5,314 results match your criteria Frontal Lobe Syndromes

The memory for words: Armand Trousseau on aphasia.

Richard Leblanc

J Hist Neurosci 2021 Jun 11:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Of all the nineteenth-century physicians whose names still resonate today, Armand Trousseau is perhaps the one most familiar, for his description of carpal spasm as a sign of hypocalcemia (Trousseau's sign) and his description of the hypercoagulable state associated with cancer (Trousseau's syndrome). In the last three years of his life, Trousseau turned his attention to aphasia, which he included in his 1864 and 1865 lectures given at Hôtel-Dieu Hospital in Paris and which he discussed in an address to the Imperial Academy of Medicine in 1865. Trousseau preceded Wernicke in describing aphasia as a symptom complex, in which he included Broca's aphemia, receptive aphasia, the inability to read with and without the inability to write (alexia with and without agraphia), the inability to name common objects (amnesic aphasia or anomia) and to recognize numbers (acalculia), and the inability to draw. Read More

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Mild Behavioral Impairment Is Associated With Atrophy of Entorhinal Cortex and Hippocampus in a Memory Clinic Cohort.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 24;13:643271. Epub 2021 May 24.

Memory Clinic, Department of Neurology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czechia.

Objectives: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a syndrome describing late-onset persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in non-demented older adults. Few studies to date have investigated the associations of MBI with structural brain changes. Our aim was to explore structural correlates of NPS in a non-demented memory clinic sample using the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C) that has been developed to measure MBI. Read More

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A unique case of progressive hemifacial microsomia or Parry-Romberg syndrome associated with limb and brain anomalies with normal neurological findings: A review of the literature.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 May 31:104234. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Orange, CA. Electronic address:

In this report, we describe an unusual case of progressive hemifacial atrophy or Parry-Romberg syndrome in a 10-year-old girl with progressive hemifacial microsomia and limb anomalies who had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of white matter hyper-intensities. Patients typically present with neurological manifestations such as epilepsy, facial pain, and migraines and ophthalmological symptoms in conjunction with white matter lesions. The patient demonstrated normal cognition and psychomotor development despite the presence of white matter lesions in her frontal lobe that is commonly associated with neurological symptoms. Read More

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Associations of Genetic Polymorphisms and Neuroimmune Markers With Some Parameters of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 7;12:655178. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department Basic and Applied Neurobiology, V. P. Serbsky Federal Medical Research Centre of Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia.

We investigated the associations of rs6280, rs6295, rs6265, rs16965628, and rs7322347 with schizophrenia in a case-control study, and associations of these genetic variants with several clinical features. We also investigated markers of inflammatory response (C-reactive protein, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10), the activity of leukocytic elastase (LE) and α1-proteinase inhibitor (a1-PI), antibodies to S100B and myelin basic protein (MBP) in schizophrenia. Clinical symptoms were assessed on three scales: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, The Bush - Francis Catatonia Rating Scale and Frontal Assessment Battery. Read More

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The supplementary motor area syndrome: a neurosurgical review.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

The supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a frequently encountered clinical phenomenon associated with surgery of the dorsomedial prefrontal lobe. The region has a known motor sequencing function and the dominant pre-SMA specifically is associated with more complex language functions; the SMA is furthermore incorporated in the negative motor network. The SMA has a rich interconnectivity with other cortical regions and subcortical structures using the frontal aslant tract (FAT) and the frontostriatal tract (FST). Read More

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Validation of The Edinburgh cognitive and behavioural ALS screen (ECAS) in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Human Cognitive Neuroscience -Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was developed to assess cognitive and behavioural changes in an anterior frontotemporal syndrome (executive functions, language, fluency and behaviour), common in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and also assesses posterior cerebral dysfunction (memory and visuospatial abilities).

Objectives: To validate the ECAS in behavioural variant Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) without ALS, as compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD), against comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Compare its sensitivity to that of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) and investigate behavioural changes in both types of dementia. Read More

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Spatial neglect treatment: The brain's spatial-motor Aiming systems.

Neuropsychol Rehabil 2021 May 3:1-27. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Animal and human literature supports spatial-motor "Aiming" bias, a frontal-subcortical syndrome, as a core deficit in spatial neglect. However, spatial neglect treatment studies rarely assess Aiming errors. Two knowledge gaps result: spatial neglect rehabilitation studies fail to capture the impact on motor-exploratory aspects of functional disability. Read More

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Agitation and Dementia: Prevention and Treatment Strategies in Acute and Chronic Conditions.

