3,389 results match your criteria Flexor Tendon Anatomy


Finger Flexor Pulley Injuries in Rock Climbers.

Wilderness Environ Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Section Sportsorthopedics and Sportsmedicine, Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg, FRG, Germany; Department of Trauma Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, FRG, Germany; Section of Wilderness Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO; School of Clinical and Applied Sciences, Leeds Becket University, Leeds, UK.

Finger flexor pulley system injuries are the most common overuse injury in rock climbers. These injuries occur rarely outside of rock climbing, owing to the sport's unique biomechanical demands on the finger. As rock climbing continues to grow and earn recognition as a mainstream sport, an understanding of how to diagnose and treat these injuries also has become important. Read More

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Key indicators of repetitive overuse-induced neuromuscular inflammation and fibrosis are prevented by manual therapy in a rat model.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 5;22(1):417. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, 3500 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

Background: We examined the effectiveness of a manual therapy consisting of forearm skin rolling, muscle mobilization, and upper extremity traction as a preventive treatment for rats performing an intensive lever-pulling task. We hypothesized that this treatment would reduce task-induced neuromuscular and tendon inflammation, fibrosis, and sensorimotor declines.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats performed a reaching and lever pulling task for a food reward, 2 h/day, 3 days/week, for 12 weeks, while simultaneously receiving the manual therapy treatment 3 times per week for 12 weeks to either the task-involved upper extremities (TASK-Tx), or the lower extremities as an active control group (TASK-Ac). Read More

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A novel accessory muscle in the flexor compartment of anterior forearm inserting into the tenosynovium of the flexor pollicis longus.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

A common variant of accessory muscles in the anterior forearm is the Gantzer's muscle (GM). GM arises as a muscle belly from flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) or ulnar coronoid process to merge distally with the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) muscle. In the present case report, we describe a novel accessory muscle in the flexor compartment of the forearm. Read More

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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) suture vs fiberwire and polypropylene in flexor tendon repair.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg FAU, University of Erlangen Medical Center, Krankenhausstr. 12, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: In this study, we evaluate the value of novel suture material based on monofilamentous-extruded polyfluoroethylene (PTFE) compared to polypropylene (PPL) and Fiberwire (FW).

Materials And Methods: 60 flexor tendons were harvested from fresh cadaveric upper extremities. 4-0 sutures strands were used in the PPL, FW and PTFE group. Read More

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Spiral Oblique Retinacular Ligament Procedure Using Flexor Digitorum Profundus Hemi-Tendon Transfer: Anatomical Basis and Clinical Application.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Service de Chirurgie Plastique et de la Main, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: The spiral oblique retinacular ligament (SORL) procedure acts as a dynamic tenodesis to restore distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) extension and restrain proximal interphalangeal hyperextension. Despite the ingenious technique based on the oblique retinacular ligament anatomy, obtaining strong internal fixation remains an issue during the SORL procedure. We present a modified technique using the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) hemi-tendon transfer. Read More

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Does Digital Nerve Injury Affect Range of Motion Recovery After Zone 2 Flexor Tendon Repair?

Hand (N Y) 2021 Apr 14:15589447211003187. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Evidence surrounding the impact of concomitant digital nerve injury on the outcome of zone 2 flexor tendon repair is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of digital nerve injury on the range of motion recovery after zone 2 flexor tendon repair. We hypothesized that digital nerve injury is independently associated with decreased motion after zone 2 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) repair. Read More

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Suture Suspension Arthroplasty for Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthritis Reconstruction: 12 to 14-Year Follow-up.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Apr 8:15589447211003176. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Many surgical procedures have been described for the treatment of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis, with significant variation. To date, none has proven to be superior. The purpose of this study was to report long-term follow-up results of suture suspension arthroplasty (SSA). Read More

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The Vascular Basis of the Pronator Quadratus Muscle Flap and Its Use in Clinical Cases.

