240 results match your criteria Fluids and Barriers of the CNS [Journal]


Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and intracranial pressure elevation in neurological diseases.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Apr 10;16(1). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Brain Barriers Group, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Medical Sciences Building, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

The fine balance between the secretion, composition, volume and turnover of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is strictly regulated. However, during certain neurological diseases, this balance can be disrupted. A significant disruption to the normal CSF circulation can be life threatening, leading to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and is implicated in hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, brain trauma, brain tumours and stroke. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0129-6DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Spinal CSF flow in response to forced thoracic and abdominal respiration.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Apr 4;16(1):10. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Respiration-induced pressure changes represent a powerful driving force of CSF dynamics as previously demonstrated using flow-sensitive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the sensitivity of CSF flow along the spinal canal to forced thoracic versus abdominal respiration.

Methods: Eighteen subjects without known illness were studied using real-time phase-contrast flow MRI at 3 T in the aqueduct and along the spinal canal at levels C3, Th1, Th8 and L3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0130-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449937PMC

The human central nervous system discharges carbon dioxide and lactic acid into the cerebrospinal fluid.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Mar 29;16(1). Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Education and Support for Regional Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi 1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8574, Japan.

Background: The central nervous system was previously thought to draw oxygen and nutrition from the arteries and discharge carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes into the venous system. At present, the functional role of cerebrospinal fluid in brain metabolism is not fully known.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, we performed gas analysis on venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simultaneously acquired from 16 consecutive preoperative patients without any known neurological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0128-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440017PMC

Effect of extradural constriction on CSF flow in rat spinal cord.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Mar 26;16(1). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Technology Place, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia.

Background: Fluid homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for normal neurological function. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and interstitial fluid circulation in the CNS parenchyma clears metabolites and neurotransmitters and removes pathogens and excess proteins. A thorough understanding of the normal physiology is required in order to understand CNS fluid disorders, including post-traumatic syringomyelia. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0127-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434898PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Analysis of convective and diffusive transport in the brain interstitium.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Mar 6;16(1). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Background: Despite advances in in vivo imaging and experimental techniques, the nature of transport mechanisms in the brain remain elusive. Mathematical modelling verified using available experimental data offers a powerful tool for investigating hypotheses regarding extracellular transport of molecules in brain tissue. Here we describe a tool developed to aid in investigation of interstitial transport mechanisms, especially the potential for convection (or bulk flow) and its relevance to interstitial solute transport, for which there is conflicting evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0126-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402182PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Comorbidity of diabetes mellitus in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic literature review.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Feb 12;16(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University, 51 W Palmer ave, Detroit, MI, 48202, USA.

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a subtype of hydrocephalus that occurs more often in the elderly population. It is usually characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinence. Epidemiological studies indicate that 15. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0125-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371499PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

The year in review: progress in brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2018.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Feb 5;16(1). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

This editorial focuses on the progress made in brain barrier and brain fluid research in 2018. It highlights some recent advances in knowledge and techniques, as well as prevalent themes and controversies. Areas covered include: modeling, the brain endothelium, the neurovascular unit, the blood-CSF barrier and CSF, drug delivery, fluid movement within the brain, the impact of disease states, and heterogeneity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0124-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362595PMC
February 2019

Claudin-5: gatekeeper of neurological function.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Jan 29;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Trinity College Dublin, Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Tight junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier are vital for maintaining integrity of endothelial cells lining brain blood vessels. The presence of these protein complexes in the space between endothelial cells creates a dynamic, highly regulated and restrictive microenvironment that is vital for neural homeostasis. By limiting paracellular diffusion of material between blood and brain, tight junction proteins provide a protective barrier preventing the passage of unwanted and potentially damaging material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0123-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350359PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Opposing CSF hydrodynamic trends found in the cerebral aqueduct and prepontine cistern following shunt treatment in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Jan 22;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Neural Systems and Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: This study investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics using cine phase-contrast MRI in the cerebral aqueduct and the prepontine cistern between three distinct groups: pre-shunt normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients, post-shunt NPH patients, and controls. We hypothesized that the hyperdynamic flow of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct seen in NPH patients was due to a reduction in cisternal CSF volume buffering. Both hydrodynamic (velocity, flow, stroke volume) and peak flow latency (PFL) parameters were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-019-0122-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341759PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Disruption of the hippocampal and hypothalamic blood-brain barrier in a diet-induced obese model of type II diabetes: prevention and treatment by the mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, topiramate.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2019 Jan 8;16(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Geriatrics Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, 1660 S. Columbian Way, 810A/Bldg 1, Seattle, WA, 98108, USA.

Background: Type II diabetes is a vascular risk factor for cognitive impairment and increased risk of dementia. Disruption of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are hallmarks of subsequent retinal edema and central nervous system dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which diet or metabolic syndrome induces dysfunction are not understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0121-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323732PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Cerebellar tonsil ectopia measurement in type I Chiari malformation patients show poor inter-operator reliability.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Dec 17;15(1):33. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Biological Engineering, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS 0904, Moscow, ID, 83844-0904, USA.

Background: Type 1 Chiari malformation (CM-I) has been historically defined by cerebellar tonsillar position (TP) greater than 3-5 mm below the foramen magnum (FM). Often, the radiographic findings are highly variable, which may influence the clinical course and patient outcome. In this study, we evaluate the inter-operator reliability (reproducibility) of MRI-based measurement of TP in CM-I patients and healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0118-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296028PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Choroid plexus genes for CSF production and brain homeostasis are altered in Alzheimer's disease.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Dec 12;15(1):34. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, 710 Frenchmans Rd, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Background: The roles of the choroid plexus (CP) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production have drawn increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. Specifically, studies document markedly decreased CSF production and turnover in moderate-to-severe AD. Moreover, reduced CP function and CSF turnover lead to impaired clearance of toxic metabolites, likely promote neuroinflammation, and may facilitate neuronal death during AD progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0120-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291926PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Benchmarking in vitro tissue-engineered blood-brain barrier models.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Dec 4;15(1):32. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a key role in regulating transport into and out of the brain. With increasing interest in the role of the BBB in health and disease, there have been significant advances in the development of in vitro models. The value of these models to the research community is critically dependent on recapitulating characteristics of the BBB in humans or animal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0117-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280508PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Patient-specific cranio-spinal compliance distribution using lumped-parameter model: its relation with ICP over a wide age range.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Nov 15;15(1):29. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539, Munich, Germany.

Background: The distribution of cranio-spinal compliance (CSC) in the brain and spinal cord is a fundamental question, as it would determine the overall role of the compartments in modulating ICP in healthy and diseased states. Invasive methods for measurement of CSC using infusion-based techniques provide overall CSC estimate, but not the individual sub-compartmental contribution. Additionally, the outcome of the infusion-based method depends on the infusion site and dynamics. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0115-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236958PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

Erythrophages do not develop when lumbar CSF and blood samples are mixed in vitro.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Nov 5;15(1):31. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

MVZ Neurologie, Constance, Constance, Germany.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a crucial method in the diagnostic process for suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), especially when cerebral imaging is negative or inconclusive. CSF cytology (detection of erythrophages or siderophages) is used to determine whether a bloodstained CSF resembles a genuine SAH. Whether erythrophages may develop in vitro after a traumatic puncture in case of delayed CSF analysis is unclear. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0116-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217771PMC
November 2018
33 Reads

Elimination of substances from the brain parenchyma: efflux via perivascular pathways and via the blood-brain barrier.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Oct 19;15(1):30. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PD, UK.

This review considers efflux of substances from brain parenchyma quantified as values of clearances (CL, stated in µL g min). Total clearance of a substance is the sum of clearance values for all available routes including perivascular pathways and the blood-brain barrier. Perivascular efflux contributes to the clearance of all water-soluble substances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0113-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194691PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Tunneling nanotubes evoke pericyte/endothelial communication during normal and tumoral angiogenesis.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Oct 5;15(1):28. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences, and Sensory Organs, Human Anatomy and Histology Unit, University of Bari School of Medicine, Bari, Italy.

Background: Nanotubular structures, denoted tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described in recent times as involved in cell-to-cell communication between distant cells. Nevertheless, TNT-like, long filopodial processes had already been described in the last century as connecting facing, growing microvessels during the process of cerebral cortex vascularization and collateralization. Here we have investigated the possible presence and the cellular origin of TNTs during normal brain vascularization and also in highly vascularized brain tumors. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0114-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173884PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Cerebral influx of Na and Cl as the osmotherapy-mediated rebound response in rats.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Sep 25;15(1):27. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Cerebral edema can cause life-threatening increase in intracranial pressure. Besides surgical craniectomy performed in severe cases, osmotherapy may be employed to lower the intracranial pressure by osmotic extraction of cerebral fluid upon intravenous infusion of mannitol or NaCl. A so-called rebound effect can, however, hinder continuous reduction in cerebral fluid by yet unresolved mechanisms. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0111-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154956PMC
September 2018
23 Reads

Blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Sep 24;15(1):26. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and dementia. Both in humans and animal models of hypertension, neuropathological features such as brain atrophy and oedema have been reported. We hypothesised that cerebrovascular damage resulting from chronic hypertension would manifest itself in a more permeable blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0112-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151927PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

The role of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein in pathological breakdown of blood-brain and blood-retinal barriers: potential novel therapeutic target for cerebral edema and diabetic macular edema.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Sep 20;15(1):24. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Ocular Angiogenesis Group, Departments of Ophthalmology and Medical Biology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB), induced by pathologically elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or other mediators, can lead to vasogenic edema and significant clinical problems such as neuronal morbidity and mortality, or vision loss. Restoration of the barrier function with corticosteroids in the brain, or by blocking VEGF in the eye are currently the predominant treatment options for brain edema and diabetic macular edema, respectively. However, corticosteroids have side effects, and VEGF has important neuroprotective, vascular protective and wound healing functions, implying that long-term anti-VEGF therapy may also induce adverse effects. Read More

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https://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0109-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146740PMC
September 2018
8 Reads

Sex-specific differences in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) functional expression at the blood-brain barrier in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Sep 13;15(1):25. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 245050, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85724-5050, USA.

Background: Targeting endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) can facilitate drug delivery for treatment of neurological diseases. Advancement of Oatp targeting for optimization of CNS drug delivery requires characterization of sex-specific differences in BBB expression and/or activity of this transporter.

Methods: In this study, we investigated sex differences in Oatp1a4 functional expression at the BBB in adult and prepubertal (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0110-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136214PMC
September 2018
1 Read

A perfused human blood-brain barrier on-a-chip for high-throughput assessment of barrier function and antibody transport.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Aug 31;15(1):23. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Biogen, 225 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Background: Receptor-mediated transcytosis is one of the major routes for drug delivery of large molecules into the brain. The aim of this study was to develop a novel model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in a high-throughput microfluidic device. This model can be used to assess passage of large biopharmaceuticals, such as therapeutic antibodies, across the BBB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0108-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117964PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Accurate, strong, and stable reporting of choroid plexus epithelial cells in transgenic mice using a human transthyretin BAC.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Aug 16;15(1):22. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Irvine, Irvine, USA.

Background: Choroid plexus epithelial cells express high levels of transthyretin, produce cerebrospinal fluid and many of its proteins, and make up the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Choroid plexus epithelial cells are vital to brain health and may be involved in neurological diseases. Transgenic mice containing fluorescent and luminescent reporters of these cells would facilitate their study in health and disease, but prior transgenic reporters lost expression over the early postnatal period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0107-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094443PMC
August 2018
4 Reads

Characteristics of the cerebrospinal fluid pressure waveform and craniospinal compliance in idiopathic intracranial hypertension subjects.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Aug 1;15(1):21. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Ohio Neuro-Ophthalmology, Orbital Disease & Oculoplastics, 3545 Olentangy River Rd, Suite 200, Columbus, OH, 43214, USA.

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of abnormally high intracranial pressure with an unknown etiology. The objective of this study is to characterize craniospinal compliance and measure the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waveform as CSF is passively drained during a diagnostic and therapeutic lumbar puncture (LP) in IIH.

Methods: Eighteen subjects who met the Modified Dandy Criteria, including papilledema and visual field loss, received an ultrasound guided LP where CSF pressure (CSFP) was recorded at each increment of CSF removal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0106-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6069551PMC
August 2018
13 Reads

Pulsatile flow drivers in brain parenchyma and perivascular spaces: a resistance network model study.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jul 16;15(1):20. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116250, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Background: In animal models, dissolved compounds in the subarachnoid space and parenchyma have been found to preferentially transport through the cortex perivascular spaces (PVS) but the transport phenomena involved are unclear.

Methods: In this study two hydraulic network models were used to predict fluid motion produced by blood vessel pulsations and estimate the contribution made to solute transport in PVS and parenchyma. The effect of varying pulse amplitude and timing, PVS dimensions, and tissue hydraulic conductivity on fluid motion was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0105-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048913PMC
July 2018
15 Reads

Extracellular vesicles: mediators and biomarkers of pathology along CNS barriers.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jul 1;15(1):19. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Immunology, Blood-Brain Barrier Laboratory & Laser Capture Microdissection Core, UConn Health, 263 Farmington Ave., Farmington, CT, 06070, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous, nano-sized vesicles that are shed into the blood and other body fluids, which disperse a variety of bioactive molecules (e.g., protein, mRNA, miRNA, DNA and lipids) to cellular targets over long and short distances. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0104-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026502PMC
July 2018
31 Reads

Is bulk flow plausible in perivascular, paravascular and paravenous channels?

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jun 15;15(1):17. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Biofluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40292, USA.

Background: Transport of solutes has been observed in the spaces surrounding cerebral arteries and veins. Indeed, transport has been found in opposite directions in two different spaces around arteries. These findings have motivated hypotheses of bulk flow within these spaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0103-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003203PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Challenges in cerebrospinal fluid shunting in patients with glioblastoma.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jun 4;15(1):16. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation disturbances may occur during the course of disease in patients with glioblastoma. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting has generally been recommended to improve symptoms in glioblastoma patients. Shunt implantation for patients with glioblastoma, however, presents as a complex situation and produces different problems to shunting in other contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0101-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985574PMC
June 2018
22 Reads

Comparative transcriptomics of choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and Huntington's disease: implications for CSF homeostasis.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 May 31;15(1):18. Epub 2018 May 31.

Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology (Neuropathology Division), Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: In Alzheimer's disease, there are striking changes in CSF composition that relate to altered choroid plexus (CP) function. Studying CP tissue gene expression at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier could provide further insight into the epithelial and stromal responses to neurodegenerative disease states.

Methods: Transcriptome-wide Affymetrix microarrays were used to determine disease-related changes in gene expression in human CP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0102-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977762PMC
May 2018
18 Reads

Zika virus crosses an in vitro human blood brain barrier model.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 May 15;15(1):15. Epub 2018 May 15.

Human Health Therapeutics Research Center, National Research Council of Canada, Bldg M54-1200 Montreal Rd., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0R6, Canada.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that is highly neurotropic causing congenital abnormalities and neurological damage to the central nervous systems (CNS). In this study, we used a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived blood brain barrier (BBB) model to demonstrate that ZIKV can infect brain endothelial cells (i-BECs) without compromising the BBB barrier integrity or permeability. Although no disruption to the BBB was observed post-infection, ZIKV particles were released on the abluminal side of the BBB model and infected underlying iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (i-NPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0100-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952854PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

Nimodipine treatment does not benefit juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 May 3;15(1):14. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Manitoba, 401-727 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 3P5, Canada.

Prior research on 3-week hydrocephalic rats showed that behavioral deficits and white matter damage could be reduced by treatment with Ca channel blocker nimodipine. We hypothesized that treatment with nimodipine would be also beneficial to young ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus was induced at 14 days of age and animals were treated either with vehicle, low dose nimodipine (3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0099-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932868PMC
May 2018
3 Reads

Fluid outflow in the rat spinal cord: the role of perivascular and paravascular pathways.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Apr 29;15(1):13. Epub 2018 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Suite 407, Clinic Building, 2 Technology Place, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to flow into the brain via perivascular spaces around arteries, where it mixes with interstitial fluid. The precise details concerning fluid outflow remain controversial. Although fluid dynamics have been studied in the brain, little is known about spinal cord fluid inflow and outflow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0098-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5924677PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Brain vascular heterogeneity: implications for disease pathogenesis and design of in vitro blood-brain barrier models.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Apr 23;15(1):12. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Malaria Research Institute, Dept. Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, SPH East 4135, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

The vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transport between blood and the brain parenchyma in order to maintain cerebral homeostasis. The CEC phenotype is regulated by a variety of factors, including cells in its immediate environment and within functional neurovascular units. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0097-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5911972PMC
April 2018
5 Reads

Modeling and rescue of defective blood-brain barrier function of induced brain microvascular endothelial cells from childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy patients.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Apr 4;15(1). Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Background: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. 40% of X-ALD patients will convert to the deadly childhood cerebral form (ccALD) characterized by increased permeability of the brain endothelium that constitutes the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Mutation information and molecular markers investigated to date are not predictive of conversion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0094-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5883398PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Opportunities in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus research: outcomes of the Hydrocephalus Association Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Workshop.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Mar 27;15(1):11. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Rd., Building 7, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

The Hydrocephalus Association Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Workshop was held on July 25 and 26, 2016 at the National Institutes of Health. The workshop brought together a diverse group of researchers including pediatric neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neuropsychologists with scientists in the fields of brain injury and development, cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid dynamics, and the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers. The goals of the workshop were to identify areas of opportunity in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus research and encourage scientific collaboration across a diverse set of fields. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0096-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870202PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Monoclonal antibody exposure in rat and cynomolgus monkey cerebrospinal fluid following systemic administration.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Mar 20;15(1):10. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Biogen, Inc., 250 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Background: Many studies have focused on the challenges of small molecule uptake across the blood-brain barrier, whereas few in-depth studies have assessed the challenges with the uptake of antibodies into the central nervous system (CNS). In drug development, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is routinely used as a surrogate for assessing CNS drug exposure and biomarker levels. In this report, we have studied the kinetic correlation between CSF and serum drug concentration-time profiles for five humanized monoclonal antibodies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed factors that affect their CSF exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0093-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861715PMC
March 2018
6 Reads

Cerebrospinal fluid protein and glucose levels in neonates with a systemic inflammatory response without meningitis.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Mar 14;15(1). Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Lewsey Road, Luton, LU4ODZ, UK.

Background: It has been estimated that paediatric meningitis without elevated CSF white cell count (pleocytosis) accounts for 0.5-12% of all cases of bacterial meningitis. CSF protein and glucose measurements are therefore essential in management but may be neglected in clinical practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0095-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853144PMC
March 2018
7 Reads

Functional brain-specific microvessels from iPSC-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells: the role of matrix composition on monolayer formation.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Feb 20;15(1). Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Transwell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) incorporating monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells show many of the key features of the BBB, including expression of transporters and efflux pumps, expression of tight junction proteins, and physiological values of transendothelial electrical resistance. The fabrication of 3D BBB models using dhBMECs has so far been unsuccessful due to the poor adhesion and survival of these cells on matrix materials commonly used in tissue engineering.

Methods: To address this issue, we systematically screened a wide range of matrix materials (collagen I, hyaluronic acid, and fibrin), compositions (laminin/entactin), protein coatings (fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV, perlecan, and agrin), and soluble factors (ROCK inhibitor and cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in 2D culture to assess cell adhesion, spreading, and barrier function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0092-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5819713PMC
February 2018
10 Reads
1 Citation

Paradigm-shift: radiological changes in the asymptomatic iNPH-patient to be: an observational study.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Feb 9;15(1). Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

Background: Many radiological signs are known for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). However, there is little information about these signs in the pre-symptomatic phase. For pathophysiological investigative purposes we conducted a descriptive image analysis study on pre-symptomatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0090-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5806389PMC
February 2018
4 Reads

Progress in brain barriers and brain fluid research in 2017.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Feb 2;15(1). Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

The past year, 2017, has seen many important papers published in the fields covered by Fluids and Barriers of the CNS. This article from the Editors highlights some. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-018-0091-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796342PMC
February 2018
3 Reads

The effect of an adenosine A agonist on intra-tumoral concentrations of temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jan 15;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Brain Cancer Program, Johns Hopkins University, David H. Koch Cancer Research Building II, 1550 Orleans Street, Room 1M16, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) severely limits the entry of systemically administered drugs including chemotherapy to the brain. In rodents, regadenoson activation of adenosine A receptors causes transient BBB disruption and increased drug concentrations in normal brain. This study was conducted to evaluate if activation of A receptors would increase intra-tumoral temozolomide concentrations in patients with glioblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0088-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767971PMC
January 2018
7 Reads

Role of cationic drug-sensitive transport systems at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in para-tyramine elimination from rat brain.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2018 Jan 8;15(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan.

Background: para-Tyramine (p-TA) is a biogenic amine which is involved in multiple neuronal signal transductions. Since the concentration of p-TA in dog cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported to be greater than that in plasma, it is proposed that clearance of cerebral p-TA is important for normal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) in p-TA clearance from the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0087-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757291PMC
January 2018
17 Reads

A 3D subject-specific model of the spinal subarachnoid space with anatomically realistic ventral and dorsal spinal cord nerve rootlets.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 19;14(1):36. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Neurophysiological Imaging and Modeling Laboratory, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Dr. MC1122, Moscow, ID, 83844-1122, USA.

Background: The spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) has a complex 3D fluid-filled geometry with multiple levels of anatomic complexity, the most salient features being the spinal cord and dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets. An accurate anthropomorphic representation of these features is needed for development of in vitro and numerical models of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics that can be used to inform and optimize CSF-based therapeutics.

Methods: A subject-specific 3D model of the SSS was constructed based on high-resolution anatomic MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0085-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5738087PMC
December 2017
23 Reads

Chemokine and cytokine levels in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid of preterm infants with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 12;14(1):35. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, One Children's Way, 4S20, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) of prematurity, but no comprehensive analysis of signaling molecules has been performed using human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: Lumbar CSF levels of key cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ) and chemokines (XCL-1, CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-19, CXCL-10, CXCL-11, CXCL-12) were measured using conventional and multiplexed Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays and compared between preterm infants with PHH and those with no known neurological injury. The relationships between individual biomarker levels and specific CSF cell counts were examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0083-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5725948PMC
December 2017
15 Reads

Do patients with schizophreniform and bipolar disorders show an intrathecal, polyspecific, antiviral immune response? A pilot study.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Dec 7;14(1):34. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: We previously described inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations in a subgroup of patients with schizophreniform disorders and the synthesis of polyspecific intrathecal antibodies against different neurotropic infectious pathogens in some patients with bipolar disorders. Consequently, we have measured the prevalence of a positive MRZ reaction (MRZR)-a marker for a polyspecific, antiviral, intrathecal, humoral immune response composed of three antibody indices for the neurotropic viruses of measles (M), rubella (R), and varicella zoster (Z)-in these patients.

Methods: We analyzed paired CSF and serum samples of 39 schizophreniform and 39 bipolar patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0082-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719745PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Nov 29;14(1):32. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 245050, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood-brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0080-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706290PMC
November 2017
9 Reads

LDL receptor blockade reduces mortality in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke without improving tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage: towards pre-clinical simulation of symptomatic ICH.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Nov 21;14(1):33. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Molecular Neurotrauma and Haemostasis, Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Monash University, Level 4 Burnet Building, 89 Commercial Road, Melbourne, 3004, VIC, Australia.

Background: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH.

Aims And Methods: We aimed to simulate rt-PA-induced haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of stroke and to assess if it drives symptomatic neurological deterioration and whether it is attenuated by LDL receptor blockade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0081-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696777PMC
November 2017
18 Reads

Current research into brain barriers and the delivery of therapeutics for neurological diseases: a report on CNS barrier congress London, UK, 2017.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2017 Nov 7;14(1):31. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

CNRS, NICN, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.

This is a report on the CNS barrier congress held in London, UK, March 22-23rd 2017 and sponsored by Kisaco Research Ltd. The two 1-day sessions were chaired by John Greenwood and Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, respectively, and each session ended with a discussion led by the chair. Speakers consisted of invited academic researchers studying the brain barriers in relation to neurological diseases and industry researchers studying new methods to deliver therapeutics to treat neurological diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-017-0079-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674735PMC
November 2017
24 Reads