595 results match your criteria Frontiers in Zoology [Journal]


Dispersal and adaptation strategies of the high mountain butterfly in the Romanian Carpathians.

Front Zool 2019 17;16. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

2Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, D-15374 Müncheberg, Germany.

Background: Habitat quality is one main trigger for the persistence of butterflies. The effects of the influencing biotic and abiotic factors may be enhanced by the challenging conditions in high-alpine environments. To better our knowledge in this field, we performed a mark-release-recapture study with in the Southern Carpathians

Methods: We analysed population structure, movement and foraging behaviour to investigate special adaptations to the alpine environment and to reveal differences between sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0298-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335762PMC
January 2019

Also looking like ? - retinula axons and visual neuropils of Amblypygi (whip spiders).

Front Zool 2018 19;15:52. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

1Bavarian State Collection of Zoology - SNSB, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 Munich, Germany.

Background: Only a few studies have examined the visual systems of Amblypygi (whip spiders) until now. To get new insights suitable for phylogenetic analysis we studied the axonal trajectories and neuropil architecture of the visual systems of several whip spider species (, , , and ) with different neuroanatomical techniques. The R-cell axon terminals were identified with Cobalt fills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0293-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299927PMC
December 2018

The nervous system in the cyclostome bryozoan as revealed by transmission electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Front Zool 2018 3;15:48. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Moscow State University, Biological Faculty, Leninskie Gory, 1-12, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

Introduction: Among bryozoans, cyclostome anatomy is the least studied by modern methods. New data on the nervous system fill the gap in our knowledge and make morphological analysis much more fruitful to resolve some questions of bryozoan evolution and phylogeny.

Results: The nervous system of cyclostome was studied by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0295-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276173PMC
December 2018

Anticipatory parental effects in a subtropical lizard in response to experimental warming.

Front Zool 2018 5;15:51. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101 People's Republic of China.

Parental effects may produce adaptive or maladaptive plasticity that either facilitates persistence or increases the extinction risk of species and populations in a changing climate. However, empirical evidence of transgenerational adaptive plastic responses to climate change is still scarce. Here we conducted thermal manipulation experiments with a factorial design in a Chinese lacertid lizard () to identify the fitness consequences of parental effects in response to climate warming. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0296-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282349PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Nutritional quality modulates trait variability.

Front Zool 2018 5;15:50. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1Ecological Networks, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 3, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Background: Trait based functional and community ecology is . Most studies, however, ignore phenotypical diversity by characterizing entire species considering only trait means rather than their variability. Phenotypical variability may arise from genotypical differences or from ecological factors (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0297-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282258PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Standing on the shoulders of giants: young aphids piggyback on adults when searching for a host plant.

Front Zool 2018 6;15:49. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

2Department of Evolutionary & Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Upon the detection of imminent peril, pea aphids () often drop off their host plant. Dropping in response to insect enemies is intermittent in nature, but when a mammalian herbivore feeds on their host plant, a large mixed-age group of aphids usually drops off the plant at once. Aphids that reach the ground are confronted with new, hostile environmental conditions and must therefore quickly walk toward a suitable host plant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0292-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282293PMC
December 2018

Sex chromosomal dimorphisms narrated by X-chromosome translocation in a spiny frog ().

Front Zool 2018 27;15:47. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

1Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 9 Section 4, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, 610041 China.

Background: In the general model of sex chromosome evolution for diploid dioecious organisms, the Y (or W) chromosome is derived, while the homogametic sex presumably represents the ancestral condition. However, in the frog species , heteromorphisms caused by a translocation between chromosomes 1 and 6 are not related to sex, because the same heteromorphic chromosomes are found both in males and females at the cytological level. To confirm whether those heteromorphisms are unrelated to sex, a sex-linked locus was mapped at the chromosomal level and sequenced to identify any haplotype difference between sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0291-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260737PMC
November 2018

Morphological and biochemical characterization of the cutaneous poison glands in toads ( group) from different environments.