Indian J Plast Surg 2021 Jan 7;54(1):63-68. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

 Pronator quadratus (PQ) is a deeply situated muscle in the forearm which may occasionally be utilized for soft-tissue reconstruction. The purpose of this anatomical and clinical study was to confirm vascular supply of PQ muscle (PQM) in order to optimize its transfer and confirm its utility in clinical situations.  In Part A of the anatomical study, fresh human cadavers ( = 7) were prepared with an intra-arterial injection of lead oxide and gelatin solution, and PQM and neurovascular pedicle were dissected ( = 14). Read More

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January 2021

Assessment of short-term response and review of technique of ultrasound-guided percutaneous A1 pulley release for the treatment of trigger finger.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Radiology, Benson Radiology, Wayville, SA, Australia.

Introduction: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous first annular pulley (A1) release is a non-surgical management for the treatment of trigger finger, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis. Trigger finger occurs secondary to inflammation and retinacular sheath hypertrophy with subsequent restriction of the flexor tendons. Trigger finger can have a marked functional impact, with current conservative measures including steroids and/or splinting, and surgical therapy involving open release. Read More

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Comparative anatomic and morphometric examination of the interosseous muscle, sesamoid ligaments and flexor tendons of the fetlock in South American camelids.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.

This study presents a comparative morphological and morphometrical examination of the interosseous muscle (IOM), digital flexor tendons and associated structures of all four species of South American Camelids (SACs): Lama (Lama glama), alpaca (Vicugna pacos), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna). Our findings show that the lamoid interosseous muscle and digital flexor tendons are very similar between species and differences, which have been reported previously, are possibly due to diverging examiner interpretation. Lumbricalis muscles were mostly found as single muscles in this study. Read More

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Revisiting the course of flexor carpi radialis tendon: A radiologic and cadaveric study.

Turk J Med Sci 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Background/aim: Carpal tunnel is an important anatomical passage that carries the flexor tendons into the hand. As there is still no consensus about its contents among the anatomy textbooks, the main purpose of this study was to identify the relations of the flexor carpi radialis tendon in the carpal tunnel.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was completed in April 2018 at authors? university?s hospital. Read More

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The Effects of Differences in the Morphologies of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament and Common Tendon of the Flexor-Pronator Muscles on Elbow Valgus Braking Function: A Simulation Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 18;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Anatomy, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8151, Japan.

The anterior bundle (AB) and posterior bundle (PB) of the ulnar collateral ligament and the anterior common tendon (ACT) and posterior common tendon (PCT) of the flexor-pronator muscles have an independent form and an unclear form. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of differences in the morphologies of the AB, PB, ACT, and PCT on the elbow valgus braking function. This investigation examined three elbows. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of intertendinous connections between the flexor digitorum brevis and longus on percutaneous tenotomy for the treatment of claw toes: an anatomic and ultrasound study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rouen University Hospital, 37 Boulevard Gambetta, 76000, Rouen, France.

Purpose: Selective percutaneous tenotomy of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is a treatment for claw toes that gives astonishingly good functional results despite tendon sacrifice. However, the involution of the FDL tendon stump after tenotomy is unknown. The aim of our study was to assess the involution of the tendon stump after selective percutaneous tenotomy of the FDL. Read More

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Two muscular variations in the elbow associated with the anterior interosseous nerve.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 May 15;43(5):735-739. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland.

The coexistence of different muscular-neurovascular variations is of significant clinical importance. A male cadaver, 76 years old at death, was subjected to routine anatomical dissection; the procedure was performed for research and teaching purposes at the Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz. The right forearm and hand were dissected using standard techniques according to a strictly specified protocol. Read More

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Evaluation of A2 and A4 Hand Pulley Repair Using Tendon Graft Rings.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL.

Purpose: To compare the mechanical characteristics of A2 and combined A2-A4 pulley repair in the intact and damaged flexor pulley system.

Methods: After control testing, we recorded tendon excursion and flexion of 11 cadaveric fingers after several interventions: (1) complete excision of A2 and A4, (2) repair of the A2 with one ring of tendon graft, (3) repair of the A2 with 2 rings of tendon graft, and (4) repair of the A2 with 2 rings combined with repair the A4 with one ring.

