79 results match your criteria Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017 Jul;63(7):564-565
Division of Neurosurgery, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Subacute necrotizing myelopathy (SNM) or Foix-Alajouanine syndrome is a rare disease characterized by progressive neurological dysfunction caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Radiological diagnosis is usually suspected when there is intramedullary nonspecific enhancement and perimedullary flow voids. Ring-enhancement is rarely reported in the scope of AVF, which poses a diagnostic challenge and raises the suspicion of a spinal cord tumor. Read More
World Neurosurg 2017 Dec 29;108:998.e7-998.e16. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Electronic address:
Objectives: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have diverse presentations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals spinal cord swelling in only 45% to 74% of cases. We present an unusual case of a 57-year old man with a craniocervical junction DAVF in which the edema appeared in the thoracolumbar region, skipping the cervical spinal cord. Read More
Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2017 31;3:17059. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 30;106:206-210. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
Department of Neurosurgery, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA; Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California, USA. Electronic address:
Objective: To assess the use of functional scores in the evaluation of patients with dural arteriovenous fistula and Foix-Alajouanine syndrome.
Methods: We systematically surveyed the literature to identify relevant patients. Aminoff-Logue Scale (ALS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were ascertained and combined to form a novel functional score, the Aminoff-Rankin Composite (ARC) score. Read More
World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 26;97:750.e1-750.e3. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada.
Background: Foix-Alajouanine syndrome is defined as acute neurologic deterioration in the setting of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula.
Case Description: This case report on a young patient with an unusual clinical onset of Foix-Alajouanine syndrome coincidentally occurring after his outpatient clinic appointment illustrates how prompt surgical treatment can result in rapid recovery of neurologic function despite preoperative paraplegia.
Conclusions: Venous hypertension with subsequent rapid resolution after surgical treatment is the pathophysiological mechanism underlying a dural arteriovenous fistula, in contrast to historical views suggesting that these lesions result from irreversible venous thrombosis, resulting in necrotic myelopathy. Read More
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2015 Nov;73(11):903-5
Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Unlabelled: The authors present a Brazilian case series of eight patients with idiopathic very-late onset (mean 75.5 years old) cerebellar ataxia, featuring predominantly gait ataxia, associated with cerebellar atrophy.
Method: 26 adult patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic late onset cerebellar ataxia were analyzed in a Brazilian ataxia outpatient clinic and followed regularly over 20 years. Read More
No Shinkei Geka 2015 Aug;43(8):733-8
Department of Neurosurgery, Kashiwa Hospital, Jikei University School of Medicine.
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (FAS), also known as congestive myelopathy due to spinal vascular malformations, presents with paraplegia, sensory disturbance of lower limbs, and dysfunction of the bladder and rectum. Although FAS is characterized by a subacute onset of neurological symptoms that may wax and wane over a few years, the progression mechanism remains unclear. We report a case of FAS due to an angiographically occult arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that was diagnosed by an open surgical biopsy and intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. Read More
Pol J Radiol 2015 1;80:337-43. Epub 2015 Jul 1.
Department of Physiology, Baroda Medical College, Vadodara, India.
Background: Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can lead to development of congestive myelopathy (Foix-Alajouanine syndrome). Spinal AVMs are rare and so is this syndrome. Diagnosis is often missed due to its rarity and confusing definitions of the Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Read More
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2014 ;114(9):88-92
The article contains the description of Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (FAS) from literature. Three our own cases of FAS, which developed in two men and one woman, are presented. An analysis of FAS clinical picture revealed a step-like progression of the disease with a possibility of short-term fluctuation of some focal neurological signs. Read More
Global Spine J 2014 Dec 22;4(4):269-72. Epub 2014 May 22.
Department of Radiology, Khoula Hospital, Mina al Fahal, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Study Design Case report. Objective Present a case of Foix-Alajouanine syndrome that presented as acute cauda equina syndrome and discuss the pathophysiology and management. Methods An adult male patient developed sudden onset of back pain and leg pain with weakness of the lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction typical of cauda equina syndrome. Read More
Spine J 2015 Jun 2;15(6):e39-44. Epub 2013 Oct 2.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, PO Box 24035, Hadassah Hebrew-University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
Background Context: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a slow-flow extramedullary vascular lesion affecting primarily the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. The clinical sequela of these vascular changes is progressive myelopathy and severe lower-extremity weakness. Although surgical or embolic treatment of SDAVFs has improved significantly in the last years, the ambiguity of the symptoms may complicate and delay the diagnosis. Read More
Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2013 Jul;16(3):432-6
Department of Neurosurgery, National Neurosciences Centre, Peerless Hospital Complex, II Floor, 360 Panchasayar, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Spinal arteriovenous fistulas are rare entities. They often present with congestive myelopathy but are infrequently diagnosed as the cause of the patients' symptoms. Only one such case has been described previously in Indian literature. Read More
Brain Behav 2013 May 17;3(3):207-10. Epub 2013 Feb 17.
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York Buffalo, New York.
We present what is to our knowledge the first reported case of thoracic disc herniation leading to venous congestive myelopathy (VCM), which was clinically and radiographically suggestive of Foix-Alajouanine syndrome (angiodysgenetic necrotizing myelopathy). In addition, we review current concepts in evaluating the etiology of VCM and discuss indications for surgery. Read More
Surg Neurol Int 2012 21;3:87. Epub 2012 Aug 21.
Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
Background: Venous congestive myelopathy is a progressive myelopathy that is generally caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula.
Case Description: We report a patient with histologically confirmed venous congestive myelopathy without concurrent vascular malformations in radiological and intraoperative findings.
Conclusions: The definitive underlying etiology of this congestive myelopathy was unclear. Read More
Coll Antropol 2011 Jan;35 Suppl 1:319-25
University of Zagreb, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Department of Neurology, Zagreb, Croatia.
Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have been devided into dural (Type I), intramedullary glomus (Type II), juvenile (Type III), and perimedullary direct arteriovenous fistulae (Type IV). AVMs are usually associated with subacute myelopathy in what has been known as Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. We presented two patients with two intradural spinal arteriovenous malformations associated in what we call Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. Read More
J Neurosurg 2009 Nov;111(5):900-1
J Neurosurg 2009 Nov;111(5):902-6
Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-3412, USA.
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome has become a well-known entity since its initial report in 1926. The traditional understanding of this clinical syndrome is as a progressive spinal cord venous thrombosis related to a spinal vascular lesion, resulting in necrotic myelopathy. However, spinal venous thrombosis is extremely rare and not a feature of any common spinal vascular syndrome. Read More
Eur J Neurol 2007 Aug;14(8):e4-5
Neuropathology 2007 Jun;27(3):284-9
Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.
We report a rapidly progressive myelopathy in a 74-year-old Japanese man who was admitted to our hospital with a 4-month history of progressive gait disturbance and died of pneumonia followed by respiratory failure on the 22nd day of admission. During the course of his illness, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed intramedullary lesions with edematous swelling from the medulla oblongata to the spinal cord at the level of the fourth vertebra. After administration of contrast medium, the ventral portion of the lesion was mildly and irregularly enhanced and a dilated vessel was recognized along the ventral surface of the upper cervical cord. Read More
Cesk Patol 2006 Apr;42(2):76-80
CGB laborator spol. s r.o., Ostrava.
The subacute angiohypertrophic myelomalacia Foix-Alajouanine was first described by French authors in 1926 and belongs to the wider category of CNS vascular malformations. Both individual casuistics and larger sets of patients with this disease can be found in literature scarcely. We are presenting three necroptic cases of subacute angiohypertrophic myelomalacia (Foix-Alajouanine) that were mistakenly diagnosed clinically, once as metastatic lesion of spinal canal, once as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and once as inflammatory lesion of spinal cord. Read More
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2005 Jun 25;63(2B):527-9. Epub 2005 Jul 25.
Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
In a 52-year-old woman, spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has been associated with what has been known as Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. The pathophysiology of the AV fistula is probably related to increased venous pressure from the AVM plus thrombotic process. The most common initial symptoms are sensory disturbance, pain and leg weakness. Read More
South Med J 2005 May;98(5):567-9
Department of Internal Medicine and Section of Hospital and Peri-operative Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome is a rare cause of myelopathy caused by dural arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord, mostly lower thoracic and lumbar. Patients are usually over 50 years of age and can present with acute lower extremity dysesthesias or intermittent sciatica. Progression to paraplegia may be slow. Read More
No To Shinkei 1998 Dec;50(12):1133-41
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Japan.
A 63-year-old man, whose father died of malignant lymphoma, developed subacutely cauda equina/conus medullaris syndrome progressed over 3 months. Initial radicular pain, ascending motor and sensory paralysis without sacral sparing, vesicorectal dysfunction were similar with signs of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. However, mild inflammatory signs, raised serum LDH, predominantly of LDH 3, lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated beta 2 microglobulin in CSF suggested neurolymphomatosis. Read More
Acta Neuropathol 1998 Sep;96(3):301-6
Institute of Neuropathology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany.
An encapsulated mass of brain tissue was found in the retroperitoneum of a fetus of gestational week 15 and a boy of age 3 years. The masses possessed fibrous tissue that bound them to the spine and intraspinal connective tissue, respectively, but there was no evidence of direct continuity of the ectopic brain tissue with the normal central nervous system. There was no dysraphism. Read More
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998 Aug;19(7):1267-73
Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.
Purpose: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are acquired arteriovenous shunts located within the dura. The highly variable natural history and symptomatology of DAVFs range from subjective bruit to intracranial hemorrhage and are related to the lesion's pattern of venous drainage and its effect on the drainage of adjacent brain. We examined the prevalence and features of DAVFs in patients with progressive dementia or encephalopathy. Read More
Nervenarzt 1998 Apr;69(4):279-86
Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Universitäts-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg.
Congestive myelopathy, formerly referred to as varicosis spinalis or Foix-Alajouanine syndrome, is caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF). So far, the blood supply from the meningeal arteries draining through the fistula into the medullary venous system can only be verified by spinal angiography. Patients predominantly male and over the age of 60 are afflicted. Read More
Neurosurgery 1997 Jun;40(6):1295-301
Department of Neurological Surgery, Neurological Institute of New York, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
Objective And Importance: Spinal arteriovenous malformations have been divided by location into dural (Type I), intramedullary glomus (Type II), juvenile (Type III), and perimedullary direct arteriovenous fistulae (Type IV). We report two cases of an unusual intramedullary proliferation of hyalinized capillaries that do not fit into any of these categories.
Clinical Presentation: A 27-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man presented with subacute progressive caudal myelopathy. Read More
Clin Radiol 1993 Feb;47(2):134-6
Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford.
We describe a patient with a classical presentation of a spinal dural arteriovenous malformation which probably underwent spontaneous thrombosis. This is known as the Foix-Alajouanine syndrome. The diagnosis was not made in this patient until after cord infarction had occurred. Read More
Neurosurg Rev 1993 ;16(4):323-6
Radiological Institute, Oldenburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany.
In a 65-year-old patient with slowly progressive myelopathy of the lower spinal cord MRI revealed slight thickening of the conus medullaris and discrete serpiginous areas of low signal intensity in contact to the surface of the myelon. The T2-weighted axial images demonstrated a zone of high signal intensity within the center of the lumbosacral cord. These findings corresponded to the results of autopsy: cord enlargement, dilatation of wall thickened and partially thrombosed pial veins, edema, damage of the myelin sheath with development of foam cells, areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Read More
J Neurol 1992 Aug;239(7):379-81
Neurologisches Institut der Universität, Wien, Austria.
A previously healthy 58-year-old man developed neurological illness with progressive dementia, hallucinations, central motor and vegetative impairment which led to death in 14 weeks. Autopsy revealed lesions in a symmetrical centrencephalic distribution. Inner cerebral veins and arteries were surrounded by extravasation of plasma and perivascular haemorrhage and were thickened by fibrous scarring and muscle fibre proliferation. Read More
Acta Med Okayama 1991 Dec;45(6):451-6
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Medical School, Japan.
