137 results match your criteria Frontiers in neuroengineering[Journal]


In vivo comparison of the charge densities required to evoke motor responses using novel annular penetrating microelectrodes.

Front Neuroeng 2015 12;8. Epub 2015 May 12.

Monash Vision Group, Monash University Clayton, VIC, Australia ; Department of Physiology, Monash University Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Electrodes for cortical stimulation need to deliver current to neural tissue effectively and safely. We have developed electrodes with a novel annular geometry for use in cortical visual prostheses. Here, we explore a critical question on the ideal annulus height to ensure electrical stimulation will be safe and effective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4429246PMC
June 2015
12 Reads

SET: a pupil detection method using sinusoidal approximation.

Front Neuroeng 2015 9;8. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London London, UK.

Mobile eye-tracking in external environments remains challenging, despite recent advances in eye-tracking software and hardware engineering. Many current methods fail to deal with the vast range of outdoor lighting conditions and the speed at which these can change. This confines experiments to artificial environments where conditions must be tightly controlled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2015.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391030PMC
April 2015
60 Reads

The chronic challenge-new vistas on long-term multisite contacts to the central nervous system.

Front Neuroeng 2015 18;8. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

AG Hirnforschung, Universität Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2015.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364247PMC
April 2015
4 Reads

High frequency switched-mode stimulation can evoke post synaptic responses in cerebellar principal neurons.

Front Neuroeng 2015 6;8. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Section Bioelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology Delft, Netherlands.

This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100 kHz) duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2015.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351622PMC
March 2015
8 Reads

NeuroPG: open source software for optical pattern generation and data acquisition.

Front Neuroeng 2015 2;8. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University Houston, TX, USA ; Department of Bioengineering, Rice University Houston, TX, USA ; Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX, USA.

Patterned illumination using a digital micromirror device (DMD) is a powerful tool for optogenetics. Compared to a scanning laser, DMDs are inexpensive and can easily create complex illumination patterns. Combining these complex spatiotemporal illumination patterns with optogenetics allows DMD-equipped microscopes to probe neural circuits by selectively manipulating the activity of many individual cells or many subcellular regions at the same time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2015.00001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345891PMC
March 2015
8 Reads

A low-cost programmable pulse generator for physiology and behavior.

Front Neuroeng 2014 11;7:43. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Neuroscience, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Kepecs Lab, Cold Spring Harbor NY, USA.

Precisely timed experimental manipulations of the brain and its sensory environment are often employed to reveal principles of brain function. While complex and reliable pulse trains for temporal stimulus control can be generated with commercial instruments, contemporary options remain expensive and proprietary. We have developed Pulse Pal, an open source device that allows users to create and trigger software-defined trains of voltage pulses with high temporal precision. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263096PMC
January 2015
9 Reads

Interaction of BCI with the underlying neurological conditions in patients: pros and cons.

Front Neuroeng 2014 18;7:42. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Guger Technologies OG, g.tec medical engineering GmbH Graz, Austria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235364PMC
December 2014
29 Reads

Glial cells, but not neurons, exhibit a controllable response to a localized inflammatory microenvironment in vitro.

Front Neuroeng 2014 14;7:41. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA ; J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA.

The ability to design long-lasting intracortical implants hinges on understanding the factors leading to the loss of neuronal density and the formation of the glial scar. In this study, we modify a common in vitro mixed cortical culture model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to examine the responses of microglia, astrocytes, and neurons to microwire segments. We also use dip-coated polyethylene glycol (PEG), which we have previously shown can modulate impedance changes to neural microelectrodes, to control the cellular responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231942PMC
December 2014
5 Reads

Real-time in vivo optogenetic neuromodulation and multielectrode electrophysiologic recording with NeuroRighter.

Front Neuroeng 2014 29;7:40. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Translational Neuroengineering Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA ; Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA ; Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA.

Optogenetic channels have greatly expanded neuroscience's experimental capabilities, enabling precise genetic targeting and manipulation of neuron subpopulations in awake and behaving animals. However, many barriers to entry remain for this technology - including low-cost and effective hardware for combined optical stimulation and electrophysiologic recording. To address this, we adapted the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology platform for use in awake and behaving rodents in both open and closed-loop stimulation experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4217045PMC
November 2014
7 Reads

A CMOS IC-based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro.

