3,501 results match your criteria Flexor Tendon Anatomy


Anatomy of the Palmar Region of the Carpus of the Dog.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jun 18;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

The palmar region of the canine carpus is anatomically complex, and the information found in the literature about its anatomy is inconsistent. The aims of this prospective, descriptive, anatomic study were (1) the clarification and (2) the description of the precise anatomic composition of the palmar region of the canine carpus, with special reference to the . For this study, 92 cadaveric specimens were obtained from 46 dogs that had died for reasons unrelated to this study. Read More

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[Clinical anatomical study on the treatment of tarsal tunnel syndrome with four-point vertical acupotomy].

Zhongguo Gu Shang 2022 Jun;35(6):543-7

Department of Acupuncture, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Objective: To explore safety and accuracy of four-point acupotomy for the treatment of tarsal tunnel syndrome regarding release of ankle tunnel flexor retinaculum to provide an anatomical basis of clinical treatment.

Methods: Twenty-nine adult specimens (15 males and 14 females) fixed with 10% formalin, aged from 47 to 98 years old with an average age of (81.10±11. Read More

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Delayed Presentation of a Flexor Digitorum Profundus Avulsion Injury: A Case Report.

S D Med 2022 Mar;75(3):124-128

Sanford Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon is a relatively common injury in athletes. Also known as "jersey finger," it can also occur in nonathletes, and is often not initially diagnosed. Early diagnosis and repair are essential to regaining optimum return of function. Read More

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A Cadaveric Comparison of Approaches for Exposure of the Volar Distal Radius: Is There a Utilitarian Approach?

Hand (N Y) 2022 Jun 13:15589447221094320. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Indiana Hand to Shoulder Center, Indianapolis, USA.

Background: It remains unclear whether exposure for planned fixation of distal radius fractrues is superior with any given approach, and whether a single utilitarian approach exists that permits reliable complete exposure of the volar distal radius.

Methods: A cadaveric study was performed using 10 matched specimens. Group 1 consisted of 3 radially based approaches (standard flexor carpi radialis [FCR], standard FCR with radial retraction of FCR and flexor pollicis longus [FPL] tendons, extended FCR). Read More

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Accuracy and Safety of Non-Image Guided Trigger Finger Injections: A Cadaveric Study.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Jun 3:15589447221093676. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis is commonly treated by injection of corticosteroids into the flexor tendon sheath. However, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal technique, specifically when not utilizing ultrasound guidance. Here, we present a cadaver study in which 3 common techniques of flexor sheath injection were compared with regard to their accuracy and safety profiles. Read More

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The incidence and shape of the digital pulleys: a study of 192 fingers in 48 cadaveric hands.

J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2022 May 25:17531934221101716. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embriology, Universidad Complutense Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

We dissected 192 fingers in 48 fresh cadaveric hands (23 right and 25 left hands from 26 female and 22 male donors) and analysed the incidence, location, length and structure of the five annular and three cruciform pulleys. No statistically significant differences were found between left and right or between male and female hands. The A1, A2 and A4 pulleys were present in all fingers, while the incidence of other pulleys varied. Read More

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Prevalence of agenesis of palmaris longus in male and female genders on clinical examination - a review.

J Pak Med Assoc 2022 Apr;72(4):733-737

Department of Anatomy, Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan.

Palmaris longus is a muscle that is located in the anterior compartment of the forearm. Among the muscles belonging to the flexor compartment of forearm, palmaris longus is located at the most superficial position and that is why it is easy to access. It exhibits high variability and its prevalence ranges between 1. Read More

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Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Acute Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis.

Hand (N Y) 2022 May 24:15589447221092058. Epub 2022 May 24.

OhioHealth Grant Medical Center, Columbus, USA.

Background: The diagnosis of infectious flexor tenosynovitis (FTS) has historically been made based on physical exam using Kanavel's signs. The specificity of these findings has come into question. We looked to evaluate the use of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in increasing the successful diagnosis of FTS. Read More

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Extra-articular tenosynovial chondromatosis of the right fifth digit in a 59-year-old man: A case report and literature review.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 Aug 1;15(8):8-17. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiology, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY, USA.

Tenosynovial chondromatosis is a rare benign disorder characterized by formation of cartilaginous bodies within the synovia of the tendon sheaths. Most commonly present in the hands and feet. Clinical presentation and plain radiography can be inconclusive, which can lead to misclassification, most often confused as a chondroma of soft parts. Read More

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Recovery of the medial gastrocnemius muscle after calcaneus fracture differs between contractile and elastic components.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2022 Jun 10;96:105664. Epub 2022 May 10.

