8,826 results match your criteria Frontiers in immunology[Journal]


Shikonin Prolongs Allograft Survival via Induction of CD4FoxP3 Regulatory T Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:652. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Section of Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, and Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

A transplanted organ is usually rejected without any major immunosuppressive treatment because of vigorous alloimmune responsiveness. However, continuous global immunosuppression may cause severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity, tumors, and infections. Therefore, it is necessary to seek novel immunosuppressive agents, especially natural ingredients that may provide sufficient efficacy in immunosuppression with minimal side effects. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00652
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451963PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Antigenic Site-Specific Competitive Antibody Responses to the Fusion Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Were Associated With Viral Clearance in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Adults.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:706. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Recent studies of human sera showed that the majority of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) neutralizing antibodies are directed against pre-fusion conformation of the fusion (F) protein of RSV and revealed the importance of pre-fusion antigenic site Ø specific antibodies. However, detailed analysis of multiple antigenic site-specific competitive antibody responses to RSV F protein and their contribution to virus clearance in humans are lacking. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of RSV infected hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) adults ( = 40). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449644PMC

Immunopathogenesis of Behcet's Disease.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:665. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology characterized by recurrent episodes of oral aphthous ulcers, genital ulcers, skin lesions, ocular lesions, and other manifestations. Although the pathogenesis of BD is unclear, some studies have shown that immunological aberrations play an important role in the development and progression of BD. Infection-related trigger factors, including antigens and autoantigens, are believed to mediate the development of BD in patients with a genetic predisposition and subsequently activate the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulting in the production of numerous cytokines and chemokines to combat the infection-related factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449449PMC
March 2019
1 Read

NKG2D/NKG2-Ligand Pathway Offers New Opportunities in Cancer Treatment.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:661. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

INSERMU1160, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

The antitumor functions of NK cells are regulated by the integration of positive and negative signals triggered by numerous membrane receptors present on the NK cells themselves. Among the main activating receptors, NKG2D binds several stress-induced molecules on tumor targets. Engagement of NKG2D by its ligands (NKG2D-Ls) induces NK cell activation leading to production of cytokines and target cell lysis. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00661
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449444PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Editorial: Immunology of Psoriatic Disease.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:657. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449451PMC

Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria Indirectly Induce IL-22 but Not IFNγ Production From Human Colonic ILC3s via Multiple Mechanisms.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:649. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical, Aurora, CO, United States.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a diverse family of cells that play critical roles in mucosal immunity. One subset of the ILC family, Group 3 ILCs (ILC3s), has been shown to aid in gut homeostasis through the production of IL-22. IL-22 promotes gut homeostasis through its functional effect on the epithelial barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450192PMC
March 2019
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Roles of Exosomes Derived From Immune Cells in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:648. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Therapies aimed at minimizing adverse remodeling in cardiovascular diseases on a molecular and cellular basis are urgently needed. Exosomes are nanosized lipid vesicles released from various cells that are able to mediate intercellular signaling and communication via their cargos. It has been increasingly demonstrated that exosomes from cardiomyocytes or stem/progenitor cells can promote cardiac repair and regeneration, but their mechanism has not been fully explained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449434PMC

Cross-Protective Potential and Protection-Relevant Immune Mechanisms of Whole Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines Are Determined by Adjuvants and Route of Immunization.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:646. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Adjuvanted whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccines show promise as broadly protective influenza vaccine candidates. Using WIV as basis we assessed the relative efficacy of different adjuvants by carrying out a head-to-head comparison of the liposome-based adjuvants CAF01 and CAF09 and the protein-based adjuvants CTA1-DD and CTA1-3M2e-DD and evaluated whether one or more of the adjuvants could induce broadly protective immunity. Mice were immunized with WIV prepared from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus intramuscularly with or without CAF01 or intranasally with or without CAF09, CTA1-DD, or CTA1-3M2e-DD, followed by challenge with homologous, heterologous or heterosubtypic virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450434PMC

CSF Free Light Chains as a Marker of Intrathecal Immunoglobulin Synthesis in Multiple Sclerosis: A Blood-CSF Barrier Related Evaluation in a Large Cohort.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:641. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