Front Neuroeng 2014 10;7:39. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan.

In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 × 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4193337PMC
October 2014
3 Reads

Challenges in clinical applications of brain computer interfaces in individuals with spinal cord injury.

Authors:
Rüdiger Rupp

Front Neuroeng 2014 24;7:38. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Experimental Neurorehabilitation, Spinal Cord Injury Center, Heidelberg University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany.

Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that measure brain activities and translate them into control signals used for a variety of applications. Among them are systems for communication, environmental control, neuroprostheses, exoskeletons, or restorative therapies. Over the last years the technology of BCIs has reached a level of matureness allowing them to be used not only in research experiments supervised by scientists, but also in clinical routine with patients with neurological impairments supervised by clinical personnel or caregivers. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174119PMC
October 2014
5 Reads

Short-term dynamics of causal information transfer in thalamocortical networks during natural inputs and microstimulation for somatosensory neuroprosthesis.

Front Neuroeng 2014 9;7:36. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Biomedical Engineering Program, SUNY Downstate Medical Center and NYU Polytechnic Brooklyn, New York, NY, USA.

Recording the activity of large populations of neurons requires new methods to analyze and use the large volumes of time series data thus created. Fast and clear methods for finding functional connectivity are an important step toward the goal of understanding neural processing. This problem presents itself readily in somatosensory neuroprosthesis (SSNP) research, which uses microstimulation (MiSt) to activate neural tissue to mimic natural stimuli, and has the capacity to potentiate, depotentiate, or even destroy functional connections. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4158812PMC
September 2014
5 Reads

Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation.

Front Neuroeng 2014 27;7:35. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Department of Neurorehabilitation Engineering, University Medical Center Goettingen Goettingen, Germany.

Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4145578PMC
September 2014
11 Reads
2 Citations

In vivo monitoring of glial scar proliferation on chronically implanted neural electrodes by fiber optical coherence tomography.

Front Neuroeng 2014 21;7:34. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Neuroelectronic Systems, Department of General Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Freiburg Freiburg, Germany.

In neural prosthetics and stereotactic neurosurgery, intracortical electrodes are often utilized for delivering therapeutic electrical pulses, and recording neural electrophysiological signals. Unfortunately, neuroinflammation impairs the neuron-electrode-interface by developing a compact glial encapsulation around the implants in long term. At present, analyzing this immune reaction is only feasible with post-mortem histology; currently no means for specific in vivo monitoring exist and most applicable imaging modalities can not provide information in deep brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139652PMC
September 2014
7 Reads

Neurorehabilitation of social dysfunctions: a model-based neurofeedback approach for low and high-functioning autism.

Front Neuroeng 2014 7;7:29. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Department of Cognitive Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent condition with core deficits in the social domain. Understanding its neuroetiology is critical to providing insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and social behaviors, including imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and even self-awareness. Equally important is the need to find ways to arrest its increasing prevalence and to ameliorate its symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124795PMC
August 2014
14 Reads

Changes in scalp potentials and spatial smoothing effects of inclusion of dura layer in human head models for EEG simulations.

Front Neuroeng 2014 5;7:32. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University Ilmenau Ilmenau, Germany.

The dura layer which covers the brain is less conductive than the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and also more conductive than the skull bone. This could significantly influence the flow of volume currents from cortex to the scalp surface which will also change the magnitude and spatial profiles of scalp potentials. This was examined with a 3-D finite element method (FEM) model of an adult subject constructed from 192 segmented axial magnetic resonance (MR) slices with 256×256 pixel resolution. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122221PMC
August 2014
5 Reads

Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings.

Front Neuroeng 2014 4;7:33. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.

The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120760PMC
August 2014
5 Reads

Characterizing relationships of DTI, fMRI, and motor recovery in stroke rehabilitation utilizing brain-computer interface technology.

Front Neuroeng 2014 29;7:31. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA.

The relationship of the structural integrity of white matter tracts and cortical activity to motor functional outcomes in stroke patients is of particular interest in understanding mechanisms of brain structural and functional changes while recovering from stroke. This study aims to probe these underlying mechanisms using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fMRI measures. We examined the structural integrity of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) using DTI and corticomotor activity using motor-task fMRI in stroke patients who completed up to 15 sessions of rehabilitation therapy using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4114288PMC
August 2014
15 Reads

Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

Front Neuroeng 2014 29;7:30. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital Singapore.

