8,335 results match your criteria Frontiers in immunology[Journal]


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Suppression of Th17 Cells Through miR-124 Mediated Inhibition of IL-6 Signaling.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:178. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Division of Rheumatology, College of Medicine, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States.

To explore the molecular mechanisms in which vitamin D (VD) regulates T cells, especially Th17 cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). DBA1/J mice induced for CIA were intraperitoneally treated with VD. CIA clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses including Th1/Th17/Tregs percentages were determined and compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374300PMC
February 2019

Current Strategies to Inhibit High Affinity FcεRI-Mediated Signaling for the Treatment of Allergic Disease.

Authors:
Gregorio Gomez

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:175. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, United States.

Allergies and asthma are a major cause of chronic disease whose prevalence has been on the rise. Allergic disease including seasonal rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, anaphylaxis, and asthma, are associated with activation of tissue-resident mast cells and circulating basophils. Although these cells can be activated in different ways, allergic reactions are normally associated with the crosslinking of the high affinity Fc receptor for Immunoglobulin E, FcεRI, with multivalent antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374298PMC
February 2019

MDSCs: Key Criminals of Tumor Pre-metastatic Niche Formation.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:172. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

The emergence of disseminated metastases remains the primary cause of mortality in cancer patients. Formation of the pre-metastatic niche (PMN), which precedes the establishment of tumor lesions, is critical for metastases. Bone marrow-derived myeloid cells (BMDCs) are indispensable for PMN formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374299PMC
February 2019

ILC2 Orchestration of Local Immune Function in Adipose Tissue.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:171. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom.

ILC2s were originally identified as IL-5 and IL-13 secreting "natural helper cells" present within the fat-associated lymphoid clusters of the mesenteries in both mouse and man. The presence of ILCs in adipose tissue has more recently expanded to include all ILC groups. Since their initial discovery, our knowledge of these cells and their role in adipose immune responses has expanded significantly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374325PMC
February 2019

Adenosine A2A Receptor Stimulation Inhibits TCR-Induced Notch1 Activation in CD8+T-Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:162. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.

Notch receptors signaling is required for optimal T-cell activation and function. T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement can activate Notch receptors in T-cells in a ligand-independent fashion. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling pathway in regulating the activity of Notch1 induced by TCR stimulation in CD8+T-cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374329PMC
February 2019

Ethyl Pyruvate Induces Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:157. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković" University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that have a key role in shaping the immune response. Tolerogenic DC (tolDC) have immuno-regulatory properties and they are a promising prospective therapy for multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a redox analog of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera), a drug for multiple sclerosis treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374627PMC
February 2019

Rainbow Trout () Intestinal Epithelial Cells as a Model for Studying Gut Immune Function and Effects of Functional Feed Ingredients.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:152. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Oslo, Norway.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cell line (RTgutGC) as an model for studies of gut immune function and effects of functional feed ingredients. Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and three functional feed ingredients [nucleotides, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and beta-glucans] were evaluated in RTgutGC cells grown on conventional culture plates and transwell membranes. Permeation of fluorescently-labeled albumin, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and tight junction protein expression confirmed the barrier function of the cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374633PMC
February 2019

Restoring T Cell Tolerance, Exploring the Potential of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:151. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Department of Pediatric Immunology & Rheumatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is characterized by a loss of immune tolerance. Here, the balance between the activity of effector T (Teff) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells is disturbed resulting in chronic inflammation in the joints. Presently, therapeutic strategies are predominantly aimed at suppressing immune activation and pro-inflammatory effector mechanisms, ignoring the opportunity to also promote tolerance by boosting the regulatory side of the immune balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374297PMC
February 2019

Interferon-γ Receptor Signaling in Dendritic Cells Restrains Spontaneous Proliferation of CD4 T Cells in Chronic Lymphopenic Mice.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:140. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

In lymphopenic mice, T cells become activated and undergo lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP). However, not all T cells are equally sensitive to lymphopenia. Several lymphopenia-insensitive T cell clones were described and their non-responsiveness was mainly attributed to clone-specific properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374634PMC
February 2019

Editorial: Langerhans Cells and How Skin Pathology Reshapes the Local Immune Environment.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:139. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Biosciences Department, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375340PMC
February 2019

Retrospective Identification of a Broad IgG Repertoire Differentiating Patients With Skin and Soft Tissue Infections From Controls.