Front Zool 2018 23;15:46. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil 1500, São Paulo, 05503-000 Brazil.

Background: Amphibian defence against predators and microorganisms is directly related to cutaneous glands that produce a huge number of different toxins. These glands are distributed throughout the body but can form accumulations in specific regions. When grouped in low numbers, poison glands form structures similar to warts, quite common in the dorsal skin of bufonids (toads). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0294-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251109PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Physiological predictors of reproductive performance in the European Starling ().

Front Zool 2018 22;15:45. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 Canada.

Background: It is widely assumed that variation in fitness components has a physiological basis that might underlie selection on trade-offs, but the mechanisms driving decreased survival and future fecundity remain elusive. Here, we assessed whether physiological variables are related to workload ability or immediate fitness consequences and if they mediate future survival or reproductive success. We used data on 13 physiological variables measured in 93 female European starlings () at two breeding stages (incubation, chick-rearing), for first-and second-broods over two years (152 observations). Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0288-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249724PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Body size regulation by maturation steroid hormones: a perspective.

Authors:
Seogang Hyun

Front Zool 2018 20;15:44. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, 06974 Republic of Korea.

The mechanism that determines the specific body size of an animal is a fundamental biological question that remains largely unanswered. This aspect is now beginning to be understood in insect models, particularly in , with studies highlighting the importance of nutrient-responsive growth signaling pathways involving insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) (IIS/TOR). These pathways operate in animals, from insects to mammals, adjusting the growth rate in response to the nutritional condition of the organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0290-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247710PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Comparative morphology and evolution of the cnidosac in Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia).

Front Zool 2018 13;15:43. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

6Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, 53113 Bonn, Germany.

Background: A number of shelled and shell-less gastropods are known to use multiple defensive mechanisms, including internally generated or externally obtained biochemically active compounds and structures. Within Nudipleura, nudibranchs within Cladobranchia possess such a special defense: the ability to sequester cnidarian nematocysts - small capsules that can inject venom into the tissues of other organisms. This ability is distributed across roughly 600 species within Cladobranchia, and many questions still remain in regard to the comparative morphology and evolution of the cnidosac - the structure that houses sequestered nematocysts (called kleptocnides). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0289-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234619PMC
November 2018

Delineating species along shifting shorelines: (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the southern subbasin of Lake Tanganyika.

Front Zool 2018 13;15:42. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

1Vertebrates Section, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren, Belgium.

Background: Species delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0287-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234679PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

The seasonal sensitivity of brown bear denning phenology in response to climatic variability.

Front Zool 2018 1;15:41. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

1Research Unit of Biodiversity (UMIB, UO-CSIC-PA), Oviedo University, Campus Mieres, 33600 Mieres, Spain.

Background: For brown bears (), hibernation is a critical part of the annual life cycle because energy savings during hibernation can be crucial for overwintering, and females give birth to cubs at that time. For hibernation to be a useful strategy, timing is critical. However, environmental conditions vary greatly, which might have a negative effect on the functionality of the evolved biological time-keeping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0286-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6211405PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Evolution of the facial musculature in basal ray-finned fishes.

Front Zool 2018 25;15:40. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

2Laboratório de Ictiologia de Ribeirão Preto (LIRP), FFCLRP, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 Brazil.

Background: The facial musculature is a remarkable anatomical complex involved in vital activities of fishes, such as food capture and gill ventilation. The evolution of the facial muscles is largely unknown in most major fish lineages, such as the Actinopterygii. This megadiverse group includes all ray-finned fishes and comprises approximately half of the living vertebrate species. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0285-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202829PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Seasonality at the equator: isotope signatures and hormonal correlates of molt phenology in a non-migratory Amazonian songbird.

Front Zool 2018 29;15:39. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

1Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, Seewiesen, 82319 Germany.