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4114185PMC
August 2014
16 Reads

Acute human brain responses to intracortical microelectrode arrays: challenges and future prospects.

Front Neuroeng 2014 21;7:24. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by harnessing activity recorded from populations of neurons. As more and more patients benefit from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly and a new generation of penetrating microelectrode arrays are providing unprecedented access to the neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). These microelectrodes have active tip dimensions that are similar in size to neurons and because they penetrate the nervous system, they provide selective access to these cells (within a few microns). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104831PMC
August 2014
16 Reads

Neuromodulation: present and emerging methods.

Front Neuroeng 2014 15;7:27. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London London, UK ; Center for Bio-Inspired Technology, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London London, UK.

Neuromodulation has wide ranging potential applications in replacing impaired neural function (prosthetics), as a novel form of medical treatment (therapy), and as a tool for investigating neurons and neural function (research). Voltage and current controlled electrical neural stimulation (ENS) are methods that have already been widely applied in both neuroscience and clinical practice for neuroprosthetics. However, there are numerous alternative methods of stimulating or inhibiting neurons. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097946PMC
July 2014
25 Reads
3 Citations

Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface.

Front Neuroeng 2014 15;7:26. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n = 8) or no therapy (n = 6). Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and 1 month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097124PMC
July 2014
9 Reads

Reduced discomfort during high-definition transcutaneous stimulation using 6% benzocaine.

Front Neuroeng 2014 11;7:28. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Neural Engineering Laboratory, The City College of the City University of New York New York, NY, USA.

Background: High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) allows for non-invasive neuromodulation using an array of compact (approximately 1 cm(2) contact area) "High-Definition" (HD) electrodes, as compared to conventional tDCS (which uses two large pads that are approximately 35 cm(2)). In a previous transcutaneous study, we developed and validated designs for HD electrodes that reduce discomfort over >20 min session with 2 mA electrode current.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a chemical pretreatment with 6% benzocaine (topical numbing agent) to further reduce subjective discomfort during transcutaneous stimulation and to allow for better sham controlled studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4093654PMC
July 2014
10 Reads

Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device.

Front Neuroeng 2014 8;7:25. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin - Madison Madison, WI, USA.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of nine stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086321PMC
July 2014
16 Reads

Tracking single units in chronic, large scale, neural recordings for brain machine interface applications.

Front Neuroeng 2014 8;7:23. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA ; Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA ; Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA.

In the study of population coding in neurobiological systems, tracking unit identity may be critical to assess possible changes in the coding properties of neuronal constituents over prolonged periods of time. Ensuring unit stability is even more critical for reliable neural decoding of motor variables in intra-cortically controlled brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). Variability in intrinsic spike patterns, tuning characteristics, and single-unit identity over chronic use is a major challenge to maintaining this stability, requiring frequent daily calibration of neural decoders in BMI sessions by an experienced human operator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086297PMC
July 2014
17 Reads

Brain-computer interface game applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children on the autism spectrum.

Front Neuroeng 2014 3;7:21. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA, USA.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and communicative skills, including imitation, empathy, and shared attention, as well as restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors. Evidence for and against the idea that dysfunctions in the mirror neuron system are involved in imitation and could be one underlying cause for ASD is discussed in this review. Neurofeedback interventions have reduced symptoms in children with ASD by self-regulation of brain rhythms. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4080880PMC
July 2014
13 Reads

Exploration of the neural correlates of cerebral palsy for sensorimotor BCI control.

Front Neuroeng 2014 9;7:20. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Brain-Computer Interfaces, Institute for Knowledge Discovery, Graz University of Technology Graz, Austria ; BioTechMed-Graz Graz, Austria.

Cerebral palsy (CP) includes a broad range of disorders, which can result in impairment of posture and movement control. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed as assistive devices for individuals with CP. Better understanding of the neural processing underlying motor control in affected individuals could lead to more targeted BCI rehabilitation and treatment options. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4088187PMC
July 2014
3 Reads

Brain-computer interface with somatosensory feedback improves functional recovery from severe hemiplegia due to chronic stroke.

Front Neuroeng 2014 7;7:19. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

Department of Biosciences and Informatics, School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Keio University Kanagawa, Japan.