The importance of immunoglobulin G (IgG) oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was reaffirmed again in the recently revised MS diagnostic criteria. Since OCB testing is based on non-quantitative techniques and demands considerable methodological experience, measurement of CSF immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) has been suggested as quantitative alternative to OCB. We aimed to establish reference values for FLC measures and evaluate their diagnostic accuracy with regard to the diagnosis of MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449445PMC

Analyses of Skin and Peripheral Blood Transcriptional Data in Cutaneous Lupus Reveals CCR2-A Novel Potential Therapeutic Target.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:640. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Dermatology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

Cutaneous lesions feature prominently in lupus erythematosus (LE). Yet lupus and its cutaneous manifestations exhibit extraordinary clinical heterogeneity, making it imperative to stratify patients with varying organ involvement based on molecular criteria that may be of clinical value. We conducted several bioinformatics-based analyses integrating chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE)-skin and blood expression profiles to provide novel insights into disease mechanisms and potential future therapy. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00640
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450170PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Oral Neutrophils Characterized: Chemotactic, Phagocytic, and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) Formation Properties.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:635. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Maintenance of oral health is in part managed by the immune-surveillance and antimicrobial functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which migrate from the circulatory system through the oral mucosal tissues as oral PMNs (oPMNs). In any microorganism-rich ecosystem, such as the oral cavity, PMNs migrate toward various exogenous chemoattractants, phagocytose bacteria, and produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to immobilize and eliminate pathogens. PMNs obtained from the circulation through venipuncture (hereafter called cPMNs) have been widely studied using various functional assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449731PMC

Non-cytotoxic Cardiac Innate Lymphoid Cells Are a Resident and Quiescent Type 2-Commited Population.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:634. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a subset of leukocytes with lymphoid properties that lack antigen specific receptors. They can be stimulated by and exert their effect via specific cytokine axes, whereas Natural Killers (NK) cells are the only known cytotoxic member of this family. ILCs are considered key in linking the innate and adaptive response in physiologic and pathologic environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450181PMC
March 2019
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Mapping of Dynamic Transcriptome Changes Associated With Silica-Triggered Autoimmune Pathogenesis in the Lupus-Prone NZBWF1 Mouse.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:632. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

Crystalline silica (cSiO) is a widely recognized environmental trigger of autoimmune disease. In the lupus-prone female NZBWF1 mouse, airway exposure to cSiO triggers pulmonary ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, systemic autoantibody elevation, and glomerulonephritis. Here we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of adaptive immune function genes in the lung precedes cSiO-triggering of autoimmune disease in this model. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00632
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450439PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) in the Regulation of Immunity and Immunopathology During Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:631. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Resistance to infection is dependent on a rapid induction of Th1-type and CD8+ T cell responses that should be promptly balanced to prevent immunopathology. -infected B6 mice are able to control parasite replication but show a limited expansion of Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) cells that results in the accumulation of effector immune cells and the development of acute liver pathology. AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that promotes Treg cell development and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in dendritic cells, altering the course of adaptive immune response and the development of immunopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450169PMC

The RANKL-RANK Axis: A Bone to Thymus Round Trip.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:629. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Milan Unit, Institute for Genetic and Biomedical Research (CNR-IRGB), Milan, Italy.

The identification of Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and its cognate receptor Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) during a search for novel tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members has dramatically changed the scenario of bone biology by providing the functional and biochemical proof that RANKL signaling via RANK is the master factor for osteoclastogenesis. In parallel, two independent studies reported the identification of mouse RANKL on activated T cells and of a ligand for osteoprotegerin on a murine bone marrow-derived stromal cell line. After these seminal findings, accumulating data indicated RANKL and RANK not only as essential players for the development and activation of osteoclasts, but also for the correct differentiation of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that act as mediators of the central tolerance process by which self-reactive T cells are eliminated while regulatory T cells are generated. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00629
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450200PMC
March 2019
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A Sentinel in the Crosstalk Between the Nervous and Immune System: The (Immuno)-Proteasome.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:628. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Human Anatomy, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The wealth of recent evidence about a bi-directional communication between nerve- and immune- cells revolutionized the traditional concept about the brain as an "immune-privileged" organ while opening novel avenues in the pathophysiology of CNS disorders. In fact, altered communication between the immune and nervous system is emerging as a common hallmark in neuro-developmental, neurodegenerative, and neuro-immunological diseases. At molecular level, the ubiquitin proteasome machinery operates as a sentinel at the crossroad between the immune system and brain. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00628
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450179PMC
March 2019
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Autoimmune Theories of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:627. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States.