Background: Birds, across their annual cycle, progress through sequences of life-history stages such as reproduction and molt. The mechanisms that control annual avian itineraries involve endocrine responses triggered by seasonal environmental factors, including changes in resource availability and/or photoperiod. However, at equatorial latitudes birds are exposed to different degrees of seasonality, and the mechanisms underlying phenology of birds near the equator remain less explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0284-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205779PMC
October 2018

Estimation of pack density in grey wolf () by applying spatially explicit capture-recapture models to camera trap data supported by genetic monitoring.

Front Zool 2018 3;15:38. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari, Italy.

Background: Density estimation is a key issue in wildlife management but is particularly challenging and labour-intensive for elusive species. Recently developed approaches based on remotely collected data and capture-recapture models, though representing a valid alternative to more traditional methods, have found little application to species with limited morphological variation. We implemented a camera trap capture-recapture study to survey wolf packs in a 560-km area of Central Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0281-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171198PMC
October 2018
1 Read

A consistent long-lasting pattern of spatial variation in egg size and shape in blue tits ().

Front Zool 2018 3;15:34. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

2Department of Experimental Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland.

Background: Interspecies variation in avian egg shape and size is understandable in terms of adaptation, allometry and phylogeny. Within-species variation in egg properties influences offspring fitness and can be explained by differences in allocation of resources into reproductive components of life history in mulidimensionally variable environments. Egg size is inherently traded-off with clutch size, which may also be true of egg shape in some cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0279-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169024PMC
October 2018

Offspring dependence on parental care and the role of parental transfer of oral fluids in burying beetles.

Front Zool 2018 29;15:33. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

1Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Immature stages of many animals can forage and feed on their own, whereas others depend on their parents' assistance to obtain or process food. But how does such dependency evolve, and which offspring and parental traits are involved? Burying beetles () provide extensive biparental care, including food provisioning to their offspring. Interestingly, there is substantial variation in the reliance of offspring on post-hatching care among species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0278-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116493PMC
August 2018
5 Reads

The modular organization of roe deer () body during ontogeny: the effects of sex and habitat.

Front Zool 2018 27;15:37. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

2Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", Bulevar despota Stefana 142, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: As a small artiodactyl, the roe deer ( L.) is characterized by biological plasticity and great adaptability demonstrated by their survival under a wide variety of environmental conditions. In order to depict patterns of phenotypic variation of roe deer body this study aims to quantify variation during ontogenetic development and determine how sex-specific reproductive investment and non-uniform habitat differences relate to phenotypic variation and do these differential investments mold the patterns of phenotypic variation through modular organisation. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0283-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161383PMC
September 2018
13 Reads

Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida.

Front Zool 2018 27;15:36. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

1Animal Evolution and Biodiversity, Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids.

Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses with morphological methods (immunohistochemistry and CLSM, histology and TEM), we compiled a comprehensive dataset to reconstruct the evolution of the annelid VNC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0280-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161469PMC
September 2018

Aging and sex affect soluble alpha klotho levels in bonobos and chimpanzees.

Front Zool 2018 19;15:35. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

1Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Throughout life, physiological homeostasis is challenged and the capacity to cope with such challenges declines with increasing age. In many species, sex differences exist in life expectancy. Sex-specific differences have been related to extrinsic factors like mate competition and/or intrinsic proximate mechanisms such as hormonal changes. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0282-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146871PMC
September 2018
14 Reads

Timing matters: traffic noise accelerates telomere loss rate differently across developmental stages.

Front Zool 2018 28;15:29. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

1Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Str. 11, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany.

Background: Noise pollution is one of the leading environmental health risks for humans, linked to a myriad of stress-related health problems. Yet little is known about the long-term effects of noise on the health and fitness of wildlife. We experimentally investigated the direct and cross-generational effects of traffic noise on telomeres; a measure of cellular ageing that is predictive of disease and longevity in humans and other organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0275-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112141PMC

Tree frog attachment: mechanisms, challenges, and perspectives.

Front Zool 2018 23;15:32. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

1Experimental Zoology Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, De Elst 1, Wageningen, 6708 WD The Netherlands.