Recent studies have shown that scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a great potential for motor rehabilitation in stroke patients with severe hemiplegia. However, key elements in BCI architecture for functional recovery has yet to be clear. We in this study focused on the type of feedback to the patients, which is given contingently to their motor-related EEG in a BCI context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083225PMC
July 2014
15 Reads

Case report: post-stroke interventional BCI rehabilitation in an individual with preexisting sensorineural disability.

Front Neuroeng 2014 24;7:18. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA ; Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA.

Therapies involving new technologies such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are being studied to determine their potential for interventional rehabilitation after acute events such as stroke produce lasting impairments. While studies have examined the use of BCI devices by individuals with disabilities, many such devices are intended to address a specific limitation and have been studied when this limitation or disability is present in isolation. Little is known about the therapeutic potential of these devices for individuals with multiple disabilities with an acquired impairment overlaid on a secondary long-standing disability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4067954PMC
July 2014
14 Reads

Deep brain stimulation macroelectrodes compared to multiple microelectrodes in rat hippocampus.

Front Neuroeng 2014 12;7:16. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA, USA ; Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta GA, USA.

Microelectrode arrays (wire diameter <50 μm) were compared to traditional macroelectrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Understanding the neuronal activation volume may help solve some of the mysteries associated with DBS, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4054883PMC
June 2014
2 Reads

Nanocrystalline diamond surfaces for adhesion and growth of primary neurons, conflicting results and rational explanation.

Front Neuroeng 2014 11;7:17. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel ; The Harvy M. Kruger Family Center for Nanoscience, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem, Israel.

Using a variety of proliferating cell types, it was shown that the surface of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) provides a permissive substrate for cell adhesion and development without the need of complex chemical functionalization prior to cell seeding. In an extensive series of experiments we found that, unlike proliferating cells, post-mitotic primary neurons do not adhere to bare NCD surfaces when cultured in defined medium. These observations raise questions on the potential use of bare NCD as an interfacing layer for neuronal devices. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4052739PMC
June 2014
27 Reads

Organic electrode coatings for next-generation neural interfaces.

Front Neuroeng 2014 27;7:15. Epub 2014 May 27.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034607PMC
June 2014
9 Reads

Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex.

Front Neuroeng 2014 27;7:14. Epub 2014 May 27.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, CA, USA.

Auditory perception and auditory imagery have been shown to activate overlapping brain regions. We hypothesized that these phenomena also share a common underlying neural representation. To assess this, we used electrocorticography intracranial recordings from epileptic patients performing an out loud or a silent reading task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034498PMC
June 2014
13 Reads

Anti-inflammatory polymer electrodes for glial scar treatment: bringing the conceptual idea to future results.

Front Neuroeng 2014 13;7. Epub 2014 May 13.

Biomedical Microtechnology, IMTEK, Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Germany ; BrainLinks-BrainTools Cluster of Excellence, Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Germany.

Conducting polymer films offer a convenient route for the functionalization of implantable microelectrodes without compromising their performance as excellent recording units. A micron thick coating, deposited on the surface of a regular metallic electrode, can elute anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of glial scarring as well as growth factors for the support of surrounding neurons. Electro-activation of the polymer drives the release of the substance and should ideally provide a reliable method for controlling quantity and timing of release. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4026681PMC
June 2014
5 Reads

Electrode impedance analysis of chronic tungsten microwire neural implants: understanding abiotic vs. biotic contributions.

Front Neuroeng 2014 8;7:13. Epub 2014 May 8.

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA.

Changes in biotic and abiotic factors can be reflected in the complex impedance spectrum of the microelectrodes chronically implanted into the neural tissue. The recording surface of the tungsten electrode in vivo undergoes abiotic changes due to recording site corrosion and insulation delamination as well as biotic changes due to tissue encapsulation as a result of the foreign body immune response. We reported earlier that large changes in electrode impedance measured at 1 kHz were correlated with poor electrode functional performance, quantified through electrophysiological recordings during the chronic lifetime of the electrode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021112PMC
May 2014
10 Reads

Effectiveness of the P3-speller in brain-computer interfaces for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Front Neuroeng 2014 1;7:12. Epub 2014 May 1.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova Padova, Italy ; Laboratory of Neuropsychology, IRCCS San Camillo Hospital Venice, Italy.