Urticaria (hives) is a highly prevalent skin disorder that can occur with or without associated angioedema. Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a condition which persists for more than 6 weeks in duration and occurs in the absence of an identifiable provoking factor. CSU results from pathogenic activation of mast cells and basophils, which gives rise to the release of proinflammatory mediators that support the generation of urticaria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450064PMC
March 2019
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Double Positive CD4CD8 T Cells Are Enriched in Urological Cancers and Favor T Helper-2 Polarization.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:622. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Urology Research Unit, Urology Department, University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

The immune system plays a central role in cancer development, showing both anti-tumor and pro-tumor activities depending on the immune cell subsets and the disease context. While CD8 T cells are associated with a favorable outcome in most cancers, only T helper type 1 (Th1) CD4 T cells play a protective role, in contrast to Th2 CD4 T cells. Double positive (DP) CD4CD8 T cells remain understudied, although they were already described in human cancers, with conflicting data regarding their role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450069PMC

Mycobacteria-Specific T Cells May Be Expanded From Healthy Donors and Are Near Absent in Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:621. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, United States.

Mycobacterial Infections can be severe in patients with T-cell deficiency or phagocyte disorders, and treatment is frequently complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Restoration of T-cell immunity via stem cell transplantation facilitates control of mycobacterial infections, but presence of active infections during transplantation is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been successful in targeting viruses, but has not been attempted to treat mycobacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450173PMC

BTLA/HVEM Signaling: Milestones in Research and Role in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:617. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune-regulatory receptor, similar to CTLA-4 and PD-1, and is mainly expressed on B-, T-, and all mature lymphocyte cells. Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM)-BTLA plays a critical role in immune tolerance and immune responses which are areas of intense research. However, the mechanisms of the BTLA and the BTLA/HVEM signaling pathway in human diseases remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449624PMC

Bovine Derived Cultures Generate Heterogeneous Populations of Antigen Presenting Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:612. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

The Pirbright Institute, Woking, United Kingdom.

Antigen presenting cells (APC) of the mononuclear phagocytic system include dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Macs) which are essential mediators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Many of the biological functions attributed to these cell subsets have been elucidated using models that utilize -matured cells derived from common progenitors. However, it has recently been shown that monocyte culture systems generate heterogeneous populations of cells, DCs, and Macs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450137PMC

Inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (iBALT) Serve as Sites of B Cell Selection and Maturation Following Influenza Infection in Mice.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:611. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Seasonally recurrent influenza virus infections are a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. In murine models, primary influenza infection in the respiratory tract elicits potent humoral responses concentrated in the draining mediastinal lymph node and the spleen. In addition to immunity within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), pulmonary infection is also associated with formation of ectopic inducible bronchus-associated tissues (iBALT) in the lung. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450362PMC
March 2019
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Considering Abundance, Affinity, and Binding Site Availability in the NF-κB Target Selection Puzzle.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:609. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, United States.

The NF-κB transcription regulation system governs a diverse set of responses to various cytokine stimuli. With tools from biochemical characterizations, to omics-based whole genome investigations, great strides have been made in understanding how NF-κB transcription factors control the expression of specific sets of genes. Nonetheless, these efforts have also revealed a very large number of potential binding sites for NF-κB in the human genome, and a puzzle emerges when trying to explain how NF-κB selects from these many binding sites to direct cell-type- and stimulus-specific gene expression patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450194PMC

Interactions Between the Gut Microbiota and the Host Innate Immune Response Against Pathogens.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:607. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Veterinary Immunology Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China.