Institute for Biomechanics, BG Klinikum Murnau, Murnau, Germany; Institute for Biomechanics, Paracelsus Medical Private University, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Calcaneal fractures result in severe functional impairments and walking restrictions. Postoperative evaluation mainly focusses on the restoration of calcaneal anatomy while ankle plantar flexor insufficiency remains largely neglected. This study aims to investigate biomechanical and morphologic adaptions of elastic and contractile components of the gastrocnemius medialis after unilateral calcaneal fracture. Read More

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A Rare Anatomical Finding of Undescribed Accessory Palmaris Longus in the Distal Forearm: A Case Report.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Apr 29;10(4):e4240. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Plastic Surgery Department, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Upper limb muscle anomalies and their clinical implications have been described frequently in the literature reviews. In this article, we are presenting a case of aberrant forearm muscle that had not been described before, and could be considered as a palmaris longus muscle variation. A 24-year-old man presented to the emergency department, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar, with right forearm laceration with multiple cut structures for which he was admitted for exploration and repair. Read More

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Role of Pronator Quadratus Repair in Volar Locking Plate Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Zhang, Meyer, Earp, and Blazar), and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (Zhang, Meyer, Earp, and Blazar).

Distal radius fractures are the most common type of upper extremity fractures, and their incidence is increasing. There has been a rise in the surgical treatment of distal radius fractures, primarily with volar locking plate fixation. Although this procedure is commonly done among orthopaedic surgeons, the role of pronator quadratus repair after fixation remains controversial. Read More

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A unique bilateral accessory forearm flexor muscle.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Anatomy, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Muscular and neurovascular variations in the upper extremity are of utmost clinical significance. Here we report a unique bilateral accessory muscle in the forearm and palm of an 89-year-old male cadaver. The accessory muscle presented two bellies on the right side, one in the forearm, innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve, and the other in the palm, innervated by a branch of the median nerve. Read More

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Anatomical variation of quadratus plantae in relation with flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus: a rare case.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2022 Apr 5. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The quadratus plantae (QP) is considered as a part of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles. This muscle has two lateral and medial heads of origin, both of which arise from the plantar surface of calcaneus, and insert into the tendon of flexor digitorum longus (FDL). Various functions have been attributed to the QP muscle, which includes assisting the plantar flexion of the lateral four toes, straightening the oblique pull of FDL and etc. Read More

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Biomechanical Cadaveric Evaluation of the Role of Medial Column Instability in Hallux Valgus Deformity.

Foot Ankle Int 2022 Jun 3;43(6):830-839. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Department of Informatics and Sports, University Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.

Background: Medial column instability is a frequent finding in patients with flatfeet and hallux valgus, within others. The etiology of hallux valgus is multifactorial, and medial ray axial rotation has been mentioned as having an individual role. Our objective was to design a novel cadaveric foot model where we could re-create through progressive medial column ligament damage some components of a hallux valgus deformity. Read More

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Using Short Term of High Power Laser Therapy in Horse's Tendon Injuries.

Arch Razi Inst 2021 11 30;76(5):1437-1444. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Kirkuk, Iraq.

High-power laser therapy has been used as a treatment to cure sports injuries; however, there are no controlled standardized studies on its efficacy. Moreover, high-power laser therapy has been applied for the sport horses field. This study aimed to investigate whether high-power laser therapy can cure tendon disorders and reduce the pain in tendon lesions in injured horses and also to examine the effect of laser therapy on injured horses. Read More

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November 2021

Characterization of scar tissue biomechanics during adult murine flexor tendon healing.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2022 06 23;130:105192. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Tendon injuries are very common and result in significant impairments in mobility and quality of life. During healing, tendons produce a scar at the injury site, characterized by abundant and disorganized extracellular matrix and by permanent deficits in mechanical integrity compared to healthy tendon. Although a significant amount of work has been done to understand the healing process of tendons and to develop potential therapeutics for tendon regeneration, there is still a significant gap in terms of assessing the direct effects of therapeutics on the functional and material quality specifically of the scar tissue, and thus, on the overall tendon healing process. Read More

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Management of Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 May 10;30(10):e751-e759. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (Chen and Panchbhavi), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Naval Medical Center San Diego, CA (Janney), and the Oneida Orthopaedic Specialists - Oneida, NY (Khalid).

Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that can lead to chronic, debilitating heel pain in athletes and nonathletes alike. Conservative treatment options include activity and shoe wear modification, physical therapy, injections, and extracorporeal shock wave therapy. When nonsurgical treatment fails, surgical treatment is recommended. Read More

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Traumatic Zone II Flexor Tendon Injury Repair Through a Traumatic Dorsal Approach.

Orthopedics 2022 Mar 4:1-4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Zone II flexor tendons present unique challenges for repair because of their complex anatomy in a confined space. The approach for zone II injuries is often dictated by preexisting traumatic skin lacerations, with a midaxial or volar approach being most common. In some injuries, this approach is not viable, and alternative approaches must be considered. Read More

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Effect of exercising in water on the fibrocartilage of the deep digital flexor tendon in rats with induced diabetes.