Front Immunol 2019 7;10:114. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Although the relevance of humoral immunity for protection against skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has been suggested by several animal and human studies, the question of which human antibodies may be protective has so far impeded the development of a safe and effective vaccine. Because most adults have developed certain anti- antibodies due to colonization or infection, we hypothesized that the titers of antibodies to in uninfected controls would differ from those in infected patients and would also differ in infected patients from the time of acute infection to a 40-day convalescent serum. To test these hypotheses, we measured human antibody levels against a panel of 134 unique antigens comprising the surfome and secretome in subjects with active culture-confirmed SSTIs (cases) and in controls with no infection, using a novel protein microarray. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375365PMC
February 2019
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Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA in the CSF: A Potential Prognostic Biomarker of Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:103. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune inflammatory brain disease that can develop a variety of neuropsychiatric presentations. However, the underlying nature of its inflammatory neuronal injury remains unclear. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is recently regarded as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP) that can initiate an inflammatory response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375341PMC
February 2019

Theft and Reception of Host Cell's Sialic Acid: Dynamics of -sialidases and Mucin-Like Molecules on Chagas' Disease Immunomodulation.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:164. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratório de Glicobiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The last decades have produced a plethora of evidence on the role of glycans, from cell adhesion to signaling pathways. Much of that information pertains to their role on the immune system and their importance on the surface of many human pathogens. A clear example of this is the flagellated protozoan , which displays on its surface a great variety of glycoconjugates, including -glycosylated mucin-like glycoproteins, as well as multiple glycan-binding proteins belonging to the -sialidase (TS) family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372544PMC
February 2019

miR-152 Attenuates the Severity of Lupus Nephritis Through the Downregulation of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)-Induced Expression of COL1A1.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:158. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Rheumatology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The role of miR-152 in lupus nephritis has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-152 in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). miR-152 expression was detected using RT-PCR in LN tissue and normal controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372555PMC
February 2019

Molecular Players in Hematologic Tumor Cell Trafficking.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:156. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

The trafficking of neoplastic cells represents a key process that contributes to progression of hematologic malignancies. Diapedesis of neoplastic cells across endothelium and perivascular cells is facilitated by adhesion molecules and chemokines, which act in concert to tightly regulate directional motility. Intravital microscopy provides spatio-temporal views of neoplastic cell trafficking, and is crucial for testing and developing therapies against hematologic cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372527PMC
February 2019

GSH-C4 Acts as Anti-inflammatory Drug in Different Models of Canonical and Cell Autonomous Inflammation Through NFκB Inhibition.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:155. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

An imbalance in GSH/GSSG ratio represents a triggering event in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory response. However, the molecular mechanism(s) through which GSH regulates macrophage and cell autonomous inflammation remains not deeply understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a derivative of GSH, the N-butanoyl glutathione (GSH-C4), a cell permeable compound, on lipopolisaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372722PMC
February 2019

NKG2D and Its Ligand MULT1 Contribute to Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:154. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurosciences Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of immune cells including subsets of T lymphocytes. NKG2D binds multiple ligands (NKG2DL) whose expression are differentially triggered in a cell type and stress specific manner. The NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction has been involved in autoimmune disorders but its role in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains incompletely resolved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372829PMC
February 2019

Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells and T-Regulatory Cells at the Clinical Trials Crossroad for the Treatment of Autoimmune Disease; Emphasis on Type 1 Diabetes Therapy.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:148. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Allegheny Health Network Institute of Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Tolerogenic dendritic cells and T-regulatory cells are two immune cell populations with the potential to prevent the onset of clinical stage type 1 diabetes, and manage the beginning of underlying autoimmunity, at the time-at-onset and onwards. Initial phase I trials demonstrated that the administration of a number of these cell populations, generated from peripheral blood leukocytes, was safe. Outcomes of some of these trials also suggested some level of autoimmunity regulation, by the increase in the numbers of regulatory cells at different points in a network of immune regulation . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372505PMC
February 2019

