4,809 results match your criteria Frontal Lobe Syndromes


Common findings on head computed tomography in neonates with confirmed congenital Zika syndrome.

Radiol Bras 2018 Nov-Dec;51(6):366-371

Hospital Barão de Lucena (HBL), Recife, PE, Brazil.

Objective: To describe head computed tomography (CT) findings in neonates with congenital Zika virus infection confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid.

Materials And Methods: This was a study of 16 newborn infants who exhibited abnormal head CT findings during an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Those infants had the following features: brain imaging suggestive of congenital infection; brain calcifications and negative results on tests for other main infectious causes of primary microcephaly, namely toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella, and HIV; positivity for Zika virus on IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-3984.2017.0119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290748PMC
December 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2018.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282458PMC

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

Curr Opin Neurol 2019 Feb;32(1):25-35

Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB).

Purpose Of Review: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological syndrome characterized by acute cerebral endotheliopathy with consecutive disruption of the blood-brain barrier and vasogenic edema. Since its first description in 1996, PRES is increasingly recognized. However, many aspects of this syndrome with its wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features are still incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000640DOI Listing
February 2019

Epileptology of the first tonic-clonic seizure in adults and prediction of seizure recurrence.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Epilepsy, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure is influenced by certain risk factors. To understand their effect in people with early diagnosed new epilepsy, we assessed the risk of recurrence of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and the associated factors in a clinically well-characterized cohort of adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. We prospectively studied 150 consecutive adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure and full clinical, EEG, and brain imaging assessment within the first four weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.1014DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Early and long-term electroclinical features of patients with epilepsy and PCDH19 mutation.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Pediatric Neurology Department, Centre de Référence des Épilepsies Rares, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, Inserm U1129, Paris; University Paris Descartes; CEA, Gif sur Yvette.

Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) mutations have been identified in epilepsy in females with mental retardation as well as patients with a "Dravet-like" phenotype. We aimed to elucidate the electroclinical phenotype associated with PCDH19 mutation, which is currently difficult to identify at onset leading to a delay in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and EEG data for 13 consecutive patients with PCDH19 mutations or deletions diagnosed at our centers from 2009 to 2011, and followed these patients into adolescence and adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.1009DOI Listing
December 2018

Carotid Artery Stenting for Symptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis Associated with Moyamoya Syndrome.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto 606-8507, JAPAN.

Background: The surgical intervention in a case of internal carotid artery stenosis with Moyamoya vessels has not been well described. We present such a case with detailed description about its procedure and perioperative management.

Case Description: A 58-year-old man with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis had concurrent moyamoya vessels intracranially. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.204DOI Listing
December 2018

Paraneoplastic syndrome or metastatic sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma? Clinical conundrum.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Oct-Nov;97(10-11):E15-E18

Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

We report a case of a middle-aged woman with a diffuse, nonenhancing, progressively atrophic T2-hyperintense lesion involving the left frontotemporal lobes and insula found to be synchronous high-grade sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) after initial endonasal resection. In 2014, a 47-year old woman underwent resection of a left-sided high-grade ethmoidal neuroendocrine carcinoma after presentation with weight gain and increased levels of serum and urine cortisol. Concurrent with the initial presentation, she was noted to have a nonenhancing, hyperintense signal change on T2-weighted images on the left frontotemporal lobes and insula thought to be paraneoplastic. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Periventricular nodular heterotopia in 22q11.2 deletion and frontal lobe migration.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Nov 23;5(11):1314-1322. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Division of Neurology Department of Medicine Krembil Neuroscience Centre Toronto Western Hospital University of Toronto Toronto Ontario Canada.

Objective: We aimed to delineate the distribution of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and place this in the context of other genetic forms of PNH. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/acn3.641
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243376PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Fluid biomarkers for frontotemporal dementias.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) are clinically, genetically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders that affect the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain. They are relatively common causes of young-onset dementia and usually present with behavioural disturbance (behavioural variant FTD) or language impairment (primary progressive aphasia), but there is also overlap with motor neurone disease and the atypical parkinsonian disorders, corticobasal syndrome and progressive supranuclear palsy. At post mortem, neuronal inclusions containing tau, TDP-43 or infrequently FUS protein are seen in most cases. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nan.12530
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12530DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Cerebral perfusion abnormalities in patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD): a SPECT study.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a recently defined syndrome with chronic dizziness interrupting daily life. Although the high levels of anxiety and functional changes in postural control strategy and multi-sensory information processing and integration may be underlying the pathophysiology, its neural mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with PPPD using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00702-018-1948-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-018-1948-3DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy and peri-ictal hypotension in a patient with syntaxin-1B mutation.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Oct;20(5):413-417

Epilepsy Center, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Centre, Cleveland, USA, Center for SUDEP Research.

