5,577 results match your criteria Frontal Lobe Syndromes

Paediatric posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: is there an association of blood pressure with imaging severity and atypical magnetic resonance characteristics?

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is relatively uncommon in paediatric patients; however, its pathophysiology remains obscure.

Objective: The aims of this study were to find an association or correlation between (1) blood pressures and (2) imaging severity and the presence of atypical imaging features in children with PRES.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional evaluation in children diagnosed with PRES. Read More

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Neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation in the postnatal frontal cortex in Down syndrome.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 Jun 8;10(1):86. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Translational Neuroscience, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 W Thomas Rd, Phoenix, AZ, 85013, USA.

Although Down syndrome (DS), the most common developmental genetic cause of intellectual disability, displays proliferation and migration deficits in the prenatal frontal cortex (FC), a knowledge gap exists on the effects of trisomy 21 upon postnatal cortical development. Here, we examined cortical neurogenesis and differentiation in the FC supragranular (SG, II/III) and infragranular (IG, V/VI) layers applying antibodies to doublecortin (DCX), non-phosphorylated heavy-molecular neurofilament protein (NHF, SMI-32), calbindin D-28K (Calb), calretinin (Calr), and parvalbumin (Parv), as well as β-amyloid (APP/Aβ and Aβ) and phospho-tau (CP13 and PHF-1) in autopsy tissue from age-matched DS and neurotypical (NTD) subjects ranging from 28-weeks (wk)-gestation to 3 years of age. Thionin, which stains Nissl substance, revealed disorganized cortical cellular lamination including a delayed appearance of pyramidal cells until 44 wk of age in DS compared to 28 wk in NTD. Read More

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Obstructive sleep apnea, cerebrovascular disease, and amyloid in older adults with Down syndrome across the Alzheimer's continuum.

Sleep Adv 2022 5;3(1):zpac013. Epub 2022 May 5.

Gertrude. H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

We determined the extent to which obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cerebrovascular disease and amyloid burden, and the relation of the two processes across clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnostic groups in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Adults with DS from the Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome (ADDS) study were included given available research MRI ( = 116; 50 ± 8 years; 42% women) and amyloid PET scans ( = 71; 50 ± 7 years; 39% women) at the time of analysis. Participants were characterized as cognitively stable (CS; 64%), with mild cognitive impairment-DS (MCI-DS; 23%), with possible AD dementia (5%), or with definite AD dementia (8%). Read More

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A data-driven model of brain volume changes in progressive supranuclear palsy.

Brain Commun 2022 14;4(3):fcac098. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, UK.

The most common clinical phenotype of progressive supranuclear palsy is Richardson syndrome, characterized by levodopa unresponsive symmetric parkinsonism, with a vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, early falls and cognitive impairment. There is currently no detailed understanding of the full sequence of disease pathophysiology in progressive supranuclear palsy. Determining the sequence of brain atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy could provide important insights into the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as guide patient stratification and monitoring for clinical trials. Read More

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Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome Presenting as a Stroke in an 11-Year-Old with Lupus.

Case Rep Pediatr 2022 13;2022:7890566. Epub 2022 May 13.

Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is an infrequent but feared life-threatening complication of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). CAPS is characterized by the rapid development of numerous thromboses across multiple organs resulting in multiorgan failure. It is rare but well-documented in the adult population. Read More

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Frontal cortical activation during emotional and non-emotional verbal fluency tests.

Michael K Yeung

Sci Rep 2022 May 19;12(1):8497. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

There has been growing recognition of the utility of combining the verbal fluency test and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess brain functioning and to screen for psychiatric disorders. Recently, an emotional analogue of the semantic fluency test (SFT) has been developed that taps partly different processes from conventional verbal fluency tests. Nevertheless, neural processing during the emotional SFT remains elusive. Read More

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Characterizing Differences in Functional Connectivity Between Posterior Cortical Atrophy and Semantic Dementia by Seed-Based Approach.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 29;14:850977. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and semantic dementia (SD) are focal syndromes involving different cerebral regions. This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) with an affected network in PCA and SD.