The mammalian intestine is colonized by over a trillion microbes that comprise the "gut microbiota," a microbial community which has co-evolved with the host to form a mutually beneficial relationship. Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota participates in immune system maturation and also plays a central role in host defense against pathogens. Here we review some of the mechanisms employed by the gut microbiota to boost the innate immune response against pathogens present on epithelial mucosal surfaces. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00607
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449424PMC
March 2019
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The Transcription Factor T-Bet Is Required for Optimal Type I Follicular Helper T Cell Maintenance During Acute Viral Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:606. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Institute of Immunology, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells), known as the primary "helpers" of the germinal center (GC) reaction, promote the humoral immune response to defend against various pathogens. Under conditions of infection by different types of pathogens, many shared transcription factors (TFs), such as Bcl-6, TCF-1, and Maf, are selectively enriched in pathogen-specific TFH cells, orchestrating TFH cell differentiation and function. In addition, TFH cells also coexpress environmentally associated TFs as their conventional T cell counterparts (such as T-bet, GATA-3, or ROR-γt, which are expressed in Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells, respectively). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449430PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

The Tumor Immune Contexture of Prostate Cancer.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:603. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

One in seven men in North America is expected to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) during their lifetime (1, 2). While a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiation, androgen deprivation and chemotherapy have been in practice for the last few decades, there are limited treatment options for metastatic and treatment resistant disease. Immunotherapy targeting T-cell associated immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4, PD-L1, and PD-1 have not yet proven to be efficacious in PCa. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00603
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447686PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy Significantly Alters the Phenotype of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and 6-Sulfo LacNAc Monocytes in Rectal Cancer.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:602. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Institute of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (nRCT) can significantly influence the tumor immune architecture that plays a pivotal role in regulating tumor growth. Whereas, various studies have investigated the effect of nRCT on tumor-infiltrating T cells, little is known about its impact on the frequency and activation status of human dendritic cells (DCs). Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) essentially contribute to the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity and may profoundly influence tumor progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450462PMC

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Restrains CD4 T Cell Priming Ability of CD11c Dendritic Cells by Upregulating Expression of CD31.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:600. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized sentinel cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune response and play a crucial role in shaping the adaptive immune response. Vitamin D, a known epidemiological risk factor for the development of several autoimmune diseases, influences the development of dendritic cells. Consequently, vitamin D metabolites are frequently used in protocols to develop therapeutic dendritic cell therapies for autoimmune diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447667PMC

Interplay of Na Balance and Immunobiology of Dendritic Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:599. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital Regensburg, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Local Na balance emerges as an important factor of tissue microenvironment. On the one hand, immune cells impact on local Na levels. On the other hand, Na availability is able to influence immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449459PMC

Unveiling Integrated Functional Pathways Leading to Enhanced Respiratory Disease Associated With Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Viral Vaccine.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:597. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre for Biologics Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch (HPFB), Health Canada and WHO Collaborating Center for Standardization and Evaluation of Biologicals, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a severe threat to young children and the elderly. Despite decades of research, no vaccine has been approved. Notably, instead of affording protection, a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine induced severe respiratory disease including deaths in vaccinated children in a 1960s clinical trial; however, recent studies indicate that other forms of experimental vaccines can also induce pulmonary pathology in pre-clinical studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449435PMC

Immunogenicity of a Virus-Like-Particle Vaccine Containing Multiple Antigenic Epitopes of Against Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:592. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Parasitology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

There is no effective protective vaccine against human toxoplasmosis, which is a potential threat to nearly a third of the world population. Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have been highly successful in humans for many years, but have rarely been applied against infection. In this study, we inserted a B cell epitope (SAG1 or SAG1), a CD8 cell epitope (HF10 or ROP7), and a CD4 cell epitope (AS15) of into a truncated HBc(amino acids1-149) particle to construct four chimeric VLP vaccine formulations, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449433PMC

Lessons to Learn From Low-Dose Cyclosporin-A: A New Approach for Unexpected Clinical Applications.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:588. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

INSERM UMR1163 and CNRS URL 8254, Imagine Institute, Paris, France.

Cyclosporin-A has been known and used for a long time, since its "fast track" approval in the early 80's. This molecule has rapidly demonstrated unexpected immunosuppressive properties, transforming the history of organ transplantation. Cyclosporin's key effect relies on modulation on T-lymphocyte activity, which explains its role in the prevention of graft rejection. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00588
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447662PMC
March 2019
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Primary and Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Oncohaematology: Warning Signs, Diagnosis, and Management.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:586. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Hospital U. Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Immunodeficiencies (ID), in particular primary immunodeficiencies (PID), are often associated with haematological manifestations, such as peripheral cytopenias or lymphoproliferative syndromes. Early diagnosis and management have significant prognostic implications. Secondary immunodeficiencies (SID) may also be induced by oncohaematological diseases and their treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448689PMC