STX1B is a gene that encodes syntaxin-1B. STX1B mutations have recently been implicated in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes. However, these have not previously been reported in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.0996DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS screen: relationship to age, education, IQ and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2018 Nov 29;19(7-8):585-590. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

a Human Cognitive Neuroscience - Department of Psychology , The University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , UK.

The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS) was developed to assess cognitive and behavioral changes common in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and other diseases affecting motor functions. It focuses on domains typically affected by the frontotemporal syndrome (executive and language functions, fluency and behavior), but assesses also memory and visuospatial functions.

Objectives: (A) To investigate the relationship between the ECAS and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2018.1491601DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Predicting progression in the late onset frontal lobe syndrome.

Int Psychogeriatr 2018 Oct 26:1-6. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Old Age Psychiatry,GGZinGeest/VU University Medical Center,Amsterdam,the Netherlands.

ABSTRACTA late onset frontal lobe syndrome (LOF) refers to a clinical syndrome with apathy, disinhibition, or stereotypical behavior arising in middle or late adulthood. Diagnostics are challenging, and both clinicians and patients need reliable predictors of progression to improve clinical guidance. In this longitudinal multicenter and genetically screened prospective study, 137 LOF patients with frontal behavior (FBI score≥11) and/or stereotypical behavior (SRI≥10) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610218001242DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

A critical review of the role of impaired spatial remapping processes in spatial neglect.

Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Oct 25:1-23. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

a Department of Neurosciences , University of Geneva , Geneva , Switzerland.

Objective: Unilateral spatial neglect is a multi-faceted syndrome that arises from brain lesions, typically in the right hemisphere, and is characterized by the failure to attend or respond to stimuli in contralesional space. Here, we expand on the proposal that one deficit contributing to the diverse symptoms in neglect involves spatial remapping processes. Spatial remapping is required to maintain a stable visual representation despite frequent eye movements that change the retinal image. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2018.1503722DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Acute hemiparesis and status epilepticus following endoscopic esophageal balloon dilation: is it really a stroke?

Clin J Gastroenterol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

A 68-year-old gentleman was referred for elective upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on a background of dysphagia and esophageal candidiasis. A benign peptic stricture was noted, managed with balloon dilation without apparent immediate complication. At completion, however, the patient became confused and agitated, with no improvement despite the reversal of sedation. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12328-018-0916-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12328-018-0916-7DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Analysis of first-episode and chronic schizophrenia using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Oct;22(19):6422-6435

Department of Clinical Psychology, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (Guangzhou Huiai Hospital, Guangzhou Mental Health Center), Guangzhou, China.

Objective: The brain structure and function differences among first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ) patients, chronic schizophrenia (CSZ) patients, and normal control (NC) subjects were investigated using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Also, a support vector machine (SVM) combined with recursive feature elimination (RFE) was used for classification.

Patients And Methods: First, 44 FESZ patients, 44 CSZ patients, and 56 NC subjects were recruited, and structural MRI images were acquired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_201810_16055DOI Listing
October 2018

A case report of isolated distal upper extremity weakness due to cerebral metastasis involving the hand knob area.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 3;18(1):947. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Neurology, Semmelweis University, Balassa u. 6., H- 1083, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Unilateral weakness of an upper extremity is most frequently caused by traumatic nerve injury or compression neuropathy. In rare cases, lesion of the central nervous system may result in syndromes suggesting peripheral nerve damage by the initial examination. Pseudoperipheral hand palsy is the best known of these, most frequently caused by a small lesion in the contralateral motor cortex of the brain. Read More

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https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4857-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171188PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Nicotinic receptor abnormalities as a biomarker in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Sep 29. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Faculty of Medicine, Geneva University, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose: Mutations of cholinergic neuronal nicotinic receptors have been identified in the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), associated with changes on PET images using [F]-F-85380-A (F-A-85380), an α4β2 nicotinic receptor ligand. The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential changes in nicotinic receptor availability in other types of epilepsy.

