4,219 results match your criteria Forehead Anatomy

Subcutaneous Lateral Temporal Lift.

Clin Plast Surg 2022 Jul 13;49(3):365-375. Epub 2022 May 13.

Northwell Health System/Hofstra University, Zucker School of Medicine, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, 1009 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10028, USA. Electronic address:

Over the past decades, the understanding of the nuances of forehead anatomy and facial aging has grown immensely. Safe and reliable options for forehead rejuvenation followed. Although noninvasive techniques are an important adjunct in forehead rejuvenation, the mainstay of treatment of the eyebrow is operative intervention. Read More

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Brow Anatomy and Aesthetics of the Upper Face.

Clin Plast Surg 2022 Jul;49(3):339-348

Cleveland Clinic Department of Plastic Surgery, 9500 Eucllid Avenue, Cleveland Ohio 44195, USA.

The surgical approach to the brow has changed perhaps more than any other facial esthetic procedure in the past 20 years. Understanding the functional anatomy of the upper face is the best means of maximizing results and minimizing untoward events in this region. The surgical and clinical correlation is addressed in detail in this article. Read More

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Advanced squamous cell carcinoma with massive cranial invasion: walking around without a forehead.

Dermatol Online J 2022 Mar 15;28(2). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Onkoderma-Clinic for Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Squamous cell carcinomas with widespread invasion of the skull, meninges and brain parenchyma are extremely rare. Herein, we present an 86-year-old man with an 18-year history of sunburn who developed a large osteodestructive SCC that invaded through the frontal bone, frontal sinuses, and the dura mater. No neurological signs or symptoms or distant metastasis were noted. Read More

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Applied anatomy of the layers and soft tissues of the forehead during minimally-invasive aesthetic procedures.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

Division of Hand, Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, University Hospital, LMU, Munich, Germany.

Background: An increasing demand of minimally-invasive aesthetic procedures of the forehead concomitantly leads to higher numbers of adverse events. Adequate application of anatomical knowledge is required to increase safety and efficacy of different minimally-invasive aesthetic procedures in this anatomical region.

Objective: To describe the layered anatomy of the forehead soft tissues with respect to their thicknesses and how they relate to different minimally-invasive aesthetic treatments. Read More

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Rintala Flap and Posterior Perichondrial Cutaneous Graft: A Combined Approach for Nasal Tip Reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 May 6;10(5):e4316. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Nasal tip reconstruction requires a meticulous approach due to the complexity of the nasal anatomy and its aesthetic importance. Many procedures have been described to restore this aesthetic unit, including the paramedian forehead flap, which is one of the workhorse flaps. However, despite excellent final outcomes, this procedure may be refused by patients, due to its temporary conspicuous appearance possibly associated with serious psychological implications, and the need of multiple interventions. Read More

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Clinical Perineural Invasion: Challenges and Review in Single Case Study.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 Nov 1;15(11):10-16. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Radiology, CHI Creighton University Medical Center-Bergan Mercy, Omaha, USA.

Perineural invasion is a rare prognostic finding of squamous cell carcinomas that is associated with a poor prognosis. Early recognition of perineural invasion is imperative to improving treatment and lowering recurrence. Here we report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male with a suspicious mass on his forehead. Read More

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November 2021

Electrophysiologic Frontalis Muscle Response Following Neuromodulator Injections.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;30(2):225-231

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic, Stabile Building 9-38, 200 First Street, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Neuromodulator treatments limit the contractility of the frontalis muscle, resulting in reduced dynamic and static horizontal forehead line formation of the overlying skin. This interventional study investigated the electrophysiologic response (via signal-to-noise [SNR] ratio) and the overlying skin displacement of the frontalis muscle following neuromodulator injections in a total of 11 healthy neuromodulator-naïve volunteers. Relating SNR to the respective skin movement revealed that the higher the SNR, the more vertical the skin displacement is; this remained statistically relevant after gender stratification. Read More

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The Fascias of the Forehead and Temple Aligned-An Anatomic Narrative Review.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;30(2):215-224

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic, Stabile Building 9-38, 200 First Street, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

A thorough understanding of 3-dimensional facial anatomy and its fascial concepts is essential to allow for further development of novel surgical and nonsurgical treatment strategies to increase patient safety and effectiveness. The layered anatomy and its interconnections of the forehead, scalp, and temple is complex and is thus summarized and aligned in a unified nomenclature in this review. The scalp consists of 5 layers, which transition into 8 layers in the forehead and into a total of 13 layers in the temple. Read More

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Facial Cutaneous Metastases of Gastric Signet-ring Cell Carcinoma: Resection and Reconstruction as a Palliative Surgical Treatment Option.