Results: At the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, the maximum rotational angle decreased by an average of 30% after complete excision of the A2 and A4 pulleys. Read More

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February 2021

Ligaments of the os trigonum: an anatomical study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Feb 7. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the ligaments of the os trigonum.

Methods: The ankle joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 104 patients with the os trigonum (experimental group) and 104 patients without the os trigonum (control group) were re-reviewed. The connections of the os trigonum and posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL), the fibulotalocalcaneal ligament (FTCL), the paratenon of the Achilles tendon, the posterior talocalcaneal ligament (PTCL), the osteofibrous tunnel of the flexor hallucis longus (OF-FHL) and the flexor retinaculum (FR) were studied. Read More

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February 2021

Proceed with Caution: Mouse Deep Digit Flexor Tendon Injury Model.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Jan 26;9(1):e3359. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif.

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using mouse models for translational study of flexor tendon repair and reconstruction.

Methods: Quantitative data detailing the gross anatomy, biomechanical characteristics, and microscopic structure of the deep digit flexor tendon (DDF) of the mouse hindpaw were obtained. Histological characterization of the DDF and the anatomy of the digit in the mouse hindpaw are detailed. Read More

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January 2021

The ulnar nerve is surrounded by the tendon expansion of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle at the wrist: an anatomical study of Guyon's canal.

Anat Sci Int 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe, 654-0142, Japan.

The ulnar tunnel (Guyon's canal) is an osseofibrous tunnel for the ulnar nerve and artery. With regard to the proximal palmar wall (palmar carpal ligament) of the ulnar tunnel, detailed anatomical data such as attachment sites, fibrous continuity to surroundings, and variations have not been clearly described. In this study, topology of Guyon's canal was examined, especially to the palmar side of the ulnar nerve, focusing on the continuity of tendinous structures to reveal a more detailed constitution of Guyon's canal. Read More

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February 2021

An unusual topographic relationship between high origin of superficial ulnar artery and bitendinous palmaris longus.

Anat Sci Int 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Division of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, 56000, Thailand.

The ulnar artery usually arises from the brachial artery at the cubital fossa. It descends beneath the flexor carpi ulnaris in the forearm and then terminates at the wrist joint by forming the superficial palmar arch with the contributory radial artery. In the present study, we report a more proximal origin of ulnar artery presenting a superficial course in the lower portion of the upper extremity, termed superficial ulnar artery. Read More

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February 2021

The Effects of Hypoxia-Reoxygenation in Mouse Digital Flexor Tendon-Derived Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 15;2020:7305392. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Hand Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Ischemia-reperfusion injury refers to the exacerbated and irreversible tissue damage caused by blood flow restoration after a period of ischemia. The hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) model in vitro is ideal for studying ischemia-reperfusion injury at the cellular level. We employed this model and investigated the effects of cobalt chloride- (CoCl-) induced H/R in cells derived from mouse digital flexor tendons. Read More

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December 2020

Accessory Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Discovered During Achilles Tendon Reconstruction: A Report of 2 Cases.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 Jan 14;11(1):e19.00447. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

OrthoNorCal Orthopedics, Santa Cruz, California.

Case: We present 2 cases of Achilles reconstruction using flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer for the augmentation of Achilles surgical repair during which the patients were noted to have accessory FHL tendons. Structure identification in the posterior ankle is important because the neurovascular bundle is in close proximity to the FHL; knowledge of the anatomy of variations is helpful, and 2 cases of accessory tendon variation are reported.

Conclusions: Achilles tears are typically primarily repaired. Read More

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January 2021

Ultrasonographic test for detecting the chiasma plantare formation between the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Graduate School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Reconstructive Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Purpose: Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons are frequently used in surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the chiasma plantare formation preoperatively. The development of ultrasonography (US) may help the chiasma plantare formation evaluation. Read More

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January 2021

Exploring the Morphology of Anterior Interosseous Nerve and Relating It to Its Clinical Conditions.