A quarter of century ago, Farwell and Donchin (1988) described their mental prosthesis for "talking off the top of your head." This innovative communication system, later named P3-speller, has been the most investigated and tested brain-computer interface (BCI) system, to date. A main goal of the research on P3-spellers was the development of an effective assistive device for patients with severe motor diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013458PMC
May 2014
4 Reads

Controlling neural network responsiveness: tradeoffs and constraints.

Front Neuroeng 2014 29;7:11. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Network Biology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel ; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Haifa, Israel.

In recent years much effort is invested in means to control neural population responses at the whole brain level, within the context of developing advanced medical applications. The tradeoffs and constraints involved, however, remain elusive due to obvious complications entailed by studying whole brain dynamics. Here, we present effective control of response features (probability and latency) of cortical networks in vitro over many hours, and offer this approach as an experimental toy for studying controllability of neural networks in the wider context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010759PMC
May 2014
5 Reads
7 Citations

The sinusoidal probe: a new approach to improve electrode longevity.

Front Neuroeng 2014 29;7:10. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Newcastle Movement Lab, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Micromotion between the brain and implanted electrodes is a major contributor to the failure of invasive brain-machine interfaces. Movements of the electrode tip cause recording instabilities while spike amplitudes decline over the weeks/months post-implantation due to glial cell activation caused by sustained mechanical trauma. We have designed a sinusoidal probe in order to reduce movement of the recording tip relative to the surrounding neural tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010751PMC
May 2014
6 Reads

Smaller, softer, lower-impedance electrodes for human neuroprosthesis: a pragmatic approach.

Front Neuroeng 2014 16;7. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia Genoa, Italy ; Section of Human Physiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ferrara Ferrara, Italy.

Finding the most appropriate technology for building electrodes to be used for long term implants in humans is a challenging issue. What are the most appropriate technologies? How could one achieve robustness, stability, compatibility, efficacy, and versatility, for both recording and stimulation? There are no easy answers to these questions as even the most fundamental and apparently obvious factors to be taken into account, such as the necessary mechanical, electrical and biological properties, and their interplay, are under debate. We present here our approach along three fundamental parallel pathways: we reduced electrode invasiveness and size without impairing signal-to-noise ratio, we increased electrode active surface area by depositing nanostructured materials, and we protected the brain from direct contact with the electrode without compromising performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3997015PMC
May 2014
7 Reads

Bio-inspired hybrid microelectrodes: a hybrid solution to improve long-term performance of chronic intracortical implants.

Front Neuroeng 2014 10;7. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Department of Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Science, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia Genova, Italy ; Section of Human Physiology, University of Ferrara Ferrara, Italy.

The use of implants that allow chronic electrical stimulation and recording in the brain of human patients is currently limited by a series of events that cause the deterioration over time of both the electrode surface and the surrounding tissue. The main reason of failure is the tissue inflammatory reaction that eventually causes neuronal loss and glial encapsulation, resulting in a progressive increase of the electrode-electrolyte impedance. Here, we describe a new method to create bio-inspired electrodes to mimic the mechanical properties and biological composition of the host tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3989589PMC
April 2014
15 Reads

A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests.

Front Neuroeng 2014 8;7. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni of Politecnico di Torino and with Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. Read More

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http://porto.polito.it/2541294/1/fneng_07_00006.pdf
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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3986515PMC
April 2014
6 Reads

Decoding repetitive finger movements with brain activity acquired via non-invasive electroencephalography.

Front Neuroeng 2014 13;7. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

Laboratory for Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interface Systems, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston Houston, TX, USA.

We investigated how well repetitive finger tapping movements can be decoded from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals. A linear decoder with memory was used to infer continuous index finger angular velocities from the low-pass filtered fluctuations of the amplitude of a plurality of EEG signals distributed across the scalp. To evaluate the accuracy of the decoder, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between the observed and predicted trajectories was calculated in a 10-fold cross-validation scheme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952032PMC
March 2014
6 Reads
5 Citations

Improved selectivity from a wavelength addressable device for wireless stimulation of neural tissue.

Front Neuroeng 2014 18;7. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston MA, USA ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston MA, USA.