The Fish-Specific Protein Kinase (PKZ) Initiates Innate Immune Responses via IRF3- and ISGF3-Like Mediated Pathways.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:582. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

College of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

PKZ is a fish-specific protein kinase containing Zα domains. PKZ is known to induce apoptosis through phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (eIF2α) in the same way as double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), but its exact role in detecting pathogens remains to be fully elucidated. Herein, we have found that PKZ acts as a fish-specific DNA sensor by initiating IFN expression through IRF3- or ISGF3-like mediated pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447671PMC
March 2019
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Sublingual Immunization With an RSV G Glycoprotein Fragment Primes IL-17-Mediated Immunopathology Upon Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:567. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of serious respiratory tract disease but there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Immunopathological mechanisms have long been suspected as operating in the development of severe RSV disease and have hampered the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we show that unlike intranasal immunization, sublingual immunization with RSV glycoprotein fragment containing the central conserved region (Gcf) primes the host for severe disease upon RSV challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447673PMC

Effect of Strains on Intestinal Barrier Function and Inflammatory Response.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:564. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Centre d'Excellence en Recherche Nutritionelle, Adisseo SAS, Malicorne, France.

Strong tight junctions and curtailed inflammatory responses under stressful conditions are key for optimal digestive health. -based probiotics are increasingly being used to maintain broilers' health, but their mode of action is often not well-defined. In the present study we used Caco-2 cells as a model for intestinal epithelia and assessed the effect of three -based probiotics on intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449611PMC

An Engineered Human Fc variant With Exquisite Selectivity for FcγRIIIa Reveals That Ligation of FcγRIIIa Mediates Potent Antibody Dependent Cellular Phagocytosis With GM-CSF-Differentiated Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2019 27;10:562. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States.

IgG antibodies mediate the clearance of target cells via the engagement of Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on effector cells by eliciting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis (ADCC and ADCP, respectively). Because (i) the IgG Fc domain binds to multiple FcγRs with varying affinities; (ii) even low Fc:FcγRs affinity interactions can play a significant role when antibodies are engaged in high avidity immune complexes and (iii) most effector cells express multiple FcγRs, the clearance mechanisms that can be mediated by individual FcγR are not well-understood. Human FcγRIIIa (hFcγRIIIa; CD16a), which exists as two polymorphic variants at position 158, hFcγRIIIa and hFcγRIIIa, is widely considered to only trigger ADCC, especially with natural killer (NK) cells as effectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448688PMC

IgA and FcαRI: Pathological Roles and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Front Immunol 2019 22;10:553. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody class present at mucosal surfaces. The production of IgA exceeds the production of all other antibodies combined, supporting its prominent role in host-pathogen defense. IgA closely interacts with the intestinal microbiota to enhance its diversity, and IgA has a passive protective role via immune exclusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448004PMC
March 2019
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Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:549. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

The world has developed an elaborate global health system as a bulwark against known and unknown infectious disease threats. The system consists of various formal and informal networks of organizations that serve different stakeholders; have varying goals, modalities, resources, and accountability; operate at different regional levels (i.e. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447676PMC
March 2019
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Editorial: Oxidants and Redox Signaling in Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:545. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448005PMC

Targeting Activated Synovial Fibroblasts in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Peficitinib.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:541. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Campus Kerckhoff, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Synovial fibroblasts (SF) play a major role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and develop an aggressive phenotype destroying cartilage and bone, thus termed RASF. JAK inhibitors have shown to be an efficient therapeutic option in RA treatment, but less is known about the effect of JAK inhibitors on activated RASF. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of JAK inhibitors on activated RASF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448044PMC
March 2019
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Causes and Consequences of miR-150-5p Dysregulation in Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:539. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center of Research in Myology, Sorbonne University, INSERM, Association Institute of Myology - UMRS 974, Paris, France.

