116,249 results match your criteria Frontal Lobe Epilepsy


Nonlinear methods of vehicle velocity determination based on inverse systems and tensor products of Legendre polynomials in compact car class.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Dec 4;295:19-29. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Mathematics, Lodz University of Technology, 215 Wolczanska Str., 90-924 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

The article presents research on the methods of crash velocity determination based on the Compact car class. The database used in the research is provided by the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) and includes numerous frontal crash tests, which allowed the determination of the mathematical model parameters. Two methods are presented that enable the determination of vehicle velocity before the collision. Read More

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December 2018

Phylogenomics of Thecamoebida (Discosea, Amoebozoa) with the Description of Stratorugosa tubuloviscum gen. nov. sp. nov., a Freshwater Amoeba with a Perinuclear MTOC.

Protist 2018 Oct 16;170(1):8-20. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Spelman College, 350 Spelman Lane Southwest, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA.

Thecamoebida Smirnov and Cavalier-Smith, 2011 (Discosea, Amoebozoa) has been molecularly understudied. The group until recently consisted of three genera containing species that live in terrestrial or aquatic environments. Here, we describe a fourth genus, Stratorugosa tubuloviscum gen. Read More

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October 2018

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies of the schizophrenia spectrum: The legacy of Monte S. Buchsbaum, M.D.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 7;271:535-540. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States; Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (VISN 2), James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road, Room 6A-44, Bronx, NY, United States.

This is a selective review of the work of Buchsbaum and colleagues. It revisits and pays tribute to four decades of publications employing positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia). Beginning with a landmark FDG-PET study in 1982 reporting hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients, Buchsbaum and colleagues published high-impact work on regional glucose metabolic rate (GMR) abnormalities in the spectrum. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of acute psychosocial stress on the neural correlates of episodic encoding: Item versus associative memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Saarland University.

Acute stress is known to modulate episodic memory, but little is known about the extent to, and the circumstances under, which stress affects encoding of item vs. inter-item associative information for words of different valences. Furthermore, the precise neuro-cognitive mechanisms underlying stress effects on episodic encoding in humans are largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over parietal cortex improves associative memory.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

The neural correlates of discrete gait characteristics in ageing: A Structured Review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:

Gait is complex, described by diverse characteristics underpinned by widespread central nervous system networks including motor and cognitive functions. Despite this, neural substrates of discrete gait characteristics are poorly understood, limiting understanding of gait impairment in ageing and disease. This structured review aims to map gait characteristics, defined from a pre-specified model reflecting independent gait domains, to brain imaging parameters in older adults. Read More

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December 2018
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Patterns of altered regional brain glucose metabolism in borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Objective: The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BIP-II) is disputed but understudied. Here, we investigated brain glucose metabolism in these patient groups and healthy control subjects (HCs).

Methods: Sixty-five subjects, 22 BPD (19 females); 22 BIP-II (17 females); 21 HC (14 females) were examined using 2-deoxy-2[18F]-fluoro-d-glucose Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) scanning. Read More

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December 2018

Power and phase coherence in sensorimotor mu and temporal lobe alpha components during covert and overt syllable production.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Hearing, Speech, and Language Sciences, Gallaudet University, 800 Florida Ave, Washington, DC, USA.

The sensorimotor dorsal stream is known to activate in both overt and covert speech production. However, overt production produces sensory consequences that are absent during covert production. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to investigate differences in dorsal stream activity between these two production conditions across the time course of utterances. Read More

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December 2018

Psychological and electrophysiological indices of inattention in hoarding.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 5;270:915-921. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia.

Individuals with elevated hoarding symptoms report elevated symptoms of ADHD and these symptoms are related to impaired daily functioning. Neuropsychological studies have found specific deficits in attention, and a recent review of attentional data from numerous hoarding studies concluded that inattention likely represents an etiological factor in hoarding, rather than a comorbidity. Our study aimed to examine which symptoms of ADHD, inattention or hyperactivity, are related to hoarding symptom severity, and whether individuals with hoarding symptoms display a neurophysiological marker of poor attention (Theta/Beta Ratio; THBR) that might explain these associations. Read More

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December 2018

Vestibular dysfunction as cortical damage with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5;397:4-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: Cortical damage in areas such as the frontal lobe is reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, aside from executive dysfunction, the pathological significance of this cortical damage has yet to be clarified. The present study investigated the effects of cortical damage on vestibular function in ALS. Read More

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December 2018
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Multi-segment spine kinematics: Relationship with dance training and low back pain.