Methods: We included 34 male participants, 12 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 10 with non-lesional diurnal focal epilepsy, and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00259-018-4175-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-018-4175-0DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Effect of acoustic stimuli in patients with disorders of consciousness: a quantitative electroencephalography study.

Neural Regen Res 2018 Nov;13(11):1900-1906

Department of Neurology & Brain Medical Centre, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Auditory stimuli are proposed as beneficial neurorehabilitation methods in patients with disorders of consciousness. However, precise and accurate quantitative indices to estimate their potential effect remain scarce. Fourteen patients were recruited from the Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit of Hangzhou Hospital of Zhejiang Armed Police Corps of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.238622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6183039PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Psychiatric disorders associated with acquired brain pathology.

Authors:
Alfredo Ardila

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2018 Sep 5:1-7. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

a Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders , Florida International University , Miami , Florida , USA.

Acquired brain pathology can be associated with diverse psychiatric manifestations. Three major types of psychiatric disorders potentially found in cases of acquired brain pathology are examined: (1) psychosis, (2) mood disorders, and (3) personality disorders with special emphasis in so-called "acquired psychopathy." Two types of psychotic manifestations are reviewed: (a) Schizophrenia-like psychosis; (b) Other delusional disorder, specifically, somatoparaphrenia and delusional misidentification syndromes, which include reduplicative paramnesias, Capgras syndrome, Frégoli syndrome, and "doubles of the self-syndrome. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23279095.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2018.1463224DOI Listing
September 2018
8 Reads

[F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography study of genetically confirmed patients with Dravet syndrome.

Epilepsy Res 2018 Nov 27;147:9-14. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

Objective: To understand cerebral brain dysfunction in patients with Dravet syndrome (DS), we conducted a [F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in patients with DS whose SCN1A gene variant was confirmed.

Methods: FDG-PET was performed on eight patients with DS. A SCN1A mutation analysis revealed missense variants in four patients and truncation variants in four patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.08.008DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with glial PrP nuclear and perinuclear immunoreactivity.

Neuropathology 2018 Oct 19;38(5):561-567. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

Biomedical Research Institute of Bellvitge (IDIBELL), Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP ) nuclear and perinuclear immunoreactivity in oligodendrocytes of the frontal cortex is found in one case of otherwise typical sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) type VV2a. The PrP nature of the inclusions is validated with several anti-PrP antibodies directed to amino acids 130-160 (12F10), 109-112 (3F4), 97-102 (8G8) and the octarepeat region (amino acids 59-89: SAF32). Cellular identification and subcellular localization were evaluated with double- and triple-labeling immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy using antibodies against PrP, glial markers, and histone H3. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/neup.12505
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12505DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads
1.800 Impact Factor

Disease trajectories in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, primary psychiatric and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting with behavioural change.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Sep 1;104:183-191. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdan UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by behavioural and social cognitive disturbances, while various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders may have similar clinical symptoms. Since neurodegenerative disorders are eventually progressive, whereas primary psychiatric disorders are not, this study aimed to investigate whether the change in clinical symptoms over time differed between groups and which biomarkers predicted rate of decline. Disease trajectories (median follow-up = 3 years) of frontal and stereotyped behaviour, general and frontal cognitive functioning, and social cognition were examined in bvFTD (n = 34), other neurodegenerative (n = 28) and primary psychiatric disorders (n = 43), all presenting with late-onset frontal lobe syndrome (45-75 years), using linear mixed models. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223956183050
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.07.014DOI Listing
September 2018
20 Reads

The landscape of epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants.

Genet Med 2018 Aug 10. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1127, F-75013, Paris, France.

Purpose: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants.

Results: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41436-018-0060-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0060-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292495PMC
August 2018
11 Reads

Frontal lobe executive dysfunction and cerebral perfusion study in alcohol dependence syndrome.

Ind Psychiatry J 2017 Jul-Dec;26(2):134-139

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Army Hospital (R&R), New Delhi, India.

Background: Long-term alcohol use leading to frontal lobe impairment has been a cause of concern for many decades. However, there are very few studies from India of evaluation of frontal lobe executive dysfunction among alcoholics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the frontal executive dysfunction using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and perfusion deficits by Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) among alcohol-dependent patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ipj.ipj_26_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6058449PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Neurobiological Effects of Binge Drinking Help in Its Detection and Differential Diagnosis from Alcohol Dependence.