An autopsy case of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was reported. The patient was a 75-year-old male and his initial neurologic symptoms were paraplegia, paresthesia below the umbilical level and urination difficulty. Subsequently night delirium and parkinsonism also appeared. Read More
Arkh Patol 1991 ;53(5):55-9
One observation of a rare disease--angiodysgenetic necrotizing myelopathy--in a 50-year-old patient is described. The diagnosis was established at necropsy and did not confirm suspected spinal cord tumor and myelitis. The disease is angiodysplasia with resulting necrotizing myelopathy. Read More
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1990 Nov-Dec;11(6):1286
Neurosurgery 1990 Jul;27(1):168-9
Zentralbl Neurochir 1990 ;51(1):49-52
Abteilung für Neuropathologie, Klinikum Lahnberge, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
The sensitivity of the diagnostic procedures in space occupying lesions of the spine have been markedly improved in the recent past, mainly due to the application of CT and MRI--technology and the introduction of superselective angiography. Despite these 'high-tech'-investigations, neurological examination still provides the sole in neurological diagnosis. To show the discrepancies between the techniques mentioned, we present a case of a vascular malformation of the spine with secondary myelopathy (so-called "Foix-Alajouanine-syndrome"). Read More
J Neurosurg 1989 Mar;70(3):354-9
Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland.
Acute or subacute neurological deterioration without evidence of hemorrhage in a patient with a spinal arteriovenous (AV) malformation has been referred to as "Foix-Alajouanine syndrome." This clinical entity has been considered to be the result of progressive vascular thrombosis resulting in a necrotic myelopathy; it has therefore been thought to be largely irreversible and hence untreatable. The authors report five patients with dural AV fistulas who presented in this manner, and who improved substantially after embolic and surgical therapy. Read More
J Neurosurg 1988 Dec;69(6):934-9
Clinical Neurosurgery Section, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) of the spine commonly cause progressive myelopathy. Occasionally, myelography reveals serpentine filling defects characteristic of a spinal AVM, but an AVM or arteriovenous (AV) fistula cannot be demonstrated arteriographically, despite selective catheterization of all vessels known to have the potential of supplying the spinal cord and spinal dura. Often, and particularly in the setting of subacute or acute deterioration, this has been attributed to spontaneous thrombosis of the veins (the Foix-Alajouanine syndrome). Read More
Radiology 1988 Oct;169(1):109-15
Department of Radiology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Japan.
Ten patients with spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were examined with high-field-strength (1.5-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a surface coil (eight patients) or head coil (two patients). Four AVMs were intramedullary, and six were extramedullary. Read More
Vrach Delo 1986 Jul(7):100-1
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1984 ;84(10):1468-70
It is the first report in the Soviet literature on Foix-Alajouanine's disease in childhood. The disease is marked by congenital multiple angiomatosis of the spinal vessels attended by gliosis and cavity formation. A thorough morphological analysis of the case was performed. Read More
Sov Med 1983 (4):115-6
Cesk Neurol Neurochir 1982 Mar;45(2):133-7
J Neurol Sci 1981 Aug;51(2):259-71
The clinical features of 36 patients with late onset cerebellar ataxia of unknown cause are described. Overall, the age of onset ranged from 30 to 74 years and there was a significant excess of males. The patients were divided into 3 groups on clinical grounds. Read More
Minn Med 1979 Sep;62(9):653-5
Nihon Rinsho 1977 ;35 Suppl 1:502-3
Zentralbl Allg Pathol 1975 ;119(3):208-12
A case of a 54 years old man with an acute lumbalgia in result of heavy labour is described. With in 7 years he developed a progressive paralysis of the upper and lower motor neuron type and an insensibility of the inferior extremities. The protein content of the cerebrospinal fluid was increased. Read More
Acta Neuropathol 1974 ;29(3):187-97
Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 1973 Nov;25(11):661-7
Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 1971 Nov;23(11):629-34