation of chemoradiation on overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas treated with radiation and concurrent temozolomide chemotherapy. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Studies were included if they provided separate analysis for patients treated with current standard of care: radiation and concurrent temozolomide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445963PMC

Assessing the Role of Selenium in Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:182. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Group, Genetics and Computational Biology Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer in developed countries. Based on evidence from observational studies which suggest selenium inhibits the development of several cancers (including lung and prostate cancer), selenium supplementation has been touted as a potential cancer preventative agent. However, randomized controlled trials have not reported benefit for selenium supplementation in reducing cancer risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445879PMC
March 2019
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Prospective Study of Isolated Recurrent Tumor Re-irradiation With Carbon-Ion Beams.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:181. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi, Japan.

To perform a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of isolated recurrent tumor re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy (RT). The inclusion criteria were clinically proven recurrent tumors, measurable by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, patients ≥ 16 years old, performance status scores between 0 and 2, isolated tumor at a previously irradiated site, and a life expectancy > 6 months. The exclusion criteria were tumor invasion into the gastrointestinal tract or a major blood vessel, uncontrolled infection, early recurrence (<3 months), and severe concomitant diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445888PMC
March 2019
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Expanding the Arsenal of FGFR Inhibitors: A Novel Chloroacetamide Derivative as a New Irreversible Agent With Anti-proliferative Activity Against FGFR1-Amplified Lung Cancer Cell Lines.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:179. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFR1-4) have a critical role in the progression of several human cancers, including Squamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (SQCLC). Both non-selective and selective reversible FGFR inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of patients with tumors harboring FGFR alterations. Despite their potential efficacy, the clinical development of these drugs has encountered several challenges, including toxicity, and the appearance of drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443895PMC
March 2019
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Microbiome and Cancers, With Focus on Genitourinary Tumors.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:178. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Section of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443990PMC
March 2019
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Radiomics and Machine Learning for Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancers.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:174. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Radiation Oncology Department, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes University, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.

An increasing number of parameters can be considered when making decisions in oncology. Tumor characteristics can also be extracted from imaging through the use of radiomics and add to this wealth of clinical data. Machine learning can encompass these parameters and thus enhance clinical decision as well as radiotherapy workflow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445892PMC
March 2019
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Targeted Therapy After Brain Radiotherapy for BRAF-Mutated Melanoma With Extensive Ependymal Disease With Prolonged Survival: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:168. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Melanoma brain metastasis with ependymal spread/metastases is uncommon. These cases are frequently classified together with leptomeningeal disease. However, the commonalities and differences in the underlying pathophysiology and clinical outcomes between these two types of spread are not clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443873PMC
March 2019
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Dissecting the Multiplicity of Immune Effects of Immunosuppressive Drugs to Better Predict the Risk of Malignancies in Solid Organ Transplant Patients.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:160. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Translational Research Institute, University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

malignancies constitute an emerging cause of morbidity after solid organ transplant (SOT), significantly affecting the long-term survival of transplant recipients. Pharmacologic immunosuppression may functionally impair the immunosurveillance in these patients, thereby increasing the risk of cancer development. Nevertheless, the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the immune effects induced by immunosuppressive drugs limit the current possibilities to reliably predict the risk of malignancy in SOT patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445870PMC

MiRNA-7-5p Inhibits the Growth and Migration of Hepatoma Cells via Cross-Species Regulation of S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9:175. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Institute for Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Development, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in human diseases, such as cancer. Human miRNA-7-5p is a tumor suppressor miRNA that inhibits tumor growth by regulating multiple oncogenic signal pathways. Recently, studies revealed that plant miRNAs could regulate mammalian gene expression in a cross-kingdom manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443022PMC
March 2019
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Circulating Tumor DNA Detection in the Management of Anti-EGFR Therapy for Advanced Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9:170. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Sociedade Beneficente de Senhoras-Hospital Sírio Libanês, São Paulo, Brazil.

Anti-EGFR antibodies are a standard care for advanced -wild type colorectal cancers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) monitoring during therapy can detect emergence of mutant clones and early resistance to therapy. We describe a 61-years-old man presenting a metastatic and recurrent rectal cancer treated with different chemotherapy regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439419PMC

Deleterious Mutations in DNA Repair Gene Exist in -Negative Chinese Familial Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9:169. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Breast Medical Oncology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

is reported as a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer, however, its mutation remains unclear in Chinese population. We aimed to identify the germline mutations of in high-risk breast cancer patients in China. 255 -negative Chinese familial breast and/or ovarian cancer (FBOC) patients were recruited for germline mutations screen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439399PMC
March 2019
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Prophylaxis With Oral Zinc Sulfate Against Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients With Head and Neck Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Four Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9:165. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Nursing, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Oral mucositis is an inevitable and distressing adverse event patients, who were treated with irradiation for head and neck cancer, face. Although several studies have investigated the potential of oral zinc sulfate in preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers, conclusive results have not yet been found. The aim of the present study is to determine whether oral zinc sulfate is effective in preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis, in patients with head and neck cancers. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00165/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438884PMC
March 2019
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Serve as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers and Targets for Human Ovarian Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 22;9:161. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The People's Hospital of China Three Gorges University/The First People's Hospital of Yichang, Yichang, China.

are a family of pivotal transcription factors. Accumulative evidence indicates that aberrant expression or activation of is a common phenomenon in malignances, and significant associations have been noted between and tumorigenesis or progression in a wide range of cancers. However, the expression patterns and exact roles of each contributing to tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian cancer (OC) have not yet been elucidated. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00161/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439355PMC
March 2019
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: Evaluation of AHCC Supplementation to Modulate the Host Immunity to Clear High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections.

Front Oncol 2019 20;9:173. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, UTHealth McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

There is currently no effective medicine or supplement for clearance of high risk- human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. We have taken a systematic approach evaluating the potential use of AHCC supplementation to support clearance of HR-HPV infections. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate AHCC supplementation to modulation of the host immune system to clear HR-HPV infections from bench to bedside. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435520PMC
March 2019
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Lysosomal Pathways and Autophagy Distinctively Control Endothelial Cell Behavior to Affect Tumor Vasculature.

Front Oncol 2019 20;9:171. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Cell Death Research and Therapy Laboratory, Department for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Cancer cell-stromal cell crosstalk is orchestrated by a plethora of ligand-receptor interactions generating a tumor microenvironment (TME) which favors tumor growth. The high pro-angiogenic nature of the TME perpetuates the chaotic network of structurally immature, low pericyte-covered vessels characteristic of the tumor vasculature. We previously demonstrated that chloroquine (CQ) -a lysosomotropic agent used as first-generation autophagy blocker in clinical trials- induced tumor vessel normalization and reduced tumor hypoxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435524PMC

Gender Is a Significant Prognostic Factor for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Large Hospital-Based Cancer Registry Study in an Endemic Area.

Front Oncol 2019 21;9:157. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan.

Our hospital is a tertiary medical center located in southern Taiwan, which is an endemic area for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) cases. Using a large registry-based surgical database, we examined our cohort of patients with UTUC, and evaluated the treatment outcome and gender-specific differences in this population. A total of 506 patients with localized UTUC undergoing nephroureterectomy from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437032PMC

Spheroid-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Provokes Global Alterations of Breast Cancer Lipidome: A Multi-Layered Omics Analysis.

Front Oncol 2019 21;9:145. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Metabolic rewiring has been recognized as an important feature to the progression of cancer. However, the essential components and functions of lipid metabolic networks in breast cancer progression are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of altered lipid metabolism in the malignant phenotype of breast cancer. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2019.00145/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437068PMC
March 2019
3 Reads