93,731 results match your criteria Forensic Science International [Journal]


Measuring the water content in freshly-deposited fingermarks.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 26;294:204-210. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

The literature view regarding the composition of deposited fingermarks has long been that the average water content is in the range of 98-99wt.%. This value has recently been challenged by Kent, claiming that it should be 20wt. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Why we can't determine reliably the age of a subject on the basis of his maturation degree.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Dec 5;61:97-101. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Past Director of the Complex Unit of Auxology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Maturation is the irreversible biological process leading to adult form or function. The degree of maturation can be derived from the examination of maturity indicators, i.e. Read More

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December 2018
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Abuse disclosures of youth with problem sexualized behaviors and trauma symptomology.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:201-211. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of youth with problem sexualized behaviors (PSB) have substantiated experiences of abuse or exposures to violence (Silovsky & Niec, 2002). Little is known about specific abuse experiences that may differentiate youth with PSB from those without. Few studies have examined the types of abuse associated with post-traumatic stress symptomology. Read More

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December 2018
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Validation of the Acetabulum As a Skeletal Indicator of Age at Death in Modern European-Americans.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Bldg. 13, Pensacola, FL, 32514.

Progressive changes in the acetabulum have been used in modern skeletal age estimation, but they have not been completely understood. If their age correlations are weakened by the influence of factors like physical activity and obesity, acetabular changes should not be used for age estimation. To investigate their utility for aging, the acetabular variables of Rissech et al. Read More

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December 2018

The Effects of High Dynamic Range on Fingerprint Images Processed by Photoshop.

Authors:
Hungngai Chuk

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Forensic Science Department, George Washington University, 2400 Virginia Avenue, NW, C926, Washington, DC, 20037.

High dynamic range (HDR) imaging is a function that combines five images with different exposures into a single image. This technique may provide fine ridge details of fingerprint images for forensic latent fingerprint examination. Therefore, viewing fingerprints under optimal conditions is of paramount importance. Read More

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December 2018

Simvastatin alleviates bone resorption in apical periodontitis possibly by inhibition of mitophagy-related osteoblast apoptosis.

Int Endod J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei.

Aim: To assess the connection between mitophagy and hypoxia-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts and whether simvastatin alleviates bone resorption in apical periodontitis through modulation of mitophagy-related apoptosis.

Methodology: Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were evaluated respectively by MitoSOX and JC-1 fluorescence dye signaling. Accumulation of mitophagy markers PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin in mitochondria was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Forensic Comparison of Automotive Aluminum Wheel Fragments Using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence with 18- and 116-keV Excitation X-rays.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Faculty of Education, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi-shi, Kochi, 780-8520, Japan.

The performance of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) spectrometry for nondestructive discrimination of small fragments of automotive aluminum wheels was studied. Fragments (< 500 × 500 μm ) of 45 kinds of wheels were first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and then by SR-XRF. Despite the Mg/Al intensity ratio being a useful identification index, SEM-EDS was not efficient enough because of the absence of other meaningful indicators of comparison. Read More

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December 2018

Detection of Brodifacoum and other Rodenticides in Drug Mixtures using Thermal Desorption Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (TD-DART-MS).

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8371, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899.

In recent months, there has been increased reporting of seized drug and toxicology cases containing rodenticides, the active ingredient in rat poisons. Seeing as rodenticides are not scheduled substances, they are not commonly screened for in seized drug analysis. This work investigates the use of TD-DART-MS for the simultaneous detection of rodenticides and drugs. Read More

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December 2018

An experimental medicine study of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, roflumilast, on working memory-related brain activity and episodic memory in schizophrenia patients.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Rationale: Schizophrenia is associated with impairments in cognitive functioning yet there are no approved drugs to treat these deficits.

Objectives: Based on animal models, we investigated the potential for roflumilast, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), to improve cognition, which may act by increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate in brain regions underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

Methods: This study consisted of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design involving 15 schizophrenia patients. Read More

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December 2018

Essential Oil from Carpesium abrotanoides L. Induces Apoptosis via Activating Mitochondrial Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

Curr Med Sci 2018 Dec 7;38(6):1045-1053. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, China.

The effects of essential oil from Carpesium abrotanoides L. (CAEO) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatic cancer cells were investigated in this study. MTT assays indicated that CAEO inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells with the IC values ranging from 41. Read More

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December 2018

The genetic profile of bone marrow transplant patients in different samples of forensic interest.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Unit of Legal Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Cantabria, Av Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011, Santander, Spain.

Humans constantly lose epithelial cells, and these biological traces are frequently studied in the context of criminal investigations. The objective of this work was to examine the genetic profile in samples of forensic interest (nail and skin epithelial cells) of bone marrow transplant patients and discuss its forensic and clinical implications. The genetic profile of nail, epidermal cells and blood samples of patients receiving HSCT was analyzed by the amplification and sequencing of 38 insertion/deletion polymorphisms and 15 short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A lethal case of hoarding due to the combination of traumatic and confined space asphyxia.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza - University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Hoarding is defined as the acquisition of, and failure to discard, possessions of little use or value to others, usually associated with a significant degree of clutter in the individual's home. We describe a case of a woman who died from a combined traumatic and confined space asphyxia, after being trapped under some of the objects amassed in her apartment. The event was considered to be accidental; by taking into account the information gathered during assessment of the scene, we believe that the accident took place while entering or exiting the apartment. Read More

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December 2018

Sex estimation using the mandibular canine index components.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Faculdade de Medicina Dentária da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Manuel Pereira da Silva, 4200 - 393, Porto, Portugal.

The mandibular canine index (MCI) has been described as a suitable methodology for sex estimation in forensic scenarios but there are contradictory reports about its accuracy. Moreover, the two mandibular canine teeth must be available, which is not always a viable option. The aim of this study was to strip the MCI by analyzing the MCI itself and its components, in order to optimize its use for sex estimation. Read More

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December 2018

Utilizing ticks as forensic indicators in a livestock investigation.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Scenic Blvd & Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Although forensic parasitology remains in its infancy compared with more developed fields like forensic entomology, parasites can be useful forensic indicators. We present the case of an individual who disobeyed animal health legislation and crossed animal quarantine boundaries and two state lines with a cattle tick (Rhipicephalus australis) infested horse. Following recognition of the infestation by animal health officers, the individual asserted that the infestation had occurred either during transport or upon arrival at the site of discovery, and that they had not contravened quarantine legislation. Read More

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December 2018

Genetic testing in sudden unexpected natural death in the young: New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner's experience and perspective.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Forensic Pathology Department, Office of Chief Medical Examiner, New York, NY, USA.

Postmortem genetic testing is a diagnostic tool that is becoming increasingly utilized. The benefits and limitations of genetic testing in cases of sudden, unexpected death in the young (≤ 40 years old) are reviewed from the perspective of the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, whose Molecular Genetics Laboratory, accredited by College of American Pathologists, has had 15 years of postmortem testing experience. Challenges to the interpretation and communication of testing results are highlighted, and opportunities for improving testing yield are discussed for age groups across the lifespan, from infancy to adulthood. Read More

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December 2018

Unusual osteological findings in sacred relics from the LESJE monastery in central Serbia.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, and Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA), Level 2 Medical School North Building, Frome Road, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

An adult male skeleton was submitted to the Department of Anatomy at the University of Belgrade for evaluation. It was believed to represent the remains of a second to third century Christian saint from the Lesje Monastery in central Serbia. Examination of the remains revealed an old crush fracture of a thoracic vertebra and an unusual, probably congenital, malformation of the atlanto-occipital joint with deformation of the left occipital condyle and resultant narrowing of the foramen magnum. Read More

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December 2018

An unusual case of pulmonary fat embolism following blunt trauma.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Belgrade - School of Medicine, 31a Deligradska str, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

Fat embolism is markedly underdiagnosed, even though it is a well-known phenomenon following fractures of the long bones, injury to subcutaneous fat tissue, rupture of a fatty liver, surgical operations on fatty tissues, septicemia, burns and barotrauma. Forensic pathologists tend to "simplify" autopsy report conclusion in cases with multiple injuries where fat embolism and exsanguination could be considered to be the concomitant causes of death. Herein we present a case of 24-year-old male who was beaten with a metal rod by several persons. Read More

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December 2018
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Genetic testing in sudden infant death - a wolf in sheep's clothing?

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cardiac Genetics, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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December 2018

Effect of brightness and contrast variation for detectability of root resorption lesions in digital intraoral radiographs.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av. Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 13414-903, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of periapical radiography assessed under different radiographic brightness and contrast variations in the detection of simulated internal (IRR) and external (ERR) root resorption lesions. Additionally, observers' preferences related to image quality for these diagnostic tasks were evaluated.

Methods: Thirty single-root teeth were divided into two groups (n = 15): IRR, in which lesions were simulated using mechanical and biochemical processes; and ERR, in which cavities standardized with drills of different sizes were performed on the root surfaces. Read More

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December 2018
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Curcumin and quercetin synergistically attenuate subacute diazinon-induced inflammation and oxidative neurohepatic damage, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in albino rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Zoology, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The ubiquitous use of diazinon (DZN, an organophosphorus insecticide) has increased the probability of occupational, public, and the ecosystem exposure; these exposures are linked to negative health outcomes. The flavonoids curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) exert significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities against toxicants, including insecticides. However, it is unclear whether their combination enhances these activities. Read More

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December 2018

Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Blowflies Community (Diptera: Calliphoridae) From an Urban Area in Northern South America.

J Med Entomol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Forenses y Salud-GICFS, Tecnológico de Antioquia-Institución Universitaria, Medellín, Colombia.

Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are necrophagous flies with ecological, medical, veterinary, and forensic importance. These flies carry pathogens that they spread to animals and humans, and produce myiasis. Furthermore, they are useful tools in forensic science as indicators of postmortem intervals, and in biomedicine they are successfully used in larval therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Modeling Retention Behavior on Analysis of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

J Chromatogr Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Drug and Arson Investigation, Hungarian Institute for Forensic Sciences, Mosonyi Street 9, Budapest, Hungary.

The goal of this work was to investigate and compare the selectivity of three different hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) charge modulated amide columns, iHILIC®-Fusion, iHILIC®-Fusion(+) and iHILIC®-Fusion(P), for analysis of compounds in hallucinogen mushrooms. An extract of a truffle-like fungus containing psilocin, psilocybin and baeocystin was chosen as test material. Three different modeling methods were applied to describe the retention times of constituents in isocratic separation mode as a function of mobile phase composition, pH and temperature. Read More

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December 2018

The importance of the histopathological examination in lethal acute intoxication with ethylene glycol. Case report.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):965-969

Department of Morphological Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Romania;

Ethylene glycol is a toxic alcohol that is mainly introduced into an organism through the digestive pathway. Its priority toxic metabolites are glycolic acid and oxalic acid. We present the case of a young person, of the male persuasion, without any personal pathological history, found unconscious and presenting signs of violence. Read More

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January 2018

Cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation during skin wound healing by inhibiting M1 macrophages rather than activating M2 macrophages.

J Inflamm (Lond) 2018 4;15:25. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1Department of Forensic Pathology, China Medical University School of Forensic Medicine, No.77, Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, 110122 Liaoning Province People's Republic of China.

Background: The anti-inflammatory properties of the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) in injury and inflammatory diseases have been widely substantiated. Specifically, the anti-inflammatory effect of CB2R may be achieved by regulating macrophage polarisation. Several research findings suggested that the activation of CB2R could attenuate inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarisation and promoting anti-inflammatory M2 polarisation. Read More

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December 2018

First Reported Complete Genome Sequence of a Dengue Virus Serotype 4 Strain from Papua New Guinea.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Sep 27;7(12). Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Public Health Virology Laboratory, Forensic and Scientific Services, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia.

A male patient in his 50s who traveled from Papua New Guinea (PNG) to Australia in 2016 was diagnosed with a dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) infection, and the virus was isolated from his acute-phase serum. Here, we describe the first complete genome sequence of a DENV-4 strain from PNG. Read More

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September 2018

A Fatal Case of Acute Renal Failure From Envenoming Syndrome After Massive Bee Attack: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Authors:
Rhome L Hughes

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

From the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND.

Envenoming syndrome is a systemic toxic reaction to the inoculation of large volume of insect venom, typically after a swarm attack from bees. Africanized honey bees are notorious for their aggressive nature, and human deaths resulting from Africanized honey bee attacks are consistently reported. Whereas anaphylaxis is the most common lethal mechanism of injury, delayed deaths can also occur as a consequence of severe venom toxicity with resultant end organ damage. Read More

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December 2018

Symmetrical Apophyses on the Posterior Margins of the Thyroid Cartilage: A Previously Undescribed Anatomical Variation With Potential Forensic Implications.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departamento de Anatomía y Embriología Humana Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Differential diagnosis between normal/variant anatomy and pathological/traumatic findings represents one of the main matters of investigation of the so-called forensic clinical anatomy. In the literature, many anatomical variations of the laryngeal thyroid cartilage have been reported, with potential implications in forensic pathology. They include triticeal cartilages, foramen thyroideum, asymmetry, segmentation or agenesis of the superior thyroid horns, bone connections with the hyoid bone, absence of cricothyroid facets, hypertrophy of the inferior thyroid tubercle, and asymmetries in the thyroid notch, isthmus, or length of the inferior horn. Read More

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December 2018

Demographic features of patients with colorectal carcinoma based on 14 years of experience at Jordan University Hospital.

Ann Saudi Med 2018 Nov-Dec;38(6):427-432

Heyam Awad, Department of Histopathology,, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine,, University of Jordan,, Amman 1194, Jordan, T: +962-797801555, ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000.0003-3050-136X.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. In the West, the incidence has stabilized or decreased. There are only occasional published studies that describe the epidemiology of CRC and its changing trends in Jordan and other Middle Eastern countries. Read More

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December 2018

Implications of alpha-synuclein nitration at tyrosine 39 in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and .

Neural Regen Res 2019 Feb;14(2):319-327

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Methamphetamine is an amphetamine-type psychostimulant that can damage dopaminergic neurons and cause characteristic pathological changes similar to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. However, its specific mechanism of action is still unclear. In the present study, we established a Parkinson's disease pathology model by exposing SH-SY5Y cells and C57BL/6J mice to methamphetamine. Read More

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February 2019

The direct and indirect inhibition effects of resveratrol against tachyzoites .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Parasitology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

is one of the most widespread obligatory parasitic protozoa which infect nearly all the warm-blooded animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. Current administration of the therapeutic drugs like the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine shows high rates of toxic side effects and encounters drug resistance in some cases. Resveratrol is a natural plant extracts with multiple functions, such as anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and anti-parasite activities. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the hip-flask defence in subjects with alcohol on board: An experimental study.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 26;294:189-195. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Drug Research, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Driving under the influence of alcohol is a major problem for traffic-safety and a popular defence argument is alleged consumption after driving, commonly referred to as the hip-flask defence. Forensic toxicologists are often called as expert witnesses in drinking and driving cases where the suspect has claimed the hip-flask defence, to assess the credibility of the explanation. Several approaches to help the expert have been introduced but the scientific data used to support or challenge this is solely based on data from controlled single doses of ethanol administered during a short time and in abstinent subjects. Read More

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November 2018

Simultaneous determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in hair using LC-MS/MS.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 29;294:183-188. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

National Forensic Service, 139 Jiyang-ro, Yangcheon-Gu, Seoul 158-707, Republic of Korea.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its abuse is on the rise with its growing availability. Some analytical methods have been reported for the detection of MPH in hair. However, the concentration range of MPH as well as its metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA) in the hair of MPH abuse cases has not been reported. Read More

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November 2018

Targeted urine metabolomics in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2018 Nov 22;1104:240-248. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying IVH and/or development of disease biomarkers is essential. The aim of the study was to investigate the urine metabolic profile of preterm neonates (gestational age < 32 weeks) IVH and explore the role of metabolomics in understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease from which novel biomarkers could be derived. Read More

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November 2018
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Infant skull fractures: Accident or abuse?: Evidences from biomechanical analysis using finite element head models.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 17;294:173-182. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology - KTH, Huddinge 141 52, Sweden.

Abusive Head Trauma (AHT) is considered by some authors to be a leading cause of traumatic death in children less than two years of age and skull fractures are commonly seen in cases of suspected AHT. Today, diagnosing whether the observed fractures are caused by abuse or accidental fall is still a challenge within both the medical and the legal communities and the central question is a biomechanical question: can the described history explain the observed fractures? Finite element (FE) analysis has been shown a valuable tool for biomechanical analysis accounting for detailed head geometry, advanced material modelling, and case-specific factors (e.g. Read More

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November 2018

Development of a multiplex forensic identity panel for massively parallel sequencing and its systematic optimization using design of experiments.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2018 Nov 30;39:32-43. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

LABCON-OWL Analytik, Forschung und Consulting GmbH, Siemensstr. 40, 32105 Bad Salzuflen, Germany.

The application of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) in forensic sciences enables high-resolution short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping for the characterization of biological evidence. While MPS supports multiplexing of a large number of forensic markers, the performance of an MPS-STR panel depends on good primer design and optimal PCR conditions. However, conventional strategies for multifactorial assay optimization are labor-intensive and do not necessarily allow the experimenter to identify optimum factor settings. Read More

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November 2018

On the use of dense sets of SNP markers and their potential in relationship inference.

Authors:
Daniel Kling

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2018 Nov 29;39:19-31. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, P.O. Box 4950 Nydalen NO-0424, Norway. Electronic address:

With the advent of high density SNP arrays and the progress of next generation sequencing, demands for new methods to handle the subsequent data analysis have exploded. Forensic laboratories are generally hesitant to implement new methods in casework unless they are thoroughly tested and validated. This is particularly true when a third party contractor is involved in the analysis. Read More

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November 2018

Postmortem protein stability investigations of the human hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 using mass spectrometry.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Variability in expression and activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can play a causal role in fatal intoxication cases and is thus of forensic interest. We investigated the feasibility of LC-MS/MS based quantification and in vitro enzyme activity measurements of two major drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in postmortem human liver microsomes (HLM). In autopsy cases (postmortem interval 24-36 h) we found CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 protein levels similar to that measured in a non-decayed reference HLM pool, whereas CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were absent or severely decreased. Read More

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December 2018

Wing morphometric analysis of forensically important flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Thailand.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Electronic address:

Flesh flies are insects of forensic importance as the larvae associated with human remains can be used to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) in most cases. And, because life-history traits can vary across species, correct identification is a mandatory step before being used as evidence. Adult flesh flies are extremely similar in general appearance, which causes difficulty in species identification as it is largely based on the morphology of the male genitalia; this also makes it difficult to identify females. Read More

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December 2018

What soda challenges and tennis balls can teach us about cognitive bias.

Authors:
Dana Delger

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Innocence Project, Inc., United States.

The word "bias" immediately conjures ideas of ill will and conscious intent, and, indeed, some instances of cognitive bias in forensics have involved such bad motive. But evidence both inside and outside of forensics has repeatedly demonstrated that no such malice is necessary for cognitive bias to have a profound effect on the results of testing. Justice requires that forensic science and scientists embrace positive reform to mitigate the effects of cognitive bias. Read More

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November 2018

Genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR loci in the Dezhou Han population from Shandong province, Eastern China.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Forensic Science, Medical School of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Sciences, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063, PR China. Electronic address:

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November 2018

Assessment of the potential investigative value of a decentralised rapid DNA workflow for reference DNA samples.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 26;294:140-149. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

National Institute of Forensic Science, Australia New Zealand Policing Advisory Agency, 637 Flinders Street, Docklands, 3008, Australia.

Rapid DNA technology has the ability to provide DNA analysis results in real-time. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential investigative value that could be gained by using a rapid DNA workflow in Australia, for reference DNA samples. A survey of police charging stations and DNA analysis laboratories in five Australian jurisdictions identified that a rapid DNA analysis workflow could have impacted the decision to release a person of interest from custody in 0. Read More

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November 2018

Assessment of illicit drugs in wastewater and estimation of drugs of abuse in Adana Province, Turkey.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 23;294:132-139. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Cukurova University, Biotechnology Research and Application Centre, Adana 01330, Turkey. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a rapidly developing discipline that has the potential to monitor real-time data on regional and temporal differences regarding the use of illicit drugs. With WBE, metabolic products discharged for drug consumption are rapidly collected by sewage systems, which provide valuable evidence on the types and quantities of drugs consumed by a given community. In this study, the samples were collected from the wastewaters entering the facilities in Seyhan and Yuregir Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs), in Adana Province. Read More

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November 2018
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Role of Actinobacteria and Coriobacteriia in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in an inflammation model of depression.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, elicits rapid-acting and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that gut microbiota via the gut-brain axis play a role in the pathogenesis of depression, thereby contributing to the antidepressant actions of certain compounds. Here we investigated the role of gut microbiota in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model of depression. Read More

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December 2018

Fatal atlantoaxial dislocation due to an odontoid synchondrosis fracture in a child with chromosome 9 abnormality: A case report.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Nov 29;61:92-96. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Legal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba city, Chiba Prefecture, 260-8670, Japan; Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

A 5-year-old boy with a chromosome-9 abnormality and multiple external and visceral malformations was found in cardiopulmonary arrest during a regular visit to the hospital; he did not respond to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and died. An odontoid process fracture and calcification and fibrosis of the muscles around the superior cervical vertebra were observed during the autopsy. Postmortem computed tomography revealed an anterior dislocation of the atlas; odontoid synchondrosis fracture; and delayed, incomplete bony fusion of the odontoid process relative to his age. Read More

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November 2018

The structural basis of human Spt16 N-terminal domain interaction with histone (H3-H4) tetramer.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Lab of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

FACT (Facilitates Chromatin Transactions) is a heterodimeric protein complex involved in RNA polymerase II transcription elongation, playing essential roles in chromatin remodeling during transcription, replication, and DNA damage repair. The FACT subunit hSpt16 is essential for nucleosome reorganization. The N-terminal domain of hSpt16 (hSpt16-NTD) was recently described as a histone (H3-H4)-binding domain; however, its mode of interaction remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

The posterior portion of the ilium as a sex indicator: A validation study.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Edinburgh Unit For Forensic Anthropology, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, 4 Teviot Place, EH8 9AG, United Kingdom; Forensic Pathology Division Crete, Hellenic Republic Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Establishing a biological profile of skeletal remains is a key task of forensic anthropologists. Sex estimation is essential in forensic examination, as other elements of the biological profile, such as age at death or stature, are sex dependent. Visual assessment is considered low-cost and quick, therefore it is a commonly applied method of sex estimation. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of BPA on expression of apoptotic genes and migration of ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy.

Reprod Toxicol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, United States; Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, United States. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the manufacture of many products used daily. In the present study, the effects of BPA (1 × 10 to 1 × 10 M) on migration and on the expression of some apoptotic genes were examined in vitro using ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) primary cell line. The results revealed that BPA at 1 × 10, 1 × 10 and 1 × 10M increased migration of oTr1 cells, while 1 × 10, 1 × 10 and 1 × 10 M BPA decreased cell migration. Read More

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December 2018