Methods: A total of 10 patients with PCA, 12 patients with SD, and 11 controls were recruited to undergo a detailed clinical history interview and physical examination, neuropsychological assessments, and PET/MRI scan. Read More

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Transhemispheric cortex remodeling promotes forelimb recovery after spinal cord injury.

JCI Insight 2022 Jun 22;7(12). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Understanding the reorganization of neural circuits spared after spinal cord injury in the motor cortex and spinal cord would provide insights for developing therapeutics. Using optogenetic mapping, we demonstrated a transhemispheric recruitment of neural circuits in the contralateral cortical M1/M2 area to improve the impaired forelimb function after a cervical 5 right-sided hemisection in mice, a model mimicking the human Brown-Séquard syndrome. This cortical reorganization can be elicited by a selective cortical optogenetic neuromodulation paradigm. Read More

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Religious conversion in an older male with longstanding epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2022 20;18:100524. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, 223 East 34 Street, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Religious experiences in epilepsy patients have provoked much interest with suggestions that hyperreligiosity is associated with temporal lobe seizures. Extreme varieties of religious behavior may be more frequent in epilepsy patients during ictal activity or during post-ictal psychotic episodes. We report a 75 year-old man with epilepsy who developed a progressive decline in cognition and behavior following a religious conversion 15 years earlier. Read More

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January 2022

The unique role of the frontal aslant tract in speech and language processing.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 26;34:103020. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Center for Language, Imaging, Mind & Brain, VA Northern California Healthcare System, Martinez, CA, USA; Aphasia Recovery Lab, Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a recently described intralobar tract that connects the superior and inferior frontal gyri. The FAT has been implicated in various speech and language processes and disorders, including motor speech impairments, stuttering disorders, opercular syndrome, and verbal fluency, but the specific function(s) of the FAT have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we aimed to address this knowledge gap by investigating the underlying role that the FAT plays in motor aspects of speech and language abilities in post-stroke aphasia. Read More

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Disorganization of language and working memory systems in frontal versus temporal lobe epilepsy.

Brain 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Multimodal Imaging and Connectome Analysis Laboratory, McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity of epilepsy, and adversely impacts people with both frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). While its neural substrates have been extensively investigated in TLE, functional imaging studies in FLE are scarce. In this study, we profiled the neural processes underlying cognitive impairment in FLE, and directly compared FLE and TLE to establish commonalities and differences. Read More

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Relationship between blood amyloid A and resting magnetic resonance functional brain connections in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

Sleep Breath 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Respiratory, Suzhou Ninth Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou Ninth People's Hospital, Suzhou, 215200, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of resting brain function.

Methods: Male patients with OSAHS were enrolled from January to June 2019 in Suzhou Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, and nineteen healthy male volunteers were selected as the normal control group. The patients with OSAHS were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Read More

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Right uncinate fasciculus supports socioemotional sensitivity in health and neurodegenerative disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 25;34:102994. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, United States. Electronic address:

The uncinate fasciculus (UF) connects fronto-insular and temporal gray matter regions involved in visceral emotional reactivity and semantic appraisal, but the precise role of this tract in socioemotional functioning is not well-understood. Using the Revised-Self Monitoring (RSMS) informant questionnaire, we examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right UF corresponded to socioemotional sensitivity during face-to-face interactions in 145 individuals (40 healthy older adults [NC], and 105 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration [FTLD] syndromes in whom this tract is selectively vulnerable, including 31 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia [bvFTD], 39 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [svPPA], and 35 nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia [nfvPPA]). Voxelwise and region-of-interest-based DWI analyses revealed that FA in the right but not left UF significantly predicted RSMS score in the full sample, and in NC and svPPA subgroups alone. Read More

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Do Adults with Stroke have Altered Interhemispheric Inhibition? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jul 23;31(7):106494. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Innovation, Implementation and Clinical Translation (IIMPACT) in Health, Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, Australia; Brain Stimulation, Imaging and Cognition Research Group, School of Biomedicine, The University of Adelaide, North Tce, Adelaide 5005, Australia.

