4,051 results match your criteria Forehead Anatomy


Quantitative Analysis of the Lifting Effect of Facial Soft-Tissue Filler Injections.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 May;147(5):765e-776e

From private practice; the Department for Hand, Plastic, and Aesthetic Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University; the Division of Anatomy, Department of Medical Education, Albany Medical College; Skin Associates of South Florida; and the Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Clinic.

Background: Although injectable soft-tissue fillers are frequently used for facial rejuvenation, there is a dearth of objective data evaluating the tissue-lifting effects. Current practices for efficacy evaluation include some subjectivity. This study seeks to evaluate the lifting effects of facial soft-tissue fillers in a quantifiable, objective setting. Read More

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Effect of sensory blockade and rate of sensory stimulation on local heating induced axon reflex response in facial skin.

Auton Neurosci 2021 Apr 7;233:102809. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health & Human Sciences; and (2)Departments of Dermatology and Anatomy, Cell Biology, & Physiology, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Local neuronal circuits in non-glabrous skin drive the initial increase of the biphasic cutaneous vasodilation response to fast non-noxious heating. Voltage-sensitive Na (NaV) channel inhibition blocks the afferent limb of the non-glabrous forearm cutaneous axon reflex. Slow local heating does not engage this response. Read More

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Autogenous Fat Transplantation and Botulinum Toxin Injection Into the Masseter Muscle to Create an Ideal Oval Face.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: East Asian faces vary in shape but only oval faces seem to be considered attractive. Many patients with wide faces seek removal of part of the mandibular angle and/or zygoma to achieve an ideal facial contour, but the procedure is high risk and the recovery period is relatively protracted.

Objectives: We sought to achieve ideal facial contours through the use of autologous fat grafting (AFG) combined with masseter botulinum toxin (BTX) injection for patients with wide faces and masseter hypertrophy. Read More

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Frontoplasty Technique for the Mestizo Patient.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2021 Mar 1;14(3):14-16. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Dr. Aguilera is with NOVA Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Ethnic groups can be differentiated through certain anatomical characteristics, including the morphological features of their skulls. Little information is available on the craniofacial measures of the Mestizo face. Over time, the upper third of the Mestizo face can develop a greater frontal concavity of the forehead, making the eyebrows drop and giving the face a more masculine appearance. Read More

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Forehead and Hairline Surgery for Gender Affirmation.

Authors:
Kamol Pansritum

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Mar 22;9(3):e3486. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Kamol Cosmetic Hospital, Kwaeng Plabpla, Khet Wangthonglang, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: With the improvement of the results of surgical treatment for facial transformation globally, many female transgender individuals seek surgical management for their faces, especially the forehead and hairline. These are critical aspects in the surgical management of the frontonasal-orbital area because the anatomy of the frontal sinuses is complicated and shows a high variation.

Methods: The author presents a grid method to measure the boundary of the frontal sinus in the female transgender forehead contouring and reconstruction. Read More

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The Difference in Facial Movement Between the Medial and the Lateral Midface: A 3D Skin Surface Vector Analysis.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN.

Background: Our understanding of the functional anatomy of the face is constantly improving. To date, it is unclear whether the anatomic location of the line of ligaments has any functional importance during normal facial movements such as smiling.

Objectives: It is the objective of the present study to identify differences in facial movements between the medial and lateral midface by means of skin vector displacement analyses derived from 3D imaging and to further ascertain whether the line of ligaments has both a structural and functional significance in these movements. Read More

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The Change of Plane of the Supratrochlear and Supraorbital Arteries in the Forehead - An Ultrasound-Based Investigation.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Private Practice, Amsterdam, Netherlands & Department of Dermatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Injecting soft tissue fillers into the deep plane of the forehead carries the risk of injection related visual compromise due to the specific course of the arterial vasculature.

Objectives: To investigate the 2- and 3-dimensional location of the change of plane of the deep branch of the supratrochlear and supraorbital artery, respectively.

