3,460 results match your criteria Flaps Muscle and Musculocutaneous Flaps


Tailored concept for the plastic closure of pelvic defects resulting from extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) or pelvic exenteration.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Dresden-Friedrichstadt General Hospital, Teaching Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden, Friedrichstr. 41, Dresden, D-01067, Germany.

Purpose: No standard exists for reconstruction after extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) and pelvic exenteration. We propose a tailored concept with the use of bilateral gluteal V-Y advancement flaps in non-extended ELAPE and with vertical myocutaneous rectus abdominis muscle (VRAM) flaps in extended procedures. This retrospective study analyzes the feasibility of this concept. Read More

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Sacral Defect Reconstruction Using Double Pedicled Gracilis Muscle Flap combined with Gluteal Fasciocutaneous Rotation Flap.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 May 16;10(5):e4329. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Several reconstructive approaches have been described for reconstruction after sacral chordomas, classically myocutaneous flaps. Recently, postural muscle preservation techniques are preferred whenever possible. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who underwent en-bloc resection of a sacral chordoma resulting in a large three-dimensional defect. Read More

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Complications of platysma myocutaneous flap in patients with oral submucosal fibrosis: A systematic review.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2022 Jul-Aug;12(4):421-426. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Plastic Surgery, King George's Medical University, Shahmina Road, Lucknow, 226003, India.

Objective: This systematic review aims for the explanation of possible postoperative complications, efficacy and limitations of Platysma myocutaneous flap (PMF) in patients with oral submucosal fibrosis (OSMF).

Method: An electronic search of the literature was undertaken using PubMed, Cochrane Library, clinical trials.gov in the year 2021, using MeSH terms and keywords to identify prospective, retrospective and observational studies, controlled trials as well as case reports over the period 1913 to December 2021, addressing the patients with a mouth opening <25 mm and habit of gutkha chewing. Read More

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Inclusion of a latissimus dorsi segment in an extended lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap facilitates complex defect reconstruction.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, No. 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Beijing, 100144, China. Electronic address:

The pedicled lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap (LTMF) can extend far beyond the lateral border of the trapezius muscle, with a reliable blood supply. However, the distal part of the extended LTMF lacks a muscular component, limiting its usage in complex defect reconstruction, which often requires obliteration of dead space and coverage of vital structures. To overcome this limitation, we modified the LTMF by adding a segment of latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Read More

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Reducing Complications and Expanding Use of Robotic Rectus Abdominis Muscle Harvest for Pelvic Reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 07 19;150(1):190-195. Epub 2022 May 19.

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Medicine.

Summary: The rectus abdominis flap has long been a workhorse in perineal reconstruction. Although traditionally approached though an external incision, the morbid nature of the incision and subsequent violation of the anterior rectus sheath has encouraged innovation of minimally invasive approaches for harvest. In this study, we present our experience, evolution, and comparative outcomes of robotic rectus abdominis muscle harvest. Read More

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Analysis of the efficacy of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in reconstructive head and neck surgery.

Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp (Engl Ed) 2022 May-Jun;73(3):151-156

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences & Research and HAHC Hospital, Jamia Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, Delhi, India.

Introduction: Although free flaps have been used predominantly in past decades for the soft tissue reconstruction of head and neck malignancies, Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) is still a reliable workhorse for patients with co-existing co-morbidities or low economic status where free flaps are not feasible.

Patients And Methods: It was a retrospective study done on 36 patients of head and neck malignancies over the period of 5 years in which PMMF was used as a method of reconstruction in our hospital. Patients were followed up for a period of one year and outcome of PMMF was evaluated. Read More

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Surgical outcomes of reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the heel using various free flaps.

Acta Biomed 2022 05 11;93(2):e2022048. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Republic of Korea.

Background: The goals of heel reconstruction are functional and aesthetic. Primarily due to the particular function of the heel in supporting the entire weight of the body while standing, these goals can be achieved by providing the heel with a durable and weight-bearing surface with adequate contour. Various methods such as skin graft, fasciocutaneous, and musculocutaneous local flaps have been reported for reconstructing this area. Read More

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Ex Vivo Machine Thrombolysis Reduces Rethrombosis Rates in Salvaged Thrombosed Myocutaneous Flaps in Swine.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 07 10;150(1):81-90. Epub 2022 May 10.