Objective: Interhemispheric inhibition is an important cortical mechanism to support motor control. Altered interhemispheric inhibition has been the target of neuromodulation interventions. This systematic review investigated the evidence for altered interhemispheric inhibition in adults with unilateral neurological conditions: stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, complex regional pain syndrome, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy METHODS: We pre-registered the protocol and followed PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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Persistent olfactory dysfunction after COVID-19 is associated with reduced perfusion in the frontal lobe.

Acta Neurol Scand 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Radiology, Clínico San Carlos, Health Research Institute "San Carlos" (IdISSC), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Olfactory dysfunction is common during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathophysiology of the persistence of this symptom and the potential relationship with central nervous system involvement is unknown.

Aim Of The Study: To evaluate the neural correlates of persistent olfactory dysfunction in a series of patients with post-COVID syndrome. Read More

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Post ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination frontal lobe syndrome.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jul 23;43(7):4099-4101. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 221005, Varanasi, India.

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To Study Clinicoradiological Profile and Outcome of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (Pres).

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

Gmch, Nagpur, Maharashtra.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is potentially reversible clinicoradiological syndrome. In this study we explored potential, clinical and radiological presentation, risk factor and outcome of patient.

Material: We performed prospective observational study in 97 diagnosed cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during period of 1st Aug 2019 to 4th Nov 2021 admitted in tertiary care unit of central India. Read More

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Cognitive phenotypes in frontal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Objective: Neuropsychological profiles are heterogeneous both across and within epilepsy syndromes, but especially in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), which has complex semiology and epileptogenicity. This study aimed to characterize the cognitive heterogeneity within FLE by identifying cognitive phenotypes and determining their demographic and clinical characteristics.

Method: One hundred and six patients (age 16-66; 44% female) with FLE completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including measures within five cognitive domains: language, attention, executive function, processing speed, and verbal/visual learning. Read More

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[Clinical and neuropsychological survey of patients with glioma of the corpus callosum].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2022 ;86(2):80-88

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Background: We found no reports devoted to a comprehensive analysis of cognitive impairment that can determine the quality of life in patients with glioma of the corpus callosum and topical affiliation of these disorders.

Objective: Clinical and neuropsychological study of mental disorders in patients with gliomas of the corpus callosum, qualification of topical affiliation of the identified syndromes.

Material And Methods: We examined 30 patients with gliomas of the corpus callosum using the Luria's approach to clinical and neuropsychological survey. Read More

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Therapeutic Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Post-stroke Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Prospective Pilot Study.

Front Neurol 2022 22;13:813597. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, South Korea.

Objective: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is resistant to treatment. Recent studies have widely applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat various brain dysfunctions, such as post-stroke syndromes. Nonetheless, a protocol for PSCI has not been established. Read More

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Case Report: A Case Study on the Neurodevelopmental Profile of a Child With Pallister-Killian Syndrome and His Unaffected Twin.

Front Pediatr 2022 15;10:817133. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Division of Neurogenetics and Developments Pediatrics, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, United States.

Pallister-Killian syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder that has broad developmental and multisystemic effects. While medical complications are widely reported throughout the literature, research on the neurodevelopmental profile has been limited. Case reports make up the majority of the few existing studies regarding the neurodevelopmental phenotype associated with this disorder. Read More

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Metabolic Imaging of Deep Brain Stimulation in Meige Syndrome.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 17;14:848100. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to be a safe and effective deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgical target for the treatment of Meige syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare changes in brain metabolism before and 6 months after STN-DBS surgery.

Methods: Twenty-five patients with primary Meige syndrome underwent motor function assessment, including the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale movement (BFMDRS-M) and disability subscale (BFMDRS-D) and positron emission tomography with an 18[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose scan before and 6 months after STN-DBS surgery. Read More

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Acute morphine administration, morphine dependence, and naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome affect the resting-state functional connectivity and Local Field Potentials of the rat prefrontal cortex.