Methods: A total of 50 patients (11 males and 39 females, mean age: 49. Read More

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February 2021

Scalp and Forehead Injury: Management of Acute and Secondary Defects.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri.

The primary challenges in scalp reconstruction are the relative inelasticity of native scalp tissue and the convex shape of the calvarium. All rungs of the reconstructive ladder can be applied to scalp reconstruction, albeit in a nuanced fashion due to the unique anatomy and vascular supply to the scalp. Important defect variables to incorporate into the reconstructive decision include site, potential hairline distortion, size, depth, concomitant infection, prior radiation therapy, planned adjuvant therapy, medical comorbidities, patient desires, and potential calvarium and dura defects. Read More

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February 2021

A double mutation of BRAF L597Q and V600E in situ and solitary brain metastasis of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(6):e24458

Master of Medicine, Clinical Molecular Medicine Testing Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing.

Rationale: The rare BRAF L597Q (c.T1790A) point mutation has been previously reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We present the first rare case of occult papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAF L597Q mutation in a Tibetan patient. Read More

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February 2021

Combined mental task and metaboreflex impair cerebral oxygenation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 04 3;320(4):R488-R499. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

The Sports Physiology Laboratory, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.

Cardiovascular regulation is altered by type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), producing an abnormal response to muscle metaboreflex. During physical exercise, cerebral blood flow is impaired in patients with DM2, and this phenomenon may reduce cerebral oxygenation (COX). We hypothesized that the simultaneous execution of a mental task (MT) and metaboreflex activation would reduce COX in patients with DM2. Read More

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A novel mutation in RAB3GAP1 gene in Chinese patient causing the Warburg micro syndrome: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(2):e22902

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University.

Rationale: Warburg Micro syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple organ abnormalities involving the ocular, nervous, and genital systems. This case report describes a novel mutation in the RAB3GAP1 gene associated with Warburg Micro syndrome.

Patient Concerns: A 6-month-old female infant with bilateral congenital cataracts and developmental delay was referred to our department for further assessment. Read More

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January 2021

Reconstruction of a secondary scalp defect using the crane principle and a split-thickness skin graft.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 18;21(1):41. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Scalp reconstruction is a common challenge for surgeons, and there are many different treatment choices. The "crane principle" is a technique that temporarily transfers a scalp flap to the defect to deposit subcutaneous tissue. The flap is then returned to its original location, leaving behind a layer of soft tissue that is used to nourish a skin graft. Read More

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January 2021

Pott's puffy tumor in a 23-month-old: Youngest known case of a rare disease.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat USA.

This case report describes a child who developed Pott's puffy tumor and was treated at the Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City. In addition to a discussion of a case, a review of the literature was completed on this topic describing the typical embryology and development of the frontal sinus, and the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Pott's puffy tumor. The patient was a 23-month-old boy who developed Pott's puffy tumor after recovery from influenza. Read More

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January 2021

Evolution of Cranioorbital Shape in Nonsyndromic, Muenke, and Saethre-Chotzen Bilateral Coronal Synostosis: A Case-Control Study of 2-Year Outcomes.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 01;147(1):148-159

From the Craniofacial Image Analysis Lab, Craniofacial Center, Seattle Children's Hospital; and the Division of Plastic Surgery and the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington.

Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify change in cranioorbital morphology from presentation, after fronto-orbital advancement, and at 2-year follow-up.

Methods: Volumetric, linear, and angular analyses were performed on computed tomographic scans of consecutive bilateral coronal synostosis patients. Comparisons were made across three time points, between syndromic and nonsyndromic cases, and against normal controls. Read More

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January 2021

Ultrasonography Analysis of Vessels Around the Forehead Midline.