Tree frogs have the remarkable ability to attach to smooth, rough, dry, and wet surfaces using their versatile toe pads. Tree frog attachment involves the secretion of mucus into the pad-substrate gap, requiring adaptations towards mucus drainage and pad lubrication. Here, we present an overview of tree frog attachment, with focus on (i) the morphology and material of the toe pad; (ii) the functional demands on the toe pad arising from ecology, lifestyle, and phylogenetics; (iii) experimental data of attachment performance such as adhesion and friction forces; and (iv) potential perspectives on future developments in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0273-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107968PMC
August 2018
2 Reads

NGS barcoding reveals high resistance of a hyperdiverse chironomid (Diptera) swamp fauna against invasion from adjacent freshwater reservoirs.

Front Zool 2018 14;15:31. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

1Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 Canada.

Background: Macroinvertebrates such as non-biting midges (Chironomidae: Diptera) are important components of freshwater ecosystems. However, they are often neglected in biodiversity and conservation research because invertebrate species richness is difficult and expensive to quantify with traditional methods. We here demonstrate that Next Generation Sequencing barcodes ("NGS barcodes") can provide relief because they allow for fast and large-scale species-level sorting of large samples at low cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0276-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092845PMC

Skeletomuscular adaptations of head and legs of ants for tunnelling through living wood.

Front Zool 2018 14;15:30. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

1Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut d'Écologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement, 75005 Paris, France.

Background: While thousands of ant species are arboreal, very few are able to chew and tunnel through living wood. Ants of the genus (subfamily Myrmicinae) inhabit tunnel systems excavated under the bark of living trees, where they keep large numbers of symbiotic armoured scale insects (family Diaspididae). Construction of these tunnels by chewing through healthy wood requires tremendous power, but the adaptations that give these abilities are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0277-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092875PMC

Neuromuscular transmitter candidates of a centipede (, Chilopoda).

Front Zool 2018 1;15:28. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Division of Cell Biology, Bischofsholer Damm 15/102, D-30173 Hannover, Germany.

Background: The neuromuscular junction is the chemical synapse where motor neurons communicate with skeletal muscle fibers. Whereas vertebrates and many invertebrates use acetylcholine as transmitter at the neuromuscular junction, in those arthropods examined up to now, glutamate and GABA are used instead. With respect to taxon sampling in a phylogenetic context, there is, however, only a limited amount of data available, focusing mainly on crustaceans and hexapods, and neglecting other, arthropod groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0274-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090918PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

An atlas of larval organogenesis in the European shore crab L. (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).

Front Zool 2018 6;15:27. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

1Zoological Institute and Museum, Department of Cytology and Evolutionary Biology, Universität Greifswald, D-17498 Greifswald, Germany.

Background: The life history stages of brachyuran crustaceans include pelagic larvae of the Zoea type which grow by a series of moults from one instar to the next. Zoeae actively feed and possess a wide range of organ systems necessary for autonomously developing in the plankton. They also display a rich behavioural repertoire that allows for responses to variations in environmental key factors such as light, hydrostatic pressure, tidal currents, and temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0271-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035453PMC
July 2018
13 Reads

The development and metamorphosis of the indirect developing acorn worm (Enteropneusta: Spengelidae).

Front Zool 2018 20;15:26. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

1Hopkins Marine Station, Department of Biology, Stanford University, 120 Ocean View Boulevard, Pacific Grove, CA 93950 USA.

Background: Enteropneusts are benthic marine invertebrates that belong to the deuterostome phylum Hemichordata. The two main clades of enteropneusts are defined by differences in early life history strategies. In the Spengelidae and Ptychoderidae, development is indirect via a planktotrophic tornaria larva. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0270-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6011522PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

The effect of pre-laying maternal immunization on offspring growth and immunity differs across experimentally altered postnatal rearing conditions in a wild songbird.

Front Zool 2018 19;15:25. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

3Institute of Zoology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71C, 60-625 Poznań, Poland.