In Vivo 2022 May-Jun;36(3):1508-1512

Institute of Pathology, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Background: Cutaneous metastases of gastric signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma are very rare. Our following case report highlights the need for careful clinical examination and skin biopsy of newly developing scar-like or erythematous skin lesions in patients with a known history of malignant disease in order to prevent diagnostic and therapeutic delay.

Case Report: A 68-year-old male patient presented with two slightly painful, erythematous, facial skin lesions (chin and forehead) 2 years after gastrectomy for a signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma. Read More

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Anatomical Proposal for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for Glabellar Frown Lines.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 10;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Botulinum neurotoxin injection for treating glabellar frown lines is a commonly used method; however, side effects, such as ptosis and samurai eyebrow, have been reported due to a lack of comprehensive anatomical knowledge. The anatomical factors important for the injection of the botulinum neurotoxin into the corrugator supercilii muscle has been reviewed in this study. Current understanding on the localization of the botulinum neurotoxin injection point from newer anatomy examination was evaluated. Read More

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Chairside virtual patient protocol. Part 2: Management of multiple face scans and alignment predictability.

J Dent 2022 Jul 9;122:104123. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Private Practice, Via Nizza, 46, Rome 00198, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Face scans are currently used in dentistry to obtain a virtual patient. Find stable and repeatable references for their matching is a fundamental step. Aim of this study is to evaluate matching reliability of multiple face scans using frontal adhesives references. Read More

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On the spatial phase distribution of cutaneous low-frequency perfusion oscillations.

Sci Rep 2022 04 9;12(1):5997. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Medical Information Technology (MedIT), Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Distributed cutaneous tissue blood volume oscillations contain information on autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of cardiorespiratory activity as well as dominating thermoregulation. ANS associated with low-frequency oscillations can be quantified in terms of frequencies, amplitudes, and phase shifts. The relative order between these faculties may be disturbed by conditions colloquially termed 'stress'. Read More

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Sex Differences in Adult Facial Three-Dimensional Morphology: Application to Gender-Affirming Facial Surgery.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Gender-affirming facial surgery (GFS) is pursued by transgender individuals who desire facial features that better reflect their gender identity. Currently, there are a few objective guidelines to justify and facilitate effective surgical decision making. To quantify the effect of sex on adult facial size and shape through an analysis of three-dimensional (3D) facial surface images. Read More

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Two Japanese patients with Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2.

Am J Med Genet A 2022 Jul 25;188(7):2246-2250. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.

Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair (NSLH) is a rare disease characterized by typical features of Noonan syndrome with additional findings of relative or absolute macrocephaly, loose anagen hair, and a higher incidence of intellectual disability. NSLH1 is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the SHOC2 gene on chromosome 10q25, and NLSH2 is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the Protein phosphatase one catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB) gene on chromosome 2p23. Protein phosphatase1 (PP1), encoded by PPP1CB, forms a complex with SHOC2 and dephosphorylates RAFs, which results in activation of the signaling cascade and contribution to Noonan syndrome pathogenesis. Read More

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Upper Facial Anastomoses Between the External and Internal Carotid Vascular Territories - A 3D Computed Tomographic Investigation.

Aesthet Surg J 2022 Mar 19. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Facial regions with a high risk for causing injection-related visual comprise are dual-supply vascular areas like the nose, glabella, and forehead. These regions have in common that they receive arterial blood supply both by branches of the internal (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA).

Objective: To investigate the anastomotic pathways between ICA and ECA branches in the upper face. Read More

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Aesthetic Enhancement of the Brow using Hydroxyapatite.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

The Centre for Facial Plastic Surgery, 109 Mathoura Road Toorak, Melbourne, VIC, 3142, Australia.