Aesthet Surg J 2020 Dec 12. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Filler injection into the glabella is well known to be one of the most dangerous procedures due to the high risk of embolism and intravascular injection. Despite the conventional insertion guidelines for the cannula in the middle of the forehead for injections into the glabella or radix, vascular structures can be observed during anatomical dissection procedures.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the blood vessels around the forehead midline in order to provide crucial anatomical information for ensuring the safety of noninvasive procedures involving the forehead and glabella. Read More

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December 2020

To click or not to click - The importance of understanding the layers of the forehead when injecting neuromodulators - A clinical, prospective, interventional, split-face study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 8;20(5):1385-1392. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Differences in the effectiveness of neuromodulator treatments for horizontal forehead lines dependent on depth of product administration have been described. However, knowledge in respect to the fascial anatomy of the forehead still remains elusive.

Aims: To relate the fascial anatomy of the forehead to the effectiveness of neuromodulator treatments by conducting a clinical, prospective, interventional split-face study in which injections for the treatment of horizontal forehead lines are performed differently between facial sides. Read More

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Antegrade Foreheadplasty: A Novel Surgical Approach for Upper Eyelid Contracture Deformities in Pediatric Patients.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov/Dec;31(8):2199-2203

Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Laser Surgery, Shriners Hospitals for Children--Boston.

The intricate and delicate structure of the periorbital region, particularly in pediatric patients, presents challenges to eyelid reconstruction. Much like the more common lower eyelid ectropion, upper eyelid ectropion can result from lack of tissue, scar contracture, or over-resection as in blepharoplasty. In burns and trauma, the cause of cicatricial ectropion is typically direct scar contracture from injuries to the eyelid. Read More

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Herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve with multi-dermatomal involvement: a case report of an unusual presentation.

BMC Dermatol 2020 10 30;20(1):12. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. It commonly presents with burning pain and vesicular lesions with unilateral distribution and affects the thoracic and cervical sites in up to 60 and 20% of cases, respectively. The branches of the trigeminal nerves are affected in up to 20% of cases. Read More

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October 2020

[A case of polyradiculoneuritis associated with disseminated herpes zoster].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2020 Nov 27;60(11):786-790. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Neurology, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital.

A 34-year-old man developed right-dominant lower limb paraplegia, and then upper limb paresis with radicular pain following disseminated herpes zoster (HZ) in his right forehead, back of the trunk, and lumbar and right lower limb regions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings revealed an increase in lymphocytes (32 cells/μl) and protein content (50 mg/dl), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was negative in CSF, but VZV antigen was positive in the patient's vesicle smear. Lumbar root MRI using 3D Nerve VIEW (Philips) imaging showed high-intensity lesions on the L2-L5 spinal roots with contrast enhancements, and cervical MRI showed similar findings on both sides at the C4-Th1. Read More

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November 2020

Influence of dental education on eye gaze distribution when observing facial profiles with varying degrees of lip protrusion.

J Dent Educ 2021 Apr 28;85(4):476-482. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Orthodontics, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Mizuho, Gifu, Japan.

Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of dental education on eye gaze distribution when perceiving facial profile images with varying degrees of lip protrusion.

Methods: Fifty-one subjects with dental education (dental-education group) and 47 without dental education (no-dental-education group) were included in this study. The eye gaze distribution of the subjects was recorded for 10 seconds using a non-contact eye tracker when determining whether or not the subjects judged each various facial profile image inappropriate. Read More

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Girl With Fever and Forehead Swelling.

Ann Emerg Med 2020 11;76(5):679-694

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

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November 2020

Anatomical Continuation Between the Sub-Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Fat and Retro-Orbicularis Oculi Fat: The True Nature of the Retro-Orbicularis Oculi Fat.

Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med 2020 Oct 19. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, Human Identification Research Institute, BK21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study aims to analyze the anatomical location and continuation between the retro-orbicularis oculi fat (ROOF) and sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system fat (subSMAS fat; named "innominate fascia") by comparing their layered structures, thereby letting us suggest a safe minimally invasive procedure guideline for the forehead and temple. Ultrasonographic scanning was performed from the upper medial eyebrow to the lateral side of the superior temporal line in 109 volunteers. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on five specimens at the same area as ultrasonographic scanning. Read More

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October 2020

Lipoma of the temporal region: a rare case series.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 Jan 28;103(1):e42-e43. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, UK.