Gait Posture 2018 Dec 4;68:274-279. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Centre for Sport Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia; Sport Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, 17 Antares Place, Rosedale, Auckland 0632, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Spine posture, range of motion (ROM) and movement asymmetry can contribute to low back pain (LBP). These variables may have greater impact in populations required to perform repetitive spine movements, such as dancers; however, there is limited evidence to support this.

Research Question: What is the influence of dance and LBP on spinal kinematics?

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-segment spinal kinematics were examined in 60 female participants, including dancers (n = 21) and non-dancers (n = 39) with LBP (n = 33) and without LBP (n = 27). Read More

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December 2018
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Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Clinicopathological and molecular analysis of multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors of the cerebrum.

Hum Pathol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Neuroscience, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) of the cerebrum is a recently recognized rare neuronal tumor, and its pathogenesis is unclear. We analyzed 7 cases of histologically typical MVNT: six were adults [mean age: 43.0years (range: 23-56)] and one was a child (10-year-old). Read More

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December 2018

Identification of knee gait waveform pattern alterations in individuals with patellofemoral pain using fast Fourier transform.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209015. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Physical Therapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of America.

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common overuse injuries of the knee. Previous research has found that individuals with PFP exhibit differences in peak hip kinematics; however, differences in peak knee kinematics, where the pain originates, are difficult to elucidate. To better understand the mechanism behind PFP, we sought to characterize differences in knee gait kinematic waveform patterns in individuals with PFP compared to healthy individuals using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Read More

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December 2018

Gene mutations in a Han Chinese Alzheimer's disease cohort.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 14:e01180. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by memory loss at disease onset. The gene mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the frequent causes of AD. However, the clinical and genetic features of AD overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive and Pathological Influences of Tau Pathology in Lewy Body Disorders.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: To use digital histology in a large autopsy cohort of Lewy Body Disorder (LBD) patients with dementia to test the hypotheses that co-occurring Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology impacts the anatomic distribution of α-synuclein (SYN) pathology and that co-occurring neocortical tau pathology in LBD associates with worse cognitive performance and occurs in a pattern differing from AD.

Methods: Fifty-five autopsy-confirmed LBD (PDD: 36, DLB:19) patients and 25 AD patients were studied. LBD patients were categorized as having moderate/severe AD co-pathology (SYN+AD=20) or little/no AD co-pathology (SYN-AD=35). Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Free Tissue Transfer in the Management of Chronic Frontal Sinus Osteomyelitis.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objectives/hypothesis: Chronic frontal sinus infection is managed with a combination of medical and surgical interventions. Frontal bone osteomyelitis due to recurrent infection following trauma or prior open surgery may require more significant debridement. Free tissue transfer may allow for extensive debridement with replacement of tissue, and definitive eradication of osteomyelitis. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of high- versus low-risk genotype on sinonasal radiographic disease in cystic fibrosis.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Objective: Understanding of how specific mutations impact the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein has given rise to the classification of CF patients into low-risk and high-risk genotypes. Few prior studies have investigated differences in sinonasal disease between low-risk and high-risk CF genotypes. This multi-institutional review aimed to evaluate radiographic sinus disease severity based on genotype. Read More

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December 2018

Regional multimodal relationships between tau, hypometabolism, atrophy, and fractional anisotropy in atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [ F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Valence matters: An electrophysiological study on how emotions influence cognitive performance in children.

Dev Psychobiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Emotional stimuli have been found to influence cognitive performance in children, but it is not clear whether this effect varies with the cognitive demands of the task. In this study, we examined how emotional expressions influenced cognitive performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) in early and middle childhood under varying cognitive control demands. Two groups of children (4. Read More

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December 2018

Altered frontal aslant tracts as a heritable neural basis of social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder: A sibling study using tract-based automatic analysis.