Turk Neurosurg 2021 ;31(1):107-111

Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Department of Anatomy, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Aim: To study topography and variability in the origin of anterior interosseous nerve; to identify the branching pattern of the anterior interosseous nerve supplying the flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, and pronator quadratus muscles.

Material And Methods: The present study included 70 formalin-fixed upper limbs of adult human cadavers. The origin of the anterior interosseous nerve was categorized into 3 types. Read More

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The Ideal Insertion Site for the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon in Jersey Finger Repair: A Biomechanical Analysis.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 May 25;46(5):426.e1-426.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Purpose: Most jersey finger repair techniques involve reattaching the tendon to an approximate location corresponding to the tendon's native attachment. This study aimed to determine the biomechanical effect on the distal interphalangeal joint flexion forces and range of motion when the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon attachment site on the distal phalanx is altered within its broad footprint.

Methods: We fixed 14 fresh-frozen cadaveric fingers to a wooden block with an attached pulley and weights system. Read More

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Lumbrical Muscles Neural Branching Patterns: A Cadaveric Study With Potential Clinical Implications.

Hand (N Y) 2020 Dec 21:1558944720963881. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: Lumbrical muscles originate in the palm from the 4 tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus and course distally along the radial side of the corresponding metacarpophalangeal joints, in front of the deep transverse metacarpal ligament. The first and second lumbrical muscles are typically innervated by the median nerve, and third and fourth by the ulnar nerve. A plethora of lumbrical muscle variants has been described, ranging from muscles' absence to reduction in their number or presence of accessory slips. Read More

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December 2020

Location of the Cut Flexor Tendons in the Palm Using Surface Anatomy: A Simple Guide for Minimal Incision Surgery.

Authors:
Afshin Fathi

World J Plast Surg 2020 Sep;9(3):321-325

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hand Zone 2 flexor injuries are among the most important tendon lesions and its prognosis is poorer than the other hand zones. Limited incisions prevent multiple skin flaps. The present study aimed to determine the location of palmar flexor tendons using surface anatomical markers to provide a simple and easy guide for hand surgeons assisting them in minimal incisions. Read More

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September 2020

Practical ultrasonographic technique to precisely identify and differentiate tendons and ligaments of the elbow at the level of the humeral epicondyles: anatomical study.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Jul 11;50(7):1369-1377. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Radiology, Teleradiology / HCOP - University of California, 408 Dickinson Street, San Diego, CA, 92103, USA.

Objectives: To develop a practical step-by-step technique to precisely identify and differentiate tendons and ligaments attaching to the humeral epicondyles, to confirm through gross anatomical study the accurate structure identification provided by this technique and to determine the frequency at which each structure can be identified in healthy volunteers.

Materials And Methods: First, ten fresh frozen cadavers (6 men, age at death = 58-92 years) were examined by two musculoskeletal radiologists and a step-by-step technique for the identification of tendons and ligaments at the level of humeral epicondyles was developed. Second, the accurate identification of structures was confirmed through gross anatomical study including anatomical sections on five specimens and layer-by-layer dissection technique on five others. Read More

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A new musculoskeletal AnyBody™ detailed hand model.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2020 Dec 10:1-11. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Scientific Computing Centre Ulm (UZWR), Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Musculoskeletal research questions regarding the prevention or rehabilitation of the hand can be addressed using inverse dynamics simulations when experiments are not possible. To date, no complete human hand model implemented in a holistic human body model has been fully developed. The aim of this work was to develop, implement, and validate a fully detailed hand model using the AnyBody Modelling System (AMS) (AnyBody, Aalborg, Denmark). Read More

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December 2020

Hand tendon injuries.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2020 Nov 2;81(11):1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal London Hospital, London, UK.

This article provides a comprehensive overview of hand tendon injuries. It has been tailored towards healthcare professionals who will be the first to assess these injuries and instigate appropriate management. It discusses the essential hand anatomy to be aware of, how to assess tendon injuries, their initial management and also the definitive surgical interventions used, if required. Read More

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November 2020