Lipomas are common benign tumours that can occur in most parts of the body. Lipomas arising from the deep temporal fat pad, found between the two layers of the deep temporal fascia, are rare, however; there has been only one documented case report to our knowledge. We describe a second case arising from the temporal fat pad in a patient treated at our unit, having previously reported the first one, and discuss the relevant anatomy and management. Read More

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January 2021

Brain Tissue Pulsation in Healthy Volunteers.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2020 Dec 24;46(12):3268-3278. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK; Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Centre, Leicester, UK. Electronic address:

It is well known that the brain pulses with each cardiac cycle, but interest in measuring cardiac-induced brain tissue pulsations (BTPs) is relatively recent. This study was aimed at generating BTP reference data from healthy patients for future clinical comparisons and modelling. BTPs were measured through the forehead and temporal positions as a function of age, sex, heart rate, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. Read More

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December 2020

Influence of altitude on cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation in critically ill children during air ambulance transport.

PLoS One 2020 25;15(9):e0239272. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Pediatric Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to investigate how cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation (rSO2-C and rSO2-A) in critically ill children transported in air ambulance was affected by flight with cabin pressurization corresponding to ≥ 5000 feet. A second aim was to investigate any differences between cyanotic and non-cyanotic children in relation to cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation during flight ≥ 5000 feet. The variability of the cerebral and splanchnic Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors was evaluated. Read More

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November 2020

Classification and Morphological Variation of the Frontalis Muscle and Implications on the Clinical Practice.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 02 14;45(1):164-170. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Forehead aesthetics have a major contribution to the youthful appearance of the face. Restoration of the upper facial aesthetics is important to counteract the changes related to the ageing process. The interaction between the frontalis and its antagonists' muscles contributes to the overall aesthetic balance of the forehead. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia on thermoregulatory and circulatory responses during cold air exposure.

J Physiol Anthropol 2020 Sep 10;39(1):28. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Human Science, Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, 4-9-1 Shiobaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka, 815-8540, Japan.

Background: The thermoregulatory responses during simultaneous exposure to hypoxia and cold are not well understood owing to the opposite reactions of vasomotor tone in these two environments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of hypobaric hypoxia on various thermoregulatory responses, including skin blood flow (SkBF) during cold exposure.

Methods: Ten subjects participated in two experimental conditions: normobaric normoxia with cold (NC, barometric pressure (P) = 760 mmHg) and hypobaric hypoxia with cold (HC, P = 493 mmHg). Read More

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September 2020

Congenital absence of the nasal septum in a Nigerian newborn with multiple congenital anomalies.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Sep 7;13(9). Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University /Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Congenital absence of the nasal septum (hyporhynia) is infrequently reported in the literature. We report a rare case in a newborn with multiple congenital anomalies with the aim to highlight its rarity and compatibility with life in a resource-limited setting. The case notes of the child were summarised and the relevant literature reviewed to give the report a context. Read More

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September 2020

Facial Feminization Surgery: A Review of 220 Consecutive Patients.

Indian J Plast Surg 2020 Aug 29;53(2):244-253. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Designer Bodyz, Centre for Advanced Cosmetic Surgery, Mumbai, India.

Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a combination of facial bony and soft tissue surgeries designed to modify and convert a masculine face to feminine. One's face plays a very central role in gender incongruence and FFS helps patients overcome this. There are prominent differences between the male and the female facial anatomy (bony and soft tissue) which can be surgically altered to change the visual perception of the face. Read More

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Disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis: dual infection in a non-endemic region.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Aug 24;13(8). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by a dimorphic fungus that spreads commonly by contamination of soil with bird and bat droppings. The infection remains latent in most patients until manifested by reduced immune status, for example, HIV/AIDS, corticosteroid/immunosuppressive therapy or in solid organ transplant recipients. Tuberculosis and histoplasmosis may cooccur rarely in HIV and the clinical resemblance of both diseases may hinder identification of patients' harbouring dual infection, especially in regions non-endemic for histoplasmosis. Read More

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