Background: An aesthetically pleasing appearance of the 'eyes' usually includes good projection of the outer brow. Weak bony projection of the superolateral periorbital region tends to be not only less attractive, but also predisposes to hooding over the temporal part of the upper lid. Congenital lack of skeletal volume is exacerbated by ageing due to lipoatrophy and soft tissue laxity. Read More

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Sonography of fetal holoprosencephaly: a guide to recognize the lesser varieties.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2022 Mar 10:1-7. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Obstetric Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna and IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Alobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) is easily detected during a first-trimester screening examination, conversely, recognizing the lesser varieties may be difficult even in the second trimester.

Objectives: To describe the imaging findings of a cohort of fetuses with holoprosencephaly (HPE) and to elucidate the appearances of the different anatomical varieties.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed medical records and stored images of pregnant women referred to our clinic because of a diagnosis or the suspicion of various forms of HPE. Read More

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Ophthalmic artery occlusion after glabellar hyaluronic acid filler injection.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022 Jun 11;26:101407. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, D-60590, Frankfurt Am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

Purpose: Filler injections for aesthetic purposes are very popular, but can have far-reaching and irreversible consequences. This report describes the course of a patient with devastating complications after glabellar hyaluronic acid injection, their pathomechanism, management and outcome.

Observations: A healthy, 43-year-old woman underwent her first hyaluronic acid injection in the glabella and went blind on her left eye immediately thereafter. Read More

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ONE21 technique for an individualized assessment and treatment of upper face wrinkles in five pairs of identical twins with IncobotulinumtoxinA.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 May 14;21(5):1940-1947. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Departamento de Dermatologia da FMB-Unesp, Botucatu-SP, Brazil.

Background: Facial aging is a complex process, which, beyond a genetic predisposition, involves both physical and environmental factors. Even identical twins with the same genetic load may differ substantially in facial wrinkles and aging, demanding a personalized treatment approach.

Objective: To demonstrate the ONE21 technique as an excellent tool to a customized assessment and IncobotulinuntoxinA treatment to address phenotype discordances and epigenetic drifts in identical twins, expressed by different patterns of upper face muscle contractions and wrinkles intensity. Read More

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Indole-3-Acetic Acid Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Alleviates Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mice.

Front Immunol 2022 4;13:762580. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Spine Surgery, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic, chronic, and inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with the disorder of intestinal microbiota. Unfortunately, effective therapies for AS are lacking. Recent evidence has indicated that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an important microbial tryptophan metabolite, can modulate intestinal homeostasis and suppress inflammatory responses. Read More

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Clinical Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Corneal Neurotization After Cerebellopontine Angle Neurosurgical Procedures.

Curr Eye Res 2022 May 6;47(5):670-676. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To report 12 patients with neurotrophic keratopathy due to the trigeminal nerve injury after intracranial tumor surgeries underwent minimally invasive corneal neurotization and evaluate the outcomes of corneal reinnervation.

Methods: Twelve patients (12 eyes) with neurotrophic keratopathy caused by the trigeminal nerve injury after intracranial surgeries received minimally invasive corneal neurotization. All the preoperative central corneal sensation was under 5 mm, and minimally invasive corneal neurotization was performed over 6 months after the intracranial surgery. Read More

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Atypical Presentation of Transcranial Extension of Intracranial Meningiomas.

Am J Dermatopathol 2022 Mar;44(3):207-211

Departments of Pathology and.

Abstract: Meningiomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. These tumors predominantly arise from the neural crest-derived meningothelial cells of the arachnoid dural layer. Intracranial meningiomas are stratified with the World Health Organization classification of tumors. Read More

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3M syndrome: A Tunisian seven-cases series.

Eur J Med Genet 2022 Mar 9;65(3):104448. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Hereditary and Congenital Disorders, Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia; Department of Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tunis El-Manar University, Tunis, Tunisia.

3M syndrome (3MS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial growth disorder characterized by a severe pre- and post-natal growth deficiency, minor dysmorphisms and skeletal abnormalities, contrasting with normal intellect and endocrine function. Three different genes have been so far involved in the disease, with mutations in CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8. The CUL7 gene mutations are accountable for 77,5% of the genetically confirmed patients, with a founder mutation identified in exon 24 for the Maghreb families. Read More

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The Anatomy behind Eyebrow Positioning: A Clinical Guide Based on Current Anatomic Concepts.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Apr;149(4):869-879

From the Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science; Division of Dermatology, Women's College Hospital; Revance; Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia; CH Dermatologia; and Division of Dermatology, University of Toronto.