Behav Brain Res 2022 06 23;427:113859. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19615-1178, Iran. Electronic address:

Opiates are among the widely abused substances worldwide. Also, the clinical use of opioids can cause unwanted and potentially severe consequences such as developing tolerance and dependence. This study simultaneously measured the changes induced after morphine dependence and naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and Local Field Potential (LFP) power in the prefrontal cortex of the rat. Read More

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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves consciousness in some patients with disorders of consciousness.

Clin Rehabil 2022 Jul 24;36(7):916-925. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, 198153Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with disorders of consciousness.

Design And Setting: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial.

Participants: Patients (N = 40) with disorders of consciousness. Read More

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Sex-Specific Abnormalities and Treatment-Related Plasticity of Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Functional Connectivity in Chronic Pain.

Front Pain Res (Lausanne) 2021 12;2:673538. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Krembil Research Institute, Krembil Brain Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is a key node of the descending antinociceptive system with sex differences in its functional connectivity (FC). We previously reported that, in a male-prevalent chronic pain condition, sgACC FC is abnormal in women but not in men. This raises the possibility that, within a sex, sgACC FC may be either protective or represent a vulnerability to develop a sex-dominant chronic pain condition. Read More

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[Frontotemporal dementia with cortico-basal syndrome].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2022 ;122(2):107-114

Republican Center for Movement Disorders and Botulinum Therapy, Kazan, Russia.

FTD is a group of neurodegenerative diseases with progressive deterioration of behavioral and speech disorders, morphologically associated with pathology of the frontal or temporal lobes. International clinical trials have made it possible to define modern diagnostic criteria for various subtypes of clinically «possible/probable» FTD. Our article is devoted to one of the rare subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), corticobasal syndrome (CBD), in which we presented a review of current data with a demonstration of clinical observation. Read More

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[Cerebrovascular Diseases and Autonomic Failure].

Yoshiaki Itoh

Brain Nerve 2022 Mar;74(3):223-229

Department of Neurology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine.

Cerebral vessels are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, as well as the trigeminal nerve. Under physiological conditions, neural regulation contributes to coupling of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism and autoregulation of CBF against systemic blood pressure. It also plays a key role in vasodilatation distal to narrowed vascular lesions associated with atherosclerosis, hyperperfusion syndrome that occurs after vascular reconstruction in patients with chronic ischemic diseases, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, and migraine. Read More

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Impaired visual acuity as an only symptom of shunt malfunction, long time after initial cyst-peritoneal shunting for arachnoid cyst: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 25;13:68. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Director General, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Long-term outcomes after surgical treatment of arachnoid cysts (ACs) have not been reported adequately. Impaired visual acuity is not a common symptom of shunt dependency syndrome due to cyst-peritoneal (CP) shunt malfunction for ACs. We report a case of CP shunt malfunction, who presented only impaired visual acuity as a symptom, long after the initial surgical treatment. Read More

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February 2022

A case of focal cortical dysplasia type IIa with pathologically suspected bilateral Rasmussen syndrome.

Brain Dev 2022 Jun 28;44(6):401-404. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, 886 Urushiyama, Aoi-ku, Shizuoka 420-8688, Japan.

Background: Rasmussen syndrome (RS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by unilateral chronic inflammation, drug-resistant epilepsy, and progressive neurological and cognitive deterioration. There has been no detailed pathological evaluation or finding, including focal cortical dysplasia, for bilateral RS.

Case Report: A 13-year-old boy presented with status epilepticus with focal to bilateral tonic clonic seizure starting from the left upper limb. Read More

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A human calculator: a case report of a 27-year-old male with hypercalculia.

Neurocase 2022 Apr 2;28(2):158-162. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Radiology, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria.

Calculation is one of the higher brain functions, which has been linked to the inferior parietal lobule and part of the frontal lobe. Cases of hypercalculia have been reported, usually in the setting of Autism-Spectrum Disorder or Savant syndrome. We report the case of a 27-year-old male undergraduate who had hypercalculia with normal clinical neurological findings. Read More

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