Background: Prenatal antibody transfer is an immune-mediated maternal effect by which females can shape postnatal offspring resistance to pathogens and parasites. Maternal antibodies passed on to offspring provide primary protection to neonates against diverse pathogenic antigens, but they may also affect offspring growth and influence the development of an offspring's own immune response. The effects of maternal antibodies on offspring performance commonly require that the disease environment experienced by a mother prior to breeding matches the environment encountered by her offspring after hatching/birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0272-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006776PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Unity in diversity: a survey of muscular systems of ctenostome Gymnolaemata (Lophotrochozoa, Bryozoa).

Front Zool 2018 7;15:24. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

University of Vienna, Department of Integrative Zoology, Althanstraße 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Background: Myoanatomical studies of adult bryozoans employing fluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) have been chiefly conducted on freshwater bryozoans. The diversity of muscular systems in the marine bryozoans is currently not well known with only two species being studied in more detail. The aim of this study is to unravel the diversity of muscle systems of 15 ctenostome bryozoans by phalloidin-coupled fluorescence stainings combined with CLSM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0269-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992719PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Similar rates of morphological evolution in domesticated and wild pigs and dogs.

Front Zool 2018 23;15:23. Epub 2018 May 23.

1Universität Zürich, Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Karl-Schmid-Strasse 4, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Whether the great morphological disparity of domesticated forms is the result of uniformly higher evolutionary rates compared to the wild populations is debated. We provide new data on changes of skull dimensions within historical time periods in wild and domesticated dogs and pigs to test if domestication might lead to an accelerated tempo of evolution in comparison to the wild conspecifics. Darwins and Haldanes were used to quantify evolutionary rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0265-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966889PMC

Differences in the reliance on cuticular hydrocarbons as sexual signaling and species discrimination cues in parasitoid wasps.

Front Zool 2018 10;15:22. Epub 2018 May 10.

3Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been documented to play crucial roles as species- and sex-specific cues in the chemical communication systems of a wide variety of insects. However, whether they are sufficient by themselves as the sole cue triggering sexual behavior as well as preference of con- over heterospecific mating partners is rarely assessed. We conducted behavioral assays in three representative species of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to determine their reliance on CHC as species-specific sexual signaling cues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0263-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946414PMC
May 2018
1 Read

How does temperature affect functional kleptoplasty? Comparing populations of the solar-powered sister-species Risso, 1818 and Nuttall, 1989 (Gastropoda: Sacoglossa).

Front Zool 2018 24;15:17. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

1Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, 160 Adenauerallee, 53113 Bonn, Germany.

Background: Despite widespread interest in solar-powered sea slugs (Sacoglossa: Gastropoda), relatively little is know about how they actually perform functional kleptoplasty. Sister-taxa and provide an ideal model system for investigating this phenomenon, since they feed on the same algal genus and only is capable of long-term kleptoplasty. Recent research has explored factors regarding functional kleptoplasty in , including their starvation longevity, digestive activity, autophagal response and photosynthetic efficiency under two different temperature conditions (18 °C and 21 °C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0264-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937827PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Genome sequencing of Lawrence exposes an early branch of the Coleoptera.

Front Zool 2018 2;15:21. Epub 2018 May 2.

1Laboratory of Molecular Systematics, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background: Rhinorhipidae Lawrence, 1988 is an enigmatic beetle family represented by a single species, Lawrence, 1988, from Australia, with poorly established affinities near the superfamily Elateroidea (click beetles, soldier beetles and fireflies) or the more inclusive series (infraorder) Elateriformia. Its evolutionary position may inform the basal relationships of the suborder Polyphaga, the largest clade of Coleoptera.

Results: We analyzed four densely sampled DNA datasets of major coleopteran lineages for mitogenomes, rRNA genes and single copy nuclear genes. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0262-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930637PMC
May 2018
10 Reads

Functional characterization of the hawkmoth transcriptome reveals strong expression of phorbol ester detoxification and seasonal cold hardiness genes.

Front Zool 2018 1;15:20. Epub 2018 May 1.