Dis Markers 2018 4;2018:5623683. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Białystok, Plac Brodowicza 1, 16-070 Choroszcz, Poland.

The prevalence of binge drinking in the general population is 3-4 times higher than that of alcohol dependence. Neuroimaging studies show that binge drinking in adolescence impairs brain development and white matter integrity. Regions with reduced functional activity include the limbic system, ventral diencephalon, frontal lobe, and middle and inferior temporal lobes, whereas the right superior frontal and parietal lobes are typically hyperactivated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5623683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057287PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

A Case of Rapid Malignant Brain Swelling Subacutely After Reperfusion Therapy for Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion.

World Neurosurg 2018 Oct 25;118:311-315. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagasaki Harbor Medical Center, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Severe complications after reperfusion therapy for acute major vessel occlusion are not well described. We present an extremely rare case of a patient with rapid malignant brain swelling subacutely after acute ischemic stroke.

Case Description: An 84-year-old man underwent reperfusion therapy for acute left internal carotid artery occlusion; complete reperfusion was achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.07.151DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Low-grade neuroepithelial tumor: Unusual presentation in an adult without history of seizures.

Neuropathology 2018 Oct 26;38(5):557-560. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Pathology Unit, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNT) show a broad histopathological spectrum and may be difficult to classify using current World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A 57-year-old man came to medical attention because of headaches. The patient medical history was otherwise unremarkable. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/neup.12504
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12504DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Regional thalamic MRI as a marker of widespread cortical pathology and progressive frontotemporal involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 26;89(12):1250-1258. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Background: The thalamus is a major neural hub, with selective connections to virtually all cortical regions of the brain. The multisystem neurodegenerative syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has pathogenic overlap with frontotemporal dementia, and objective in vivo markers of extra-motor pathological spread are lacking. To better consider the role of the thalamus in neurodegeneration, the present study assessed the integrity of the thalamus and its connectivity to major cortical regions of the brain in a longitudinal manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-318625DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Bringing order to higher order motor disorders.

J Neurol 2018 Jul 19. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Institute of Neurology, University College London, 7 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK.

Majority of movements in everyday situations are complex and involve volition, planning of the movement and selection of the motor programme, all occurring before movement execution. Higher order motor disorders may be defined as abnormal motor behaviours resulting from disruption of any of the cortical processes that precede execution of the motor act. They are common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, psychiatric diseases and structural brain lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8974-9DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of ictal vocalization in focal epilepsy syndromes.

Seizure 2018 Aug 11;60:178-183. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate the frequency, localizing significance, and intensity characteristics of ictal vocalization in different focal epilepsy syndromes.

Methods: Up to four consecutive focal seizures were evaluated in 277 patients with lesional focal epilepsy, excluding isolated auras and subclinical EEG seizure patterns. Vocalization was considered to be present if observed in at least one of the analyzed seizures and not being of speech quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2018.07.008DOI Listing
August 2018
11 Reads

Cortical markers of cognitive syndromes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 17;19:675-682. Epub 2018 May 17.

Institute for Advanced Study-IUSS Pavia, Palazzo del Broletto e Piazza Vittoria 15, 27100 Pavia, Italy; IRCCS S. Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be associated with a spectrum of cognitive and behavioural symptoms, but the related patterns of focal cortical atrophy in non-demented ALS patients remain largely unknown. We enrolled 48 non-demented ALS patients and 26 healthy controls for a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and a magnetic resonance exam. Behavioural and cognitive impairment was defined on the basis of a data-driven multi-domain approach in 21 ALS patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.05.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046611PMC
May 2018
17 Reads

Cerebellar atrophy and its contribution to cognition in frontotemporal dementias.

Ann Neurol 2018 Jul 14;84(1):98-109. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney.

Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that cerebellar damage impacts on cognitive functions. Frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) are neurodegenerative brain conditions, primarily affecting the frontal and/or temporal lobe. Three main phenotypes are recognized, each with a distinct clinical and cognitive profile: behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25271DOI Listing
July 2018
13 Reads

Seizure duration and latency of hypermotor manifestations distinguish frontal from extrafrontal onset in sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2018 Sep 15;59(9):e130-e134. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Department of Neurosciences, Center of Sleep Medicine, C. Munari Center for Epilepsy Surgery, Hospital Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is an epilepsy syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of sleep-related hypermotor seizures of variable complexity and duration. Seizures usually arise in the frontal lobe, but extrafrontal seizure onset zones are well described. To identify clinically relevant ictal features of SHE that could distinguish a frontal from an extrafrontal onset zone, we conducted a retrospective analysis of seizure characteristics in 58 patients with drug-resistant SHE (43 frontal and 15 extrafrontal) who underwent video-stereo-electroencephalographic recordings and became seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14517DOI Listing
September 2018
27 Reads

Reversal of behavioral decline and neuropathology by a complex vitamin supplement involves modulation of key neurochemical stressors.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Sep 7;62:120-131. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria; Central Research Laboratories Ltd, 132b University Road, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Metal ions are crucial for normal neurochemical signaling and perturbations in their homeostasis have been associated with neurodegenerative processes. Hypothesizing that in vivo modulation of key neurochemical processes including metal ion regulation (by transferrin receptor-1: TfR-1) in cells can improve disease outcome, we investigated the efficacy of a complex vitamin supplement (CVS) containing B-vitamins and ascorbic acid in preventing/reversing behavioral decline and neuropathology in rats. Wistar rats (eight weeks-old) were assigned into five groups (n = 8), including controls and those administered CVS (400 mg/kg/day) for two weeks before or after AlCl (100 mg/kg)-induced neurotoxicity. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13826689183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.07.005DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads
1.862 Impact Factor

Intracranial immature teratoma invading the nasal cavity mimicking olfactory neuroblastoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jul;97(28):e11527

Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences of China Medical University.

Rationale: Primary intracranial immature teratoma accounts for majority of congenital central nervous system germ-cell tumors, but it is extremely rare in patients older than 15 years.

Patient Concerns: A 27-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for headache, nasal congestion, and decreased olfactory sensation. Imaging showed a mass measuring approximately 5 cm × 4 cm in the right frontal lobe, which also filled the right nasal cavity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000011527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6076187PMC
July 2018
8 Reads
5.723 Impact Factor

Imaging studies of kleptomania in a middle-aged woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a case report.

Psychogeriatrics 2018 Sep 10;18(5):430-433. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

A 57-year-old woman who had been arrested for shoplifting visited our hospital. She was diagnosed with kleptomania. She had previously been diagnosed with CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12339DOI Listing
September 2018
18 Reads

Normal Electrical Activity of the Brain in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients After Anodal Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Mar-Apr;9(2):135-146

Department of Neuroscience and Addiction Studies, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been used as a non-invasive method to increase the plasticity of brain. Growing evidence has shown several brain disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndrome are improved following tDCS. In patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), increased brain rhythm activity particularly in the frontal lobe has been reported in several studies using Eectroencephalogram (EEG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/NIRP.BCN.9.2.135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026096PMC
July 2018
12 Reads

Transient Capgras Syndrome Secondary to Bilateral Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2018 Jun;31(2):96-98

Lehigh Valley Physicians Group-Neurology, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Capgras syndrome is one of a variety of delusional misidentification syndromes that can be associated with acute ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disease, or metabolic conditions. Most cases reported in the literature are associated with frontal and/or parietal lobe involvement. Transient Capgras syndrome is rare but has been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0000000000000152DOI Listing
June 2018
11 Reads

Therapeutic impact of motor cortex rTMS in patients with chronic neuropathic pain even in the absence of an analgesic response. A case report.

Neurophysiol Clin 2018 Oct 15;48(5):303-308. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Service de physiologie, explorations fonctionnelles, neurophysiologie clinique, hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Créteil, France; EA 4391, faculté de médecine de Créteil, université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Objective: To show that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered at high frequency over the motor cortex can improve patients with chronic pain syndrome even if this procedure does not provide an analgesic response.

Case Report: A 77-year-old woman presented with drug-resistant chronic neuropathic pain affecting both lower limbs due to segmental spine compression at T9-T10 level. She underwent an rTMS protocol with an induction phase of 12 rTMS sessions during three weeks and a maintenance phase of 3 additional rTMS sessions for 5 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2018.05.039DOI Listing
October 2018

"Frontal lobe syndrome"? Subtypes of acquired personality disturbances in patients with focal brain damage.