Background: The position of the eyebrow is known to reflect emotional status and to provide a plethora of nonverbal information. Although the eyebrow has no direct attachment to underlying bone, it is subject to the interplay between the various periorbital muscles, which when acting together, permit important nonverbal cues to be conveyed. Understanding the balance and interplay between these muscles is of crucial importance when targeting the periorbital area with neuromodulators. Read More

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Delayed-onset granulomatous reaction presenting as chronic facial edema: a review of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2021 Aug 8;23(5-6):156-158. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Dermatology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Injection of soft tissue fillers for esthetic purposes is considered a relatively simple, minimally invasive procedure. . We report a case of a 61 y/o male with an unusual case of foreign body granulomas arising on his forehead and periorbital region for the past 3 years. Read More

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A case of histiocytoid angiosarcoma mimicking Rosai-Dorfman disease histopathologically.

J Cutan Pathol 2022 Jun 22;49(6):589-592. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente LAMC, Los Angeles, California, USA.

There are very few documented cases of histiocytoid angiosarcoma in the literature. We report a rare case of histiocytoid angiosarcoma demonstrating emperipolesis, a histopathologic finding that mimics Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). A 77-year-old male presented with a subcutaneous nodule on his left forehead. Read More

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[The triplane aesthetic reconstruction of the alar unit after removal of advanced basal cell carcinomas. About 26 cases].

A Belmahi

Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2022 Feb 1;67(1):26-34. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Clinique des nations unies, rue Abou Der-Agdal, 10800 Rabat, Maroc. Electronic address:

Introduction: The aesthetic reconstruction of full thickness defects of the entire ala is difficult because of its complex tridimensional anatomy. The triplan reconstruction of this unit which includes: -a lining with a mucosal flap, -a sculptured cartilage framework imitating the anatomy of the opposite ala -and a skin coverage by an immediate defatted forehead flap, gives regularly a very good aesthetic results, superior to the ones obtained by other techniques.

Patients And Methods: From may 2008 to December 2020, 26 patients aged between 49 and 78 years old have benefited from this triplan aesthetic reconstruction after an excision of evolved basal cell carcinomas interesting the ala unit. Read More

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February 2022

A Clinical Report of the Complete Nasal Agenesis: Reconstruction of Congenital Arhinia and Review of the Literature.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2022 Jan 24:10556656221075939. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

37515Hacettepe University, Research and Application Center for the Treatment of Cleft Lip and Palate and Craniomaxillofacial Deformities, Ankara, Turkey.

Congenital absence of the nose or arhinia is an exceptionally rare craniofacial malformation, and the pathophysiology of the arhinia is still unknown. Most arhinia patients can have difficulties with breathing and feeding due to the absence of the nose, nasal cavities, and associated problems. A 38-day-old female patient was referred to our clinic with arhinia. Read More

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January 2022

Anatomical Injection Guidelines for Glabellar Frown Lines Based on Ultrasonographic Evaluation.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 12 25;14(1). Epub 2021 Dec 25.

Department of Oral Biology, Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 FOUR Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea.

When botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is injected to treat glabellar frown lines, the corrugator supercilia muscle (CSM) and procerus muscles are the main targets. Although there have been many studies on the treatment of glabellar frown lines, no study has confirmed the dynamic movement under ultrasonography (US). This study examined and evaluated dynamic muscle movements under US, thereby providing more effective BoNT injection guidelines for glabellar frowning. Read More

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December 2021

Cluster Headache: Rapid Evidence Review.

Am Fam Physician 2022 01;105(1):24-32

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Cluster headache, the most common form of trigeminal autonomic cephalgia, is a rare primary headache disorder that affects less than 1% of the population. The mean age of onset is 30 years, and it is two to three times more common in males. Cluster headache consists of attacks of severe unilateral pain located in the orbital, supraorbital, and/or temporal region that occur from every other day up to eight times per day and last from 15 to 180 minutes. Read More

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January 2022