From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre.

Background: There is a risk for thrombotic complications (2 to 5 percent) associated with microsurgical reconstruction. Current thrombolytic therapy has a salvage rate between 60 and 70 percent, but it is afflicted by bleeding complications (2 to 6 percent). The use of machine perfusion for delivering thrombolytic agents is a new method that could potentially reduce these complications. Read More

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Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap repair is effective after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2022 Apr 27;20(1):134. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Calmette Hospital of Kunming Medical University, No. 1228, Beijing Road, Panlong District, Kunming, 650224, Yunnan, China.

Objective: To describe the clinical outcome and physical condition of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap repair.

Methods: A retrospective review of 142 patients with locally advanced breast cancer was selected from 1156 breast cancer patients in the South and North areas of The Affiliated Calmette Hospital of Kunming Medical University between May 2008 and December 2018.

Results: All participants (n = 142) were women aged 40-55 years (average age 47. Read More

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[Clinical effects of free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with artificial dermis and split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of degloving injury in lower extremity].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2022 Apr;38(4):347-353

Department of Hand Surgery, Ningbo No.6 Hospital, Ningbo 315040, China.

To observe the clinical effects of free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap combined with artificial dermis and split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of degloving injury in lower limbs. A retrospective observational study was conducted. From December 2017 to December 2020, 8 patients with large skin and soft tissue defect caused by degloving injury in lower extremity were admitted to Ningbo No. Read More

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Efficacy of pedicled anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of regional defects - a record analysis.

Acta Chir Plast 2022 ;64(1):6-11

Background: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was described as the fasciocutaneous flap. It can be harvested as a pedicled and/or free flap. Majority of the free flaps are harvested as a fasciocutaneous flap. Read More

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Synchronous cervical necrotizing fasciitis and pharyngocutaneous fistula: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2022 Apr 29;93:106988. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopedy, School of Medicine, Ibb University of Medical Science, Ibb, Yemen.

Introduction And Importance: Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant infection that spreads along the fascial planes. It is a rare entity with potentially fatal outcomes. The head and neck involvement is infrequent, with primary source either odontogenic or pharyngeal infection by single or mixed bacterial flora. Read More

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Pedicled thoracodorsal artery perforator flap in the soft-tissue reconstruction of an acute traumatic cubital fossa defect.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Feb 26. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: Complex cubital fossa injuries with bony and vascular injuries are not an uncommon clinical presentation after trauma to the elbow. The revascularization of the upper limb by brachial artery repair with the venous graft is paramount, followed by immediate cover with a sturdy flap to salvage the limb. The use of local muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps is limited in the setting of vascular injury. Read More

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February 2022

Big data analysis of the risk factors and rates of perioperative transfusion in immediate autologous breast reconstruction.

Sci Rep 2022 03 29;12(1):5314. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 327, Sosa-ro, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 14647, Republic of Korea.

Patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are more likely to require perioperative transfusions due to the increased intraoperative bleeding. In addition to the mastectomy site, further incisions and muscle dissection are performed at the donor sites, including the back or abdomen, increasing the possibility of transfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate perioperative transfusion rates and risk factors according to the type of ABR through analysis of big data. Read More

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Intraoperative Blood Flow Analysis of DIEP vs. ms-TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction Combining Transit-Time Flowmetry and Microvascular Indocyanine Green Angiography.

J Pers Med 2022 Mar 16;12(3). Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Vascular patency is the key element for high flap survival rates. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the blood flow characteristics of deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) and muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (ms-TRAM) flaps for autologous breast reconstruction.

Methods: This prospective clinical study combined Transit-Time Flowmetry and microvascular Indocyanine Green Angiography for the measurement of blood flow volume, vascular resistance, and intrinsic transit time. Read More

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The Free Myocutaneous Tensor Fasciae Latae