Museum of Zoology, Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden, Koenigsbruecker Landstrasse 159, D-01109 Dresden, Germany.

Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation.

Method: A draft transcriptome of was generated using Illumina sequencing, providing the first genomic resource for the hawkmoth subfamily Macroglossinae. Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0252-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930835PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

House sparrows' () behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner.

Front Zool 2018 20;15:16. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

1Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via U. Bassi 58/B, I-35131 Padova, Italy.

Background: Exploratory behaviour is one of the best-investigated behavioural traits. However, little is known about how differences in familiarity, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0267-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910580PMC
April 2018
11 Reads

Meta-populational demes constitute a reservoir for large MHC allele diversity in wild house mice ().

Front Zool 2018 20;15:15. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

3Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemannstrasse 2, 24306 Plön, Germany.

Background: The MHC class I and II loci mediate the adaptive immune response and belong to the most polymorphic loci in vertebrate genomes. In fact, the number of different alleles in a given species is often so large that it remains a challenge to provide an evolutionary model that can fully account for this.

Results: We provide here a general survey of MHC allele numbers in house mouse populations and two sub-species ( and ) for H2 class I D and K, as well as class II A and E loci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0266-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910556PMC
April 2018
1 Read

A reply to Nieberding and Holveck: beyond experimental design and proximate mechanisms - mate choice in the face of sexual conflict.

Front Zool 2018 27;15:19. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

1Zoological Institute and Museum, Greifswald University, Loitzer Straße 26, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.

We summarise our work on male mating behaviour in the tropical butterfly , responding to the commentary provided by Nieberding and Holveck. We acknowledge that our laboratory studies are not free of shortcomings and potential caveats, though we attempted to address or highlight these within each paper. The concerns raised seem to stem mainly from different notions with respect to the proximate basis of old male mating advantage, and specifically the relative importance of male behaviour versus pheromone blend. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-017-0242-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5921974PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Commentary on Kehl et al. "Young male mating success is associated with sperm number but not with male sex pheromone titres": Unnatural experimental conditions inflate the importance of male courtship activity on mating success in a butterfly.

Front Zool 2018 26;15:18. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

1Evolutionary Ecology and Genetics Group, BDIV Research Centre, Earth and Life Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Over the last years, several studies suggested that male courtship activity is more important than female preference for male secondary sexual traits in determining male mating success in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We use Kehl et al. (Front Zool 12, 2015)'s study and related publications, to highlight three methodological and conceptual aspects of laboratory experiments that distort the social environment compared to natural conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0256-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5921982PMC
April 2018
3 Reads

Shape variation and modularity of skull and teeth in domesticated horses and wild equids.

Front Zool 2018 19;15:14. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

1Palaeontological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: In horses, the morphological changes induced by the process of domestication are reportedly less pronounced than in other species, such as dogs or pigs - although the horses' disparity has rarely been empirically tested. We investigated shape differences and modularity of domesticated horses, Przewalski's horses, donkeys and zebras. Mandibular and tooth shape have been shown to be valuable features for differentiating wild and domesticated forms in some mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0258-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907714PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Does the early social environment prepare individuals for the future? A match-mismatch experiment in female wild cavies.

Front Zool 2018 16;15:13. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

1Department of Behavioural Biology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: The social environment that mothers experience during pregnancy and lactation has a strong effect on the developing offspring. Whether offspring can be adaptively shaped to match an environment that is similar to the maternal one is still a major question in research. Our previous work in wild cavies showed that females whose mothers lived in a stable social environment with few social challenges during pregnancy and lactation (SE-daughters) developed different behavioral phenotypes than females whose mothers lived in an unstable social environment with frequent social challenges during pregnancy and lactation (UE-daughters). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0261-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902857PMC
April 2018
2 Reads

Correction to: Sea urchin growth dynamics at microstructural length scale revealed by Mn-labeling and cathodoluminescence imaging.