Mucosa: Key Interactions Determining Sexual Transmission of the HIV Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:144. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Grupo Inmunovirología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

In the context of HIV sexual transmission at the genital mucosa, initial interactions between the virus and the mucosal immunity determine the outcome of the exposure. Hence, these interactions have been deeply explored in attempts to undercover potential targets for developing preventative strategies. The knowledge gained has led to propose a hypothetical model for mucosal HIV transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373783PMC
February 2019

Skews Human DC to Prime IL10-Producing T Cells Through TLR2/6/JNK Signaling and IL-10, IL-27, CD39, and IDO-1 Induction.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:143. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

CRCINA, INSERM, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

The human colonic mucosa contains regulatory type 1-like (Tr1-like, i.e., IL-10-secreting and Foxp3-negative) T cells specific for the gut , which are both decreased in Crohn's disease patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373781PMC
February 2019

The Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase (MsrA/B) Is a Surface Exposed, Immunogenic, Vaccine Candidate.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:137. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Control of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea is a major public health challenge, due to the recent emergence of multidrug resistant strains of , and there is an urgent need for novel therapies or a vaccine to prevent gonococcal disease. In this study, we evaluated the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA/B) of as a potential vaccine candidate, in terms of its expression, sequence conservation, localization, immunogenicity, and the functional activity of antibodies raised to it. Gonococcal MsrA/B has previously been shown to reduce methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)] to methionine (Met) in oxidized proteins and protect against oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372556PMC
February 2019

Mutation S110L of H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin: A Potent Determinant of Attenuation in the Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:132. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Characterization of a pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus isolated from a fatal case patient (F-IAV), showed the presence of three different mutations; potential determinants of its high pathogenicity that were located in the polymerase subunits (PB2 A221T and PA D529N) and the hemagglutinin (HA S110L). Recombinant viruses containing individually or in combination the polymerase mutations in the backbone of A/California/04/09 (CAL) showed that PA D529N was clearly involved in the increased pathogenicity of the F-IAV virus. Here, we have evaluated the contribution of HA S110L to F-IAV pathogenicity, through introduction of this point mutation in CAL recombinant virus (HA mut). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372558PMC
February 2019

The Differential Roles of T Cells in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Obesity.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:82. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a spectrum of disease states characterized by hepatic steatosis and is closely associated to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), additionally, inflammatory changes and hepatocellular damage are present, representing a more severe condition, for which the treatment is an unmet medical need. Pathophysiologically, the immune system is one of the main drivers of NAFLD progression and other obesity-related comorbidities, and both the innate and adaptive immune system are involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372559PMC
February 2019

Dietary Iron Deficiency Impaired Peripheral Immunity but Did Not Alter Brain Microglia in PRRSV-Infected Neonatal Piglets.

Front Immunol 2018 4;9:3150. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States.

During the postnatal period the developing brain is vulnerable to insults including nutrient insufficiency and infection that may lead to disrupted development and cognitive dysfunction. Since iron deficiency (ID) often presents with immunodeficiency, the objective of this study was to investigate peripheral viremia and inflammation as well as brain microglial phenotype and function when ID and respiratory infection occur simultaneously in a neonatal piglet model. On postnatal day 2 (PD 2) male and female piglets were assigned to one of four treatments and fed either control or ID milk replacer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369153PMC
February 2019
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Modeling the Function of TATA Box Binding Protein in Transcriptional Changes Induced by HIV-1 Tat in Innate Immune Cells and the Effect of Methamphetamine Exposure.

Front Immunol 2018 4;9:3110. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosciences, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Innate immune cells are targets of HIV-1 infection in the Central Nervous System (CNS), generating neurological deficits. Infected individuals with substance use disorders as co-morbidities, are more likely to have aggravated neurological disorders, higher CNS viral load and inflammation. Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive stimulant drug, commonly among HIV+ individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369711PMC
February 2019

CD11b Regulates Fungal Outgrowth but Not Neutrophil Recruitment in a Mouse Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:123. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

ß2 integrin receptors consist of an alpha subunit (CD11a-CD11d) and CD18 as the common beta subunit, and are differentially expressed by leukocytes. ß2 integrins are required for cell-cell interaction, transendothelial migration, uptake of opsonized pathogens, and cell signaling processes. Functional loss of CD18-termed leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1)-results in an immunocompromised state characterized by frequent occurrence of severe infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369709PMC
February 2019

Vaccine-Induced Protection Against Furunculosis Involves Pre-emptive Priming of Humoral Immunity in Arctic Charr.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:120. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Hoplite Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.

With respect to salmonid aquaculture, one of the most important bacterial pathogens due to high mortality and antibiotic usage is the causative agent of typical furunculosis, spp. (). In Atlantic salmon, , the host response during infections with is well-documented, with furunculosis outbreaks resulting in significant mortality in commercial settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369366PMC
February 2019

Salivary PGE Modulates the Dendritic Cell- Interactions and .

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:118. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

is an important vector of , causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and the most lethal tick-borne pathogen affecting humans. To feed on the vertebrate host's blood, secretes a salivary mixture, which may interact with skin resident dendritic cells (DCs) and modulate their function. The present work was aimed at depicting the saliva-host DC network and the biochemical nature of the immunomodulatory component(s) involved in this interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369204PMC
February 2019

Differential Regulation of Human Treg and Th17 Cells by Fatty Acid Synthesis and Glycolysis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:115. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

In this study we examined the metabolic requirements of human T helper cells and the effect of manipulating metabolic pathways in Th17 and Treg cells. The Th17:Treg cell axis is dysregulated in a number of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases and therefore it is of key importance to identify novel strategies to modulate this axis in favor of Treg cells. We investigated the role of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism in the regulation of human memory T helper cell subsets, in order to understand how T cells are regulated at the site of inflammation where essential nutrients including oxygen may be limiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369198PMC
February 2019

Circulating and Hepatic BDCA1+, BDCA2+, and BDCA3+ Dendritic Cells Are Differentially Subverted in Patients With Chronic HBV Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:112. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Immunobiology and Immunotherapy in Chronic Diseases, Inserm U 1209, CNRS UMR 5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health burden potentially evolving toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV physiopathology is strongly related to the host immunity, yet the mechanisms of viral evasion from immune-surveillance are still misunderstood. The immune response elicited at early stages of viral infection is believed to be important for subsequent disease outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369167PMC
February 2019

Risk of Pneumonitis and Pneumonia Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Solid Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:108. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pathology, Research Institute of McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of pneumonitis and pneumonia associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for solid tumors. The following keywords were used in searching the Embase and PubMed database: pneumonitis, pneumonia, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The data was analyzed by using the R software and Metafor package. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369169PMC
February 2019

The Evolving Role of TRAFs in Mediating Inflammatory Responses.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:104. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

TRAFs [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors] are a family of signaling molecules that function downstream of multiple receptor signaling pathways and play a pivotal role in the biology of innate, and adaptive immune cells. Following receptor ligation, TRAFs generally function as adapter proteins to mediate the activation of intracellular signaling cascades. With the exception of TRAF1 that lacks a Ring domain, TRAFs have an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity which also contributes to their ability to activate downstream signaling pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369152PMC
February 2019

Protective Effects of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling in Celiac Disease Mucosa and in Poly I:C-Induced Small Intestinal Atrophy Mouse Model.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:91. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor activated by a large number of natural and synthetic agents, modulates the activity of immune cells in the gut and represents an important link between the environment and immune-mediated pathologies. In this study, we investigated the role of AhR in celiac disease (CD), a gluten-driven enteropathy. AhR expression was evaluated in intestinal biopsies taken from patients with CD and controls by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369162PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Cell Type-Specific Roles of NF-κB Linking Inflammation and Thrombosis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:85. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The transcription factor NF-κB is a central mediator of inflammation with multiple links to thrombotic processes. In this review, we focus on the role of NF-κB signaling in cell types within the vasculature and the circulation that are involved in thrombo-inflammatory processes. All these cells express NF-κB, which mediates important functions in cellular interactions, cell survival and differentiation, as well as expression of cytokines, chemokines, and coagulation factors. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00085
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369217PMC
February 2019
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Eotaxin-3 as a Plasma Biomarker for Mucosal Eosinophil Infiltration in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:74. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Akita University, Akita, Japan.

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps exhibits marked eosinophilic infiltration and its mucosal eosinophilia is associated with more severe symptoms. The Japanese epidemiological survey of refractory eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis found that patients with nasal polyps required multiple surgeries when there were higher infiltrating eosinophils in the mucosa. In order to identify plasma biomarkers for local eosinophil infiltration in rhinosinusitis for surgery, we examined the levels of molecules in the plasma of patients and compared the number of infiltrating eosinophils in the nasal mucosa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369170PMC
February 2019

Humanized Mice Reveal New Insights Into the Thymic Selection of Human Autoreactive CD8 T Cells.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:63. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Columbia Center for Translational Immunology and Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Thymic selection constitutes the first checkpoint in T-cell development to purge autoreactive T cells. Most of our understanding of this process comes from animal models because of the challenges of studying thymopoiesis and how T cell receptor (TCR) specificity impacts thymocyte phenotype in humans. We developed a humanized mouse model involving the introduction of autoreactive TCRs and cognate autoantigens that enables the analysis of selection of human T cells in human thymic tissue . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369192PMC
February 2019

Recombinant Sialyltransferase Infusion Mitigates Infection-Driven Acute Lung Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:48. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States.

Inappropriate inflammation exacerbates a vast array of chronic and acute conditions with severe health risks. In certain situations, such as acute sepsis, traditional therapies may be inadequate in preventing severe organ damage or death. We have previously shown cell surface glycan modification by the circulating sialyltransferase ST6Gal-1 regulates inflammatory cell production via a novel extrinsic glycosylation pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369197PMC
February 2019

Clinical Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of a New Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin 16.5% (Octanorm [Cutaquig®]) in the Treatment of Patients With Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:40. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, St Anne's University Hospital in Brno, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia.

Subcutaneously administered immunoglobulin (SCIG) is increasingly used to treat patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Octanorm (marketed as cutaquig® in USA and Canada) is a new 16.5% solution of human SCIG, manufactured by a process based on that of the intravenous preparation (IVIG) octagam®. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369354PMC
February 2019

Automated Clinical Grade Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in a Fully Closed System.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:38. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

GMP Facility, DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Center for Molecular and Cellular Bioengeneering, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Adoptive transfer of T regulatory cells (Treg) has been successfully exploited in the context of graft-versus-host disease, transplantation, and autoimmune disease. For the majority of applications, clinical administration of Treg requires laborious expansion and typically involves open handling for culture feeds and repetitive sampling. Here we show results from our approach to translate manual Treg manufacturing to the fully closed automated CliniMACS Prodigy® system reducing contamination risk, hands-on time, and quality variation from human intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369367PMC
February 2019
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Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in 57 Patients With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) From India.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:23. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatric Immunology and Leukocyte Biology, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, India.

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders characterized by impaired cellular and humoral immune responses. Here, we report the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in 57 patients diagnosed with SCID from India. Majority of our patients (89%) presented within 6 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369708PMC
February 2019

The Human Endolymphatic Sac and Inner Ear Immunity: Macrophage Interaction and Molecular Expression.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:3181. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Head and Neck Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

The endolymphatic sac (ES) is endowed with a multitude of white blood cells that may trap and process antigens that reach the inner ear from nearby infection-prone areas, it thus serves as an immunologic defense organ. The human ES, and unexpectedly the rest of the inner ear, has been recently shown to contain numerous resident macrophages. In this paper, we describe ES macrophages using super-resolution structured fluorescence microscopy (SR-SIM) and speculate on these macrophages' roles in human inner ear defense. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367985PMC
February 2019

Immune Cell Composition in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:3101. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Tumor Immunology Lab, Department of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Immunological analysis of the tumor microenvironment (immunoscore) shows great promise for improved prognosis and prediction of response to immunotherapy. However, the exact immune cell composition in NSCLC remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367276PMC
February 2019

Induction of Plasmodium-Specific Immune Responses Using Liposome-Based Vaccines.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:135. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia.