Autism Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Medical Device and Imaging, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Investigating social behaviors and brain structural alterations in unaffected siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may help identify intermediate phenotypes of social communication deficits in ASD. This study hypothesized that such intermediate phenotypes could be identified in white matter tracts of the social communication model that exhibited reduced tract integrity and associations with social communication deficits. Boys with ASD (N = 30), unaffected male siblings (N = 27), and typically developing (TD) boys (N = 30) underwent clinical evaluation and MRI scanning. Read More

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December 2018

Developmental exposure to psychostimulant primes activity-dependent gene induction in frontal cortex.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Unit on Neural Circuits and Adaptive Behaviors, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Perinatal neurodevelopment involves extensive formation of neural connections and onset of activity-dependent gene expression for synaptic function and plasticity. Exposure to psychostimulants at this stage imposes significant risks for developing cognitive and affective disorders later in life. However, how developmental exposure to psychostimulants may induce long lasting molecular changes relevant to neural circuit function remains incompletely understood. Read More

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December 2018

Draf IIB with superior septectomy: finding the "middle ground".

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated a high failure rate of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with Draf IIa in patients with diffuse polyposis, asthma, and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. A high percentage of these patients progress to endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure (EMLP). We describe a modification of the Draf IIb with a superior septectomy (IIb+SS), which may provide similar therapeutic benefit as demonstrated by the distribution of sinus irrigations in the sinus cavity with ESS with IIb+SS vs ESS with EMLP IIb+SS vs ESS with EMLP. Read More

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December 2018

Brain iron deposition in primary insomnia-An in vivo susceptibility-weighted imaging study.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 11:e01138. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Background: To study the brain iron deposition and its relationships with cognitive impairment and sleep quality in primary insomnia (PI).

Methods: Thirty-five patients with PI and 35 volunteers underwent MRI scanning using high-resolution susceptibility-weighted imaging sequence. Bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, red nucleus, substantia nigra, parietal cortex, and frontal white matter were selected as regions of interest. Read More

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December 2018

Multidelay multiparametric arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI and mild cognitive impairment in early stage Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a well-defined nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), greatly impairs functioning and quality of life. However, the contribution of cerebral perfusion, quantified by arterial spin labeling (ASL), to MCI in PD remains poorly understood. The selection of an optimal delay time is difficult for single-delay ASL, a problem which is avoided by multidelay ASL. Read More

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December 2018

Violence in the Early Bronze Age. Diagnosis of skull lesions using anthropological, taphonomic and scanning electron microscopy techniques.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Humanities, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

In this paper we present the study of a skull belonging to a young male from the Italian Bronze Age showing three perimortem injuries on the frontal and parietal bones; the peculiarity of the frontal injury is represented by its singular shape, which may be indicative of the weapon that caused the lesion. The aim of the present study is to examine the traumatic evidence in relation to possible etiological factors, in order to attempt to establish if the lesion occurred peri or post-mortem, and to evaluate if these traumatic injuries could be interpreted as an evidence of interpersonal violence, by combining anthropological, taphonomic and ESEM investigations. The combination of multidisciplinary methods of study can provide important new insights into inter-personal violence. Read More

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December 2018

Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Poor relationship between frontal tibiofemoral and trochlear anatomic parameters: Implications for designing a trochlea for kinematic alignment.

Knee 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MSK Lab, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Campus, Laboratory Block, London W6 8RP, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; South West London Elective Orthopaedic Center, Dorking Rd, Epsom KT18 7EG, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: The kinematic alignment (KA) technique for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an emerging implant positioning philosophy that aims to restore constitutional knee anatomy to improve knee kinematics. At present, the KA technique aims to reconstruct native femorotibial (FT) joint alignment, however there is still insufficient consideration towards the inter-individual trochlear anatomy variability. Poor trochlear restoration may compromise clinical outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

The cortical face network of the prosopagnosic patient PS with fast periodic stimulation in fMRI.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRAN, Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service de Neurologie, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Read More

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November 2018

Effective accuracy of stereoelectroencephalography: robotic 3D versus Talairach orthogonal approaches.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec 1:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

OBJECTIVEStereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) was first developed in the 1950s by Jean Talairach using 2D angiography and a frame-based, orthogonal approach through a metallic grid. Since then, various other frame-based and frameless techniques have been described. In this study the authors sought to compare the traditional orthogonal Talairach 2D angiographic approach with a frame-based 3D robotic procedure that included 3D angiographic interoperative imaging guidance. Read More

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December 2018

Depression, auditory-verbal hallucinations, and delusions in patients with schizophrenia: Different patterns of association with prefrontal gray and white matter volume.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 4;283:55-63. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Structural brain abnormalities, including decreased gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. These decrements were found to be associated with positive and negative symptoms, but affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were poorly explored. We hypothesized that abnormalities in GM and WM volume might also be related to affective symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