Tissue Cell 2022 Jun 22;76:101764. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biomédicas, Centro Universitário da Fundação Hermínio Ometto - FHO, Araras, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) are affected four times more by tendinopathies than non-diabetics. On the other hand, physical activity helps to DM control. However, the effects of physical exercise in water (PEW) on the fibrocartilages present in the tendons of animals affected by DM are unknown. Read More

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Reoperation Following Zone II Flexor Tendon Repair.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Feb 26:15589447211043220. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

Background: The goal of zone II flexor tendon surgery is to perform a repair with sufficient strength to withstand the forces encountered during rehabilitation. Postoperative rerupture and adhesion formation may lead to reoperation. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with reoperation after primary zone II flexor tendon repair. Read More

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February 2022

A Simple Method to Locate the Master Knot of Henry Using the Correlation between the Flexor Tendon Length Parameter and the Foot Length.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 02 17;19(4). Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Anatomy, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu 42601, Korea.

The precise location of the Master Knot of Henry (MKH) has important clinical significance, but its anatomical definition has not been agreed upon. The purpose of this study is to present a linear regression equation for predicting length variables based on foot length, by evaluating the correlation of length variables related to flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL), with respect to the location of the MKH. A total of 95 limbs were dissected from 48 adult cadavers, and were fixed in formalin. Read More

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February 2022

Morphological pattern of the pes tendons in Bennett's Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus).

Anat Histol Embryol 2022 May 24;51(3):372-379. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Wallabies are small- to medium-sized hopping marsupials and have large and flexible tendons in their hind limbs that act like springs. This study aimed to show the morphological pattern of the pes tendons in Bennett's wallaby. Two Bennett's Wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) that died of natural causes have been used for this study. Read More

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Altered TGFB1 regulated pathways promote accelerated tendon healing in the superhealer MRL/MpJ mouse.

Sci Rep 2022 02 22;12(1):3026. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

To better understand the molecular mechanisms of tendon healing, we investigated the Murphy Roth's Large (MRL) mouse, which is considered a model of mammalian tissue regeneration. We show that compared to C57Bl/6J (C57) mice, injured MRL tendons have reduced fibrotic adhesions and cellular proliferation, with accelerated improvements in biomechanical properties. RNA-seq analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes in the C57 healing tendon at 7 days post injury were functionally linked to fibrosis, immune system signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, while the differentially expressed genes in the MRL injured tendon were dominated by cell cycle pathways. Read More

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February 2022

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Tendon Transfer for Wrist Extension.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2021 Oct-Dec;11(4). Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Shriners Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Peripheral nerve injuries are among the most complex conditions facing upper-extremity surgeons. Loss of wrist extension can result in marked limitations, including loss of pinch and grip strength with discoordination of grasp and release. Tendon transfers represent the mainstay of operative treatment and have proven to be an effective method for restoring loss of wrist extension. Read More

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November 2021

A refractory tenosynovitis of the wrist: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 21;16(1):75. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Rheumatology, University Hospital of Lausanne and Lausanne University, Avenue Pierre-Decker 4, 1005, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Mycobacterium malmoense is a species of slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. It causes mostly pulmonary infections or lymphadenitis in children, but is increasingly encountered in isolated tenosynovitis in adults. Diagnosis is often delayed because of the rarity of the condition and the difficulty of culturing the bacteria. Read More

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February 2022

Extensor Tendon Injury After Volar Locking Plating for Distal Radius Fractures: A Systematic Review.

Hand (N Y) 2022 Feb 15:15589447211068186. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Distal radius fractures are common orthopedic injuries. Treatment has varied historically, but volar locking plating currently predominates. Although flexor tendon injury is a well-studied complication of this operation, extensor tendon injury is less well studied. Read More

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February 2022

A Cadaveric Study of Thread Cubital Tunnel Release with Newly Developed Threads.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2022 Mar 17;65(2):307-314. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Incheon St. Mary`s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: The percutaneous thread transection technique is a surgical dissecting method using a dissecting thread inserted through a needle under ultrasound guidance without skin incision. As the new dissecting threads were developed domestically, this cadaver study was conducted to compare the effectiveness and safety between the new threads (ultra V sswire and smartwire-01) and a pre-existing commercial dissecting thread (loop & shear) by demonstrating a modified looped thread cubital tunnel release.

Methods: The percutaneous cubital tunnel release procedure was performed on 29 fresh cadaveric upper extremities. Read More

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"Haleem's Hen"; A mnemonic for the anatomy of hindfoot structures at the level of sustentaculum tali on coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images.

Eur J Radiol Open 2022 27;9:100398. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73014, United States.

Magnetic resonance anatomy of the hindfoot as seen at the level of the sustentaculum tali is intricate due to surrounding muscles, tendons, aponeurosis and ligaments. The objective of this work is to provide a mnemonic with illustrative figures to simplify this complex anatomical region on coronal T1-weighted MR images (T1-MRIs). One hundred and twenty-four patients referred for foot and ankle complaints were scanned utilizing standard MRI imaging protocols for depiction of the hindfoot. Read More

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January 2022

Glycine receptor subunit-β-deficiency in a mouse model of spasticity results in attenuated physical performance, growth, and muscle strength.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2022 05 2;322(5):R368-R388. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Laboratory for Myology, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Spasticity is the most common neurological disorder associated with increased muscle contraction causing impaired movement and gait. The aim of this study was to characterize the physical performance, skeletal muscle function, and phenotype of mice with a hereditary spastic mutation (B6.Cg-Glrb/J). Read More

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