In the development of vaccines, the ability to initiate both innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses need to be considered. Live attenuated vaccines achieve this naturally, while inactivated and sub-unit vaccines generally require additional help provided through delivery systems and/or adjuvants. Liposomes present an attractive adjuvant/delivery system for antigens. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00135
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367261PMC
February 2019
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Hide and Seek: Nanomaterial Interactions With the Immune System.

Authors:
Bengt Fadeel

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:133. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Nanosafety and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Engineered nanomaterials hold promise for a wide range of applications in medicine. However, safe use of nanomaterials requires that interactions with biological systems, not least with the immune system, are understood. Do nanomaterials elicit novel or unexpected effects, or is it possible to predict immune responses to nanomaterials based on how the immune system handles pathogens? How does the bio-corona of adsorbed biomolecules influence subsequent immune interactions of nanomaterials? How does the grafting of polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) onto nanomaterial surfaces impact on these interactions? Can ancient immune evasion or "stealth" strategies of pathogens inform the design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications? Can nanoparticles co-opt immune cells to target diseased tissues? The answers to these questions may prove useful for the development of nanomedicines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367956PMC
February 2019

Deficiency in IL-33/ST2 Axis Reshapes Mitochondrial Metabolism in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:127. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The polarization and function of macrophages play essential roles in controlling immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family that has been shown to influence macrophage activation and polarization, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Mitochondrial metabolism has been reported to be a central player in shaping macrophage polarization; previous studies have shown that both aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation uniquely regulate the functions of M1 and M2 macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367255PMC
February 2019

The Long Pentraxin PTX3 Is of Major Importance Among Acute Phase Proteins in Chickens.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:124. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department for Veterinary Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Munich, Germany.

The expression level of acute phase proteins (APPs) mirrors the health status of an individual. In human medicine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and other members of the pentraxin family are of significant relevance for assessing disease severity and prognosis. In chickens, however, which represent the most common livestock species around the world, no such marker has yet gained general acceptance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367253PMC
February 2019

The Immunology of Macrophage Activation Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:119. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Pediatric Rheumatology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

Synonymous with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a term used by rheumatologists to describe a potentially life-threatening complication of systemic inflammatory disorders, most commonly systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical and laboratory features of MAS include sustained fever, hyperferritinemia, pancytopenia, fibrinolytic coagulopathy, and liver dysfunction. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sCD25) and sCD163 may be elevated, and histopathology often reveals characteristic increased hemophagocytic activity in the bone marrow (and other tissues), with positive CD163 (histiocyte) staining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367262PMC
February 2019

Dendritic Cell Regulation of Graft-Vs.-Host Disease: Immunostimulation and Tolerance.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:93. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Significant progresses have been made in defining the dichotomous role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the development of GVHD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367268PMC
February 2019
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The Autoimmune Disorder Susceptibility Gene Restrains NK Cell Function in YTS NK Cell Line and Knockout Mice.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:68. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

The Center for Applied Genomics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

locus polymorphisms have been associated with several autoimmune diseases. We overexpressed in YTS natural killer (NK) cells and observed reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-γ release, delayed dendritic cell (DC) maturation, decreased conjugate formation, cell-surface receptor downregulation and increased autophagy. In contrast, siRNA mediated knockdown resulted in increased NK cell cytotoxicity, reversal of receptor expression and disrupted mitophagy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367972PMC
February 2019

FcαRI Dynamics Are Regulated by GSK-3 and PKCζ During Cytokine Mediated Inside-Out Signaling.

Front Immunol 2018 31;9:3191. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, Netherlands.

IgA binding to FcαRI (CD89) is rapidly enhanced by cytokine induced inside-out signaling. Dephosphorylation of serine 263 in the intracellular tail of FcαRI by PP2A and PI3K activation are instrumental in this process. To further investigate these signaling pathways, we targeted downstream kinases of PI3K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365424PMC
January 2019