Front Neurol 2021 16;12:644317. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. Read More

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[Mind-regulating and spleen-strengthening needling technique improves abdominal hypersensitivity and emotion by enhancing functional connectivity between hippocampus and brain regions in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Apr;46(4):318-25

Department of Acupuncture and Rehabilitation, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

Objective: To compare the difference of brain functional connectivity between diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) patients and healthy volunteers and changes after acupuncture intervention, so as to investigate the underlying mechanism of acupuncture in regulating functional activities of IBS-D patients by using seed point correlation analysis.

Methods: A total of 25 IBS-D patients and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited in the present study and respectively attributed to acupuncture group and control group. The IBS-D patients received manual acupuncture stimulation of Baihui (GV20), Yintang (EX-HN3), and bilateral Tianshu (ST25), Zusanli (ST36), Shangjuxu (ST37), Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Taichong (LR3) with mind-regulating and spleen-strengthening technique for 30 min, once a day, 3 days a week for 6 weeks. Read More

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Proteomics and Transcriptomics of the Hippocampus and Cortex in SUDEP and High-Risk SUDEP Patients.

Neurology 2021 May 28;96(21):e2639-e2652. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

From the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center (D.F.L., C.V., S.D., D.F., O.D.), Proteomics Laboratory (E.K., S.N., B.U.), Division of Advanced Research Technologies, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (B.U.), NYU School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (D.F.L., G.P., A.F., E.D., S.D., D.F., T.W., B.U., O.D.), Center for Cognitive Neurology (G.P., A.F., E.D., T.W.), Department of Pathology (T.W.), and Department of Psychiatry (T.W.), NYU Langone Health and School of Medicine, New York; Department of (Neuro)Pathology (J.D.M., J.J.A., E.A.v.V., E.A.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, the Netherlands; Alzheimer's and Prion Diseases Team (G.P.), Paris Brain Institute, CNRS, UMR 7225, INSERM 1127, Sorbonne University UM75, Paris, France; Brain & Mind Centre and School of Medical Sciences (E.D.), Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Australia; Biomedical Hosting LLC (M.A.), Arlington, MA; School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences (B.J.C., M.J.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Amsterdam UMC (J.C.B., S.I.), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Neurosurgery, Amsterdam Neuroscience, De Boelelaan 1117; Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences (E.A.v.V.), Center for Neuroscience, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy (B.D., C.S., M.T.), University College London Institute of Neurology, UK; and Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (R.T., E.A.), Heemstede, the Netherlands

Objective: To identify the molecular signaling pathways underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and high-risk SUDEP compared to control patients with epilepsy.

Methods: For proteomics analyses, we evaluated the hippocampus and frontal cortex from microdissected postmortem brain tissue of 12 patients with SUDEP and 14 with non-SUDEP epilepsy. For transcriptomics analyses, we evaluated hippocampus and temporal cortex surgical brain tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: 6 low-risk and 8 high-risk SUDEP as determined by a short (<50 seconds) or prolonged (≥50 seconds) postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) that may indicate severely depressed brain activity impairing respiration, arousal, and protective reflexes. Read More

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Unilateral neglect or alien hand syndrome? A diagnostic challenge.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021 Apr 5;16(2):288-291. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare post-stroke complication. Although the occurrence of AHS after stroke is rare, it can have a disabling impact on the lifestyle and career of the patients post stroke. It is difficult to distinguish AHS from the non-dominant hemispheric infarction with symptoms of hemianopia and left hemineglect, as patients with AHS can also have neglect as well as behaviour symptoms if the frontal lobe is involved. Read More

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Aphagia in frontal lobe syndrome following traumatic brain injury: Delightful lessons from olanzapine treatment.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020 Nov-Dec;62(6):732-733. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

A case of persistent aphagia in frontal lobe syndrome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with successful use of olanzapine to improve the eating disorder is presented. A 20-year-old man suffered a severe TBI with right frontal intracerebral haemorrhage At four-month post-TBI, he had agitation, concurrent apathy with constant refusal for oral swallow despite gustatory sensory stimulation, hence the needs for nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding. He was diagnosed with frontal lobe syndrome and prescribed olanzapine 5mg daily that was optimised to 10mg due to worsened aggression. Read More

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December 2020

The challenge of diagnosing and successfully treating anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a toddler.