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic neuromuscular disease mainly due to antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction that induce invalidating muscle weaknesses. In early-onset MG, the thymus is the effector organ and is often characterized by B-cell infiltrations leading to ectopic germinal center (GC) development. The microRNA miR-150-5p has been previously characterized as a biomarker in MG due to its increase in the serum of patients and its decrease after thymectomy, correlated with an improvement of symptoms. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00539
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450174PMC
March 2019
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Defective Induction of COX-2 Expression by Psoriatic Fibroblasts Promotes Pro-inflammatory Activation of Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2019 20;10:536. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM), Universitat Politècnica de València, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

Fibroblasts play an important role as members of the innate immune system through the secretion of COX-2-derived inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E (PGE). However, it has been described that dermal fibroblasts behave like mesenchymal stem cells reducing lymphocyte recruitment and dendritic cell activation through PGE release. As the role of fibroblasts in psoriasis remains poorly characterized, in the present study we have evaluated the possible influence of PGE derived from dermal fibroblasts as modulator of the immune response in psoriatic skin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448046PMC

Immune Cell Profiling of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Provides Pathogenetic Insights Into Inflammatory Neuropathies.

Front Immunol 2019 21;10:515. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Translational Neurology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Utilize immune cell profiles in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to advance the understanding and potentially support the diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies. We analyzed CSF cell flow cytometry data of patients with definite Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, = 26) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, = 32) based on established diagnostic criteria in comparison to controls with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, = 49) and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, = 63). Flow cytometry revealed disease-specific changes of CSF cell composition with a significant increase of NKT cells and CD8+ T cells in CIDP, NK cells in GBS, and B cells and plasma cells in MS in comparison to IIH controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448021PMC

Therapeutic Potential of Regulatory T Cells in Preeclampsia-Opportunities and Challenges.

Front Immunol 2019 21;10:478. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Inflammation is a central feature and is implicated as a causal factor in preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Inflammatory mediators and leukocytes, which are elevated in peripheral blood and gestational tissues, contribute to the uterine vascular anomalies and compromised placental function that characterize particularly the severe, early onset form of disease. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are central mediators of pregnancy tolerance and direct other immune cells to counteract inflammation and promote robust placentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448013PMC
March 2019
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, A Human Gut Commensal, Is as Potent as COPAXONE® in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2019 22;10:462. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We and others have shown that there is enrichment or depletion of some gut bacteria in MS patients compared to healthy controls (HC), suggesting an important role of the gut bacteria in disease pathogenesis. Thus, specific gut bacteria that are lower in abundance in MS patients could be used as a potential treatment option for this disease. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00462
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448018PMC
March 2019
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Regulating IRFs in IFN Driven Disease.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:325. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors that play pivotal roles in many aspects of the immune response, including immune cell development and differentiation and regulating responses to pathogens. Three family members, IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7, are critical to production of type I interferons downstream of pathogen recognition receptors that detect viral RNA and DNA. A fourth family member, IRF9, regulates interferon-driven gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449421PMC
March 2019
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Surfactant Protein D Reverses the Gene Signature of Transepithelial HIV-1 Passage and Restricts the Viral Transfer Across the Vaginal Barrier.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:264. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Effective prophylactic strategy against the current epidemic of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection requires understanding of the innate gatekeeping mechanisms at the genital mucosa. Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a member of the collectin family of proteins naturally present in the vaginal tract, is a potential HIV-1 entry inhibitor at the cellular level. Human EpiVaginal tissues compartmentalized in culture inserts were apically exposed to HIV-1 and/or a recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) and viral passage was assessed in the basal chamber containing mononuclear leukocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447669PMC

Imaging the Bone-Immune Cell Interaction in Bone Destruction.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:596. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine and Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Bone is a highly dynamic organ that is continuously being remodeled by the reciprocal interactions between bone and immune cells. We have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing the behavior of osteoclasts and their precursors in the bone marrow cavity using two-photon microscopy. Using this system, we found that the blood-enriched lipid mediator, sphingosine-1-phosphate, controlled the migratory behavior of osteoclast precursors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443987PMC
March 2019
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HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Have Increased Regulatory T Cells That Correlate With Decreased T Cell Function.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:595. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, CO, United States.

HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEU) are at higher risk of severe infections, hospitalizations and death compared with HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU), but the immune deficit underlying it is not known. To address this gap, we investigated T cell functionality and its relationship to phenotypic profiles of T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) in HEU and HUU. Blood mononuclear cells from 55 HEU and 16 HUU were stimulated with Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) or mock for 72 h, and tested by flow cytometry for proliferation and expression of Th1, Th2, and regulatory (Treg) markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445326PMC