The strength of alpha and gamma oscillations predicts behavioral switch costs.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska - Omaha, NE, USA; Center for Magnetoencephalography, University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), Omaha, NE, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, UNMC, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive flexibility is often examined using task-switch paradigms, whereby individuals either switch between tasks or repeat the same task on successive trials. The behavioral costs of switching in terms of accuracy and reaction time are well-known, but the oscillatory dynamics underlying such costs are poorly understood. Herein, we examined 25 healthy adults who performed a task-switching paradigm during magnetoencephalography (MEG). Read More

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December 2018

Facial Esthetic Considerations with All-on-4: A Report on Two Cases.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2019 Jan/Feb;39(1):57-64

This article describes two case reports of immediate full-arch dental implant- supported prostheses using facial parameters to determine the anticipated incisal edge (AIE) position. Treatment planning the terminal dentition is driven by several facial parameters. A frontal photo is obtained to assess the facial thirds and the symmetry in the lower third. Read More

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December 2018

Field effectiveness evaluation of advanced driver assistance systems.

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 Dec 13:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

c BMW Group, Product Analysis , Woodcliff Lake , New Jersey.

Objective: Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are a class of vehicle technologies designed to increase safety by providing drivers with timely warnings and autonomously intervening to avoid hazardous situations. Though laboratory testing suggests that ADAS technologies will greatly impact crash involvement rates, real-world evidence that characterizes their effectiveness is still limited. This study evaluates and quantifies the association of ADAS technologies with the likelihood of a moderate or severe crash for new-model BMWs in the United States. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of Hybrid III and THOR-M neck kinetics and injury risk under various restraint conditions during full-scale frontal sled tests.

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 Dec 13:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Virginia Tech, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics , Center for Injury Biomechanics , Blacksburg , Virginia.

Objective: The objective of this research was to compare the kinetics and predicted injury risks of the Hybrid III (HIII) and Test device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR)-M necks during full-scale frontal sled tests under 3 safety restraint conditions: knee bolster (KB), knee bolster and steering wheel airbag (KB/SWAB), and knee bolster airbag and steering wheel airbag (KBAB/SWAB).

Methods: Twelve sled tests were performed for the HIII and THOR-M, and 8 matched sled tests were performed using postmortem human surrogates (PMHSs). The tests were designed to match the 2012 Toyota Camry New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) full-scale crash test. Read More

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December 2018

Chest injuries of elderly postmortem human surrogates (PMHSs) under seat belt and airbag loading in frontal sled impacts: Comparison to matching THOR tests.

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 Dec 13:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

d Biomechanics and Accident Analysis , Ludwig Maximilians University , Munich , Germany.

Objective: The goal of the study was to develop experimental chest loading conditions that would cause up to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2 chest injuries in elderly occupants in moderate-speed frontal crashes. The new set of experimental data was also intended to be used in the benchmark of existing thoracic injury criteria in lower-speed collision conditions.

Methods: Six male elderly (age >63) postmortem human subjects (PMHS) were exposed to a 35 km/h (nominal) frontal sled impact. Read More

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December 2018

[Planning options of reconstructive and orthognathic operation by means of three-dimensional imaging].

Orv Hetil 2018 Sep;159(39):1584-1592

Fogorvostudományi Kar, Arc-, Állcsont-, Szájsebészeti és Fogászati Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem Budapest.

We summarize up-to-date planning technics of orthognathic and reconstructive surgery operation which appeared with three-dimensional imaging, using literature data and some clinical examples. In many cases, orthognathic and reconstructive operations mean the only treatment of facial deformity caused by tumour, traumatic injury or congenital anomaly. In this field, radiology plays an important role not only in the diagnosis but also in the planning of the treatment. Read More

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September 2018

Immunosuppression-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an acute leukemia case.

Hematol Rep 2018 Nov 6;10(4):7257. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was described in 1996. Herein, we aimed to report an immunosuppression- related PRES case. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed as t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. Read More

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November 2018

fMRI BOLD Correlates of EEG Independent Components: Spatial Correspondence With the Default Mode Network.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:478. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

: We aimed to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) signal fluctuations within independent components (ICs) that correlate to spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in regions of the default mode network (DMN) during eyes-closed resting state. : We analyzed simultaneously acquired EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) eyes-closed resting state data in a convenience sample of 30 participants. IC analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the EEG time-series and common ICs were identified using data-driven IC clustering across subjects. Read More

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November 2018

Is Empathy for Pain Unique in Its Neural Correlates? A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies of Empathy.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 27;12:289. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Empathy is an essential component of our social lives, allowing us to understand and share other people's affective and sensory states, including pain. Evidence suggests a core neural network-including anterior insula (AI) and mid-cingulate cortex (MCC)-is involved in empathy for pain. However, a similar network is associated to empathy for non-pain affective states, raising the question whether empathy for pain is unique in its neural correlates. Read More

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November 2018

Frequent lucid dreaming associated with increased functional connectivity between frontopolar cortex and temporoparietal association areas.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 12;8(1):17798. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Wisconsin Institute for Sleep and Consciousness Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.