Sudan J Paediatr 2021 ;21(1):76-81

Division of Pediatric Neurology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated syndrome that is still under-recognised, with grave consequences if not treated early. A multidisciplinary team approach is required in the process of diagnosis and management of this potentially treatable and reversible disorder. We report on a 26-month-old Sudanese girl who presented with focal seizures associated with fever (temperature = 38. Read More

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January 2021

An autopsy case of corticobasal degeneration with inferior olivary hypertrophy.

Neuropathology 2021 Jun 12;41(3):226-235. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Japan.

We report autopsy results of a female patient who was confirmed pathologically as having corticobasal degeneration (CBD). This patient presented with progressive gait disturbance at the age of 66 years, and subsequently showed parkinsonism with a right-sided predominance and dementia. She was clinically diagnosed as having possible corticobasal syndrome without palatal myoclonus throughout the disease course. Read More

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The Frontal Aslant Tract and Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome: Moving towards a Connectomic Initiation Axis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Prince of Wales Private Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia.

Connectomics is the use of big data to map the brain's neural infrastructure; employing such technology to improve surgical planning may improve neuro-oncological outcomes. Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a well-known complication of medial frontal lobe surgery. The 'localizationist' view posits that damage to the posteromedial bank of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is the basis of SMA syndrome. Read More

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Is Lateropulsion Really Related with a Specific Lesion of the Brain?

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 10;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Lateropulsion (pusher syndrome) is an important barrier to standing and gait after stroke. Although several studies have attempted to elucidate the relationship between brain lesions and lateropulsion, the effects of specific brain lesions on the development of lateropulsion remain unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of stroke lesion location and size on lateropulsion in right hemisphere stroke patients. Read More

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Ipsilateral Reversible Cerebral Vasculopathy Secondary to Carotid Artery Revascularization: A Case Report.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Apr 15;11(2):165-169. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Cerebrovascular Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The emergence of neurologic symptoms after carotid revascularization is not uncommon and typically caused by perioperative ischemic stroke or hyperperfusion. Postoperative vasculopathy, including reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a rare complication of carotid intervention and may be an under-identified cause of neurologic deficit after revascularization. We report a case of reversible postoperative vasculopathy following carotid revascularization as well as its management. Read More

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Brain dysfunction in COVID-19 and CAR-T therapy: cytokine storm-associated encephalopathy.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 04 29;8(4):968-979. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: Many neurological manifestations are associated with COVID-19, including a distinct form of encephalopathy related to cytokine storm, the acute systemic inflammatory syndrome present in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm is also associated with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), a complication of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a highly effective treatment for refractory hematological malignancies. We investigated whether COVID-19-related encephalopathy, ICANS, and other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, share clinical and investigative findings. Read More

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Sinking bullet syndrome: A unique case of transhemispheric migration.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 May 20;204:106607. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Neurosurgery, SBH Health System, Bronx, NY, USA; CUNY School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Spontaneous migration of retained intracranial bullet fragments is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. However, such migration is usually limited in extent, since it occurs along the bullet tract or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. Transhemispheric migration through an intact cerebral hemisphere has not been previously reported. Read More

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Intracortical GABAergic dysfunction in patients with fatigue and dysexecutive syndrome after COVID-19.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 05 13;132(5):1138-1143. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Unit/Department of Behavioral and Clinical Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, University of Ferrara, Italy.

Objective: A high proportion of patients experience fatigue and impairment of cognitive functions after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore the activity of the main inhibitory intracortical circuits within the primary motor cortex (M1) in a sample of patients complaining of fatigue and presenting executive dysfunction after resolution of COVID-19 with neurological manifestations.

Methods: Twelve patients who recovered from typical COVID-19 pneumonia with neurological complications and complained of profound physical and mental fatigue underwent, 9 to 13 weeks from disease onset, a psychometric evaluation including a self-reported fatigue numeric-rating scale (FRS, Fatigue Rating Scale) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Read More

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Increased cerebral integrity metrics in poliomyelitis survivors: putative adaptation to longstanding lower motor neuron degeneration.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 21;424:117361. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Computational Neuroimaging Group, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: Post-polio syndrome (PPS) has been traditionally considered a slowly progressive condition that affects poliomyelitis survivors decades after their initial infection. Cerebral changes in poliomyelitis survivors are poorly characterised and the few existing studies are strikingly conflicting.