Front Zool 2018 12;15:12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

1Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw, Poland.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0227-8.]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0253-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897947PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Acoustic localization at large scales: a promising method for grey wolf monitoring.

Front Zool 2018 12;15:11. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Centre de Recherche et d'Observation sur les Carnivores (CROC), 4 rue de la banie, 57590, Lucy, France.

Background: The grey wolf () is naturally recolonizing its former habitats in Europe where it was extirpated during the previous two centuries. The management of this protected species is often controversial and its monitoring is a challenge for conservation purposes. However, this elusive carnivore can disperse over long distances in various natural contexts, making its monitoring difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0260-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897954PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Nervous system development in the Pacific oyster, (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

Front Zool 2018 11;15:10. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

1National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia.

Background: Bivalves comprise a large, highly diverse taxon of invertebrate species. Developmental studies of neurogenesis among species of Bivalvia are limited. Due to a lack of neurogenesis information, it is difficult to infer a ground pattern for Bivalvia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0259-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896133PMC
April 2018
9 Reads

Flexibility of foraging strategies of the great skua breeding in the largest colony in the Barents Sea region.

Front Zool 2018 23;15. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

1Department of Vertebrate Ecology and Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, PL Poland.

Background: Foraging strategies of seabird species often vary considerably between and within individuals. This variability is influenced by a multitude of factors including age, sex, stage of annual life cycle, reproductive status, individual specialization and environmental conditions.

Results: Using GPS-loggers, we investigated factors affecting foraging flight characteristics (total duration, maximal range, total distance covered) of great skuas of known sex breeding on Bjørnøya, Svalbard, the largest colony in the Barents Sea region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0257-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865383PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Chemical and behavioral integration of army ant-associated rove beetles - a comparison between specialists and generalists.

Front Zool 2018 16;15. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

2Laboratory of Social Evolution and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 USA.

Host-symbiont interactions are embedded in ecological communities and range from unspecific to highly specific relationships. Army ants and their arthropod guests represent a fascinating example of species-rich host-symbiont associations where host specificity ranges across the entire generalist - specialist continuum. In the present study, we compared the behavioral and chemical integration mechanisms of two extremes of the generalist - specialist continuum: generalist ant-predators in the genus (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Athetini), and specialist ant-mimics in the genera and (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae: Ecitocharini). Read More

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https://frontiersinzoology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.118
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0249-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5857133PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Feeding ecology in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida): what do we know?

Front Zool 2018 15;15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology - SNSB, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 Munich, Germany.

Sea spiders (Pycnogonida) are a widespread and phylogenetically important group of marine arthropods. However, their biology remains understudied, and detailed information about their feeding ecology is difficult to find. Observations on pycnogonid feeding are scattered in the literature, often in older sources written in various languages, and have never been comprehensively summarized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0250-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856303PMC
March 2018
3 Reads

Raven food calls indicate sender's age and sex.

Front Zool 2018 13;15. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

1Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Acoustic parameters of animal signals have been shown to correlate with various phenotypic characteristics of the sender. These acoustic characteristics can be learned and categorized and thus are a basis for perceivers' recognition abilities. One of the most demanding capacities is individual recognition, achievable only after repeated interactions with the same individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0255-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5848575PMC
March 2018
3 Reads

Two predominant MUPs, OBP3 and MUP13, are male pheromones in rats.

Front Zool 2018 23;15. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

1State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1-5 Beichen West Road, Beijing, 100101 China.

Background: In rats, urine-borne male pheromones comprise organic volatile compounds and major urinary proteins (MUPs). A number of volatile pheromones have been reported, but no MUP pheromones have been identified in rat urine.

Results: We used sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) after in gel digestion of the proteins and quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) and showed that the levels of two MUPs, odorantbinding protein 3 (OBP3) (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0254-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824612PMC
February 2018
3 Reads

Female nursing partner choice in a population of wild house mice ().

Front Zool 2018 20;15. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

1Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract:

Background: Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-018-0251-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819181PMC
February 2018
3 Reads