Humans typically lack awareness that they are dreaming while dreaming. However, at times a remarkable exception occurs and reflective consciousness can be regained while dreaming, referred to as lucid dreaming. While most individuals experience lucid dreams rarely there is substantial variance in lucid dream frequency. Read More

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December 2018

Multi-systemic melioidosis: a clinical, neurological, and radiological case study from Hainan Province, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 12;18(1):649. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, Hainan General Hospital, No. 19 Xiuhua Road, Xiuying District, Haikou, 570311, Hainan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Melioidosis is a tropical disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei). It can infect any organ system and lead to multiple abscesses. Read More

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December 2018

Pathologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical findings in pulmonary and encephalitic cryptococcosis in a goat.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Dec 12:1040638718816358. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratories of Animal Pathology (Headley, Michelazzo, Oliveira), Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

We describe the pathologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical findings associated with pulmonary and encephalitic cryptococcosis in a 3-y-old, mixed-breed, nanny goat from central-west Brazil. The goat had progressive neurologic signs over 30 d; cryptococcosis was diagnosed antemortem by cytologic evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment was initiated, but the animal died spontaneously shortly thereafter. Read More

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December 2018

Differences in Functional Connectivity of the Insula Between Brain Wave Vibration in Meditators and Non-meditators.

Mindfulness (N Y) 2018 19;9(6):1857-1866. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

2Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects. Read More

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Synaptic Connectivity in Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens: A Sex-Dependent Mechanism Underlying Apathy in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 22;12:285. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Psychology, Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction is commonly associated with apathy, a neuropsychiatric sequelae of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Behavioral and neurochemical indices of apathy in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain region involved in frontal-subcortical circuitry, are influenced by the factor of biological sex. Despite evidence of sex differences in HIV-1, the effect of biological sex on medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which are central integrators of frontal-subcortical input, has not been systematically evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Vestibular System and Self-Motion.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 22;12:456. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Detection of the state of self-motion, such as the instantaneous heading direction, the traveled trajectory and traveled distance or time, is critical for efficient spatial navigation. Numerous psychophysical studies have indicated that the vestibular system, originating from the otolith and semicircular canals in our inner ears, provides robust signals for different aspects of self-motion perception. In addition, vestibular signals interact with other sensory signals such as visual optic flow to facilitate natural navigation. Read More

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November 2018

The Temporal Dynamic Relationship Between Attention and Crowding: Electrophysiological Evidence From an Event-Related Potential Study.

Front Neurosci 2018 22;12:844. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education), Center of Studies for Psychology and Social Development, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Visual crowding is the difficulty experienced in identifying a target flanked by other objects within the peripheral visual field. Despite extensive research conducted on this topic, the precise relationship between attention and crowding is still debatable. One perspective suggests that crowding is a bottom-up and pre-attentive process, while another suggests that crowding is top-down and attentional. Read More

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November 2018

Melody Processing Characterizes Functional Neuroanatomy in the Aging Brain.

Front Neurosci 2018 19;12:815. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The functional neuroanatomical mechanisms underpinning cognition in the normal older brain remain poorly defined, but have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of aging and the impact of neurodegenerative diseases. Auditory processing is an attractive model system for addressing these issues. Here, we used fMRI of melody processing to investigate auditory pattern processing in normal older individuals. Read More

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November 2018

Feature relevance in physiological networks for classification of obstructive sleep apnea.

Physiol Meas 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Center for Biomedical Image and Information Processing, University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Berlin, GERMANY.

Objective: Physiological networks (PN) model couplings between organs in a high- dimensional parameter space. Machine learning methods, in particular artifical neural networks (ANNs), are powerful on high-dimensional classification tasks. However, lack of interpretability of the resulting models has been a drawback in research. Read More

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November 2018