Electrical neural stimulation with micro electrodes is a promising technique for restoring lost functions in the central nervous system as a result of injury or disease. One of the problems related to current neural stimulators is the tissue response due to the connecting wires and the presence of a rigid electrode inside soft neural tissue. We have developed a novel, optically activated, microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator based on a custom layered compound semiconductor heterostructure that is both wireless and has a comparatively small volume (<0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927122PMC
March 2014
8 Reads

When "I" becomes "We": ethical implications of emerging brain-to-brain interfacing technologies.

Front Neuroeng 2014 12;7. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

Neuroethics Program, Center for Ethics, Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA ; Department of Neurology, Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA.

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921579PMC
February 2014
4 Reads

Abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir microelectrode arrays in chronic implants.

Front Neuroeng 2014 4;7. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Miami Coral Gables, FL, USA ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Miami Coral Gables, FL, USA ; Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miami, FL, USA.

Pt/Ir electrodes have been extensively used in neurophysiology research in recent years as they provide a more inert recording surface as compared to tungsten or stainless steel. While floating microelectrode arrays (FMA) consisting of Pt/Ir electrodes are an option for neuroprosthetic applications, long-term in vivo functional performance characterization of these FMAs is lacking. In this study, we have performed comprehensive abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir arrays in 12 rats with implant periods ranging from 1 week up to 6 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912984PMC
February 2014
4 Reads

Low-latency multi-threaded processing of neuronal signals for brain-computer interfaces.

Front Neuroeng 2014 28;7. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Institute for Biology I, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany ; Bernstein Center Freiburg, University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany ; Department of Bioengineering and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London London, UK.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) require demanding numerical computations to transfer brain signals into control signals driving an external actuator. Increasing the computational performance of the BCI algorithms carrying out these calculations enables faster reaction to user inputs and allows using more demanding decoding algorithms. Here we introduce a modular and extensible software architecture with a multi-threaded signal processing pipeline suitable for BCI applications. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneng.2014.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2014.00001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904078PMC
January 2014
7 Reads

A possible mechanism for PTSD symptoms in patients with traumatic brain injury: central autonomic network disruption.

Front Neuroeng 2013 Dec 19;6:13. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) often develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This syndrome, defined and diagnosed by psychological and behavioral features, is associated with symptoms such as anxiety and anger with an increase of arousal and vigilance, as well as flashbacks and nightmares. Many of these features and symptoms observed in PTSD may be in part the result of altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in response to psychological and physical challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2013.00013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867662PMC
December 2013
41 Reads

A hardware model of the auditory periphery to transduce acoustic signals into neural activity.

Front Neuroeng 2013 26;6:12. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Special Research Promotion Group, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University Osaka, Japan ; Biomedical Systems Engineering, Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan.

To improve the performance of cochlear implants, we have integrated a microdevice into a model of the auditory periphery with the goal of creating a microprocessor. We constructed an artificial peripheral auditory system using a hybrid model in which polyvinylidene difluoride was used as a piezoelectric sensor to convert mechanical stimuli into electric signals. To produce frequency selectivity, the slit on a stainless steel base plate was designed such that the local resonance frequency of the membrane over the slit reflected the transfer function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2013.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840400PMC
December 2013
3 Reads

Effects of antiepileptic drugs on hippocampal neurons coupled to micro-electrode arrays.

Front Neuroeng 2013 19;6:10. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia Genova, Italy.

Hippocampal networks exhibit spontaneous electrophysiological activity that can be modulated by pharmacological manipulation and can be monitored over time using Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs), devices composed by a glass substrate and metal electrodes. The typical mode of activity of these dissociated cultures is the network-wide bursting pattern, which, if properly chemically modulated, can recall the ictal events of the epileptic phenotypes and is well-suited to study the effects of antiepileptic compounds. In this paper, we analyzed the changes induced by Carbamazepine (CBZ) and Valproate (VPA) on mature networks of hippocampal neurons in "control" condition (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2013.00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832899PMC
December 2013
5 Reads

Identification of a self-paced hitting task in freely moving rats based on adaptive spike detection from multi-unit M1 cortical signals.

Front Neuroeng 2013 15;6:11. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Aalborg University Aalborg, Denmark.

Invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may prove to be a useful rehabilitation tool for severely disabled patients. Although some systems have shown to work well in restricted laboratory settings, their usefulness must be tested in less controlled environments. Our objective was to investigate if a specific motor task could reliably be detected from multi-unit intra-cortical signals from freely moving animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneng.2013.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828672PMC
December 2013
3 Reads