Objective: The overarching aim of this study is the comprehensive characterisation of cerebral grey and white matter alterations in poliomyelitis survivors with reference to healthy- and disease-controls using quantitative imaging metrics. Read More

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Transition from pediatric to adult care in a Japanese cohort of childhood-onset epilepsy: prevalence of epileptic syndromes and complexity in the transition.

Seizure 2021 May 19;88:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan.

Aim: We retrospectively examined patients with childhood-onset epilepsy who transitioned from pediatric to adult care to reveal the clinical characteristics and evaluate the complexity of transitioning.

Methods: The subjects were 220 patients (89 males, 131 females) who had been treated at our pediatric epilepsy clinic and had transferred to adult care between 2014 and 2018 without attending a transition clinic or program. The demographic data of the patients were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Shifting of global aphasia to Wernicke's aphasia in a patient with intact motor function: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 11;21(1):111. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is a rare stroke syndrome characterized by the dissociation of motor and language functions. Here, we present a case of GAWH with the patient later regaining speech fluency.

Case Presentation: A 73-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department immediately after an episode of syncope. Read More

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Chromosome 15q BP4-BP5 Deletion in a Girl with Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Migraine, Circumscribed Hypertrichosis, and Language Impairment.

J Epilepsy Res 2020 Dec 31;10(2):84-91. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Unit of Neonatology University Hospital "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele", Catania, Italy.

The 15q13.3 microdeletion (microdel15q13.3) syndrome (OMIM 612001) has been reported in healthy subjects as well as in individuals with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild to severe neurological disorders, including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, epilepsy, behavioral problems and speech dysfunction. Read More

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December 2020

Clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated encephalitis and meningitis amid COVID-19 pandemic.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Feb;9(5):1058-1078

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic, numerous studies have been published on SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis/meningitis, but it has not been established if there are specific clinical characteristics of encephalitis/meningitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Aim: To identify the specific clinical features of cases of encephalitis/meningitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of this virus infection pandemic and investigate their relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: We searched PubMed, and included single case reports and case series with full text in English, reporting original data of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients with encephalitis/meningitis and a confirmed recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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February 2021

Behavioural impairments after exposure of neonatal mice to propofol are accompanied by reductions in neuronal activity in cortical circuitry.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Jun 26;126(6):1141-1156. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Both animal and retrospective human studies have linked extended and repeated general anaesthesia during early development with cognitive and behavioural deficits later in life. However, the neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying this anaesthesia-induced behavioural impairment are poorly understood.

Methods: Neonatal mice were administered one or three doses of propofol, a commonly used i. Read More

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The Role of Frontal Assessment Battery and Frontal Lobe Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in the Differential Diagnosis of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Variants and Corticobasal Syndrome-A Pilot Study.

Front Neurol 2021 4;12:630153. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) are clinical syndromes classified as atypical parkinsonism. Due to their overlapping symptomatology, recent research shows the necessity of finding new methods of examination of these clinical entities. PSP is a heterogenic disease. Read More

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February 2021

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and neurological manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 patients.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jan;25(2):1101-1108

Department of Physiology, Medicine-Neurology Division, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" disease caused a challenging and threating pandemic (COVID-19) worldwide with a great loss to life and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 mainly involves the respiratory system, however, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), neurological and special senses clinical manifestations have been reported rarely. The present study aims to investigate the MRI findings, clinical manifestations of neurological and special senses involvement in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Read More

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January 2021

[Alien hand syndrome is a rare symptom of stroke].

Ugeskr Laeger 2021 02;183(6)

Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a rare condition, which is defined as involuntary meaningful movements of a limb associated with loss of ownership over the limb. It affects mostly the left hand. Corticobasal degeneration, stroke and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are the three leading causes of AHS. Read More

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February 2021

Frontotemporal EEG to guide sedation in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 03 20;132(3):730-736. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Neurology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To study if limited frontotemporal electroencephalogram (EEG) can guide sedation changes in highly infectious novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agent.

Methods: 98 days of continuous frontotemporal EEG from 11 consecutive patients was evaluated daily by an epileptologist to recommend reduction or maintenance of the sedative level. We evaluated the need to increase sedation in the 6 h following this recommendation. Read More

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