Cortex 2018 Sep 16;106:65-80. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Conceptualizations of the nature of acquired personality disturbances after brain damage, especially to prefrontal cortex, have progressed from clinical observations of a large, disparate set of disturbances to theories concerning neuroanatomically-based subgroups with prefrontal damage. However, hypothesized subtypes have not yet been studied systematically. Based on our previous investigations of acquired personality disturbances, we hypothesized five subtypes of acquired personality disturbances: Executive Disturbances, Disturbed Social Behavior, Emotional Dysregulation, Hypo-emotionality/De-Energization, and Distress, as well as an undisturbed group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120760PMC
September 2018
16 Reads

Abnormal EEG Power Spectra in Acute Transient Global Amnesia: A Quantitative EEG Study.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2018 Jun 1:1550059418780780. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

2 Sleep Disorders Unit, Institute of Neurology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by retrograde and anterograde amnesia without other neurological deficits. Although electroencephalography (EEG) methods are commonly used in both clinical and research setting with TGA patients, few studies have investigated neurophysiological pattern in TGA using quantitative EEG (qEEG). The main aim of the present study was to extend these previous findings by exploring EEG power spectra differences between patients with acute TGA and healthy controls using the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography software (eLORETA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059418780780DOI Listing
June 2018
10 Reads

Primary Progressive Aphasia and Stroke Aphasia.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Jun;24(3, BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY):745-767

Purpose Of Review: This article summarizes the clinical and anatomic features of the three named variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA): semantic variant PPA, nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA, and logopenic variant PPA. Three stroke aphasia syndromes that resemble the PPA variants (Broca aphasia, Wernicke aphasia, and conduction aphasia) are also presented.

Recent Findings: Semantic variant PPA and Wernicke aphasia are characterized by fluent speech with naming and comprehension difficulty; these syndromes are associated with disease in different portions of the left temporal lobe. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CON.0000000000000618DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Clinical Assessment of Prefrontal Lobe Functions.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Jun;24(3, BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY):704-726

Purpose Of Review: Whereas it was previously thought that there was a single overarching frontal lobe syndrome, it is now clear that several distinct cognitive and behavioral processes are mediated by the frontal lobes. This article reviews these processes and the underlying neuroanatomy and provides an approach to the assessment of prefrontal lobe functions at the bedside.

Recent Findings: Cognitive and behavioral frontal lobe functions are mediated by the prefrontal regions rather than the frontal lobes as a whole. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00132979-201806000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CON.0000000000000609DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Cortical hypoactivation during resting EEG suggests central nervous system pathology in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Biol Psychol 2018 Jul 23;136:87-99. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

We investigated central fatigue in 50 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and 50 matched healthy controls (HC). Resting state EEG was collected from 19 scalp locations during a 3 min, eyes-closed condition. Current densities were localized using exact low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064389PMC
July 2018
7 Reads

Pediatric Brain Development in Down Syndrome: A Field in Its Infancy.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2018 Oct 23;24(9):966-976. Epub 2018 May 23.

Department of Psychology,Drexel University,Philadelphia,Pennsylvania.

Objectives: As surprisingly little is known about the developing brain studied in vivo in youth with Down syndrome (DS), the current review summarizes the small DS pediatric structural neuroimaging literature and begins to contextualize existing research within a developmental framework.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was completed, effect sizes from published studies were reviewed, and results are presented with respect to the DS cognitive behavioral phenotype and typical brain development.

Results: The majority of DS structural neuroimaging studies describe gross differences in brain morphometry and do not use advanced neuroimaging methods to provide nuanced descriptions of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617718000206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207466PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Progressive Grey Matter Volume Changes in Patients with Schizophrenia over 6 Weeks of Antipsychotic Treatment and Their Relationship to Clinical Improvement.

Neurosci Bull 2018 Oct 19;34(5):816-826. Epub 2018 May 19.

Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, 100191, China.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have identified widespread and progressive grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in schizophrenia, especially in the frontal lobe. In this study, we found a progressive GMV decrease in the rostral medial frontal cortex (rMFC, including the anterior cingulate cortex) in the patient group during a 6-week follow-up of 40 patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls well-matched for age, gender, and education. The higher baseline GMV in the rMFC predicted better improvement in the positive score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and this might be related to the improved reality-monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-018-0234-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6129241PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms potentiate bifenthrin-induced neurological alterations and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Sep 26;294:73-86. Epub 2018 May 26.

Laboratory of Toxicology-Microbiology and Environmental Health, UR11ES70, Sciences Faculty of Sfax, University of Sfax, BP1171, 3000, Sfax, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03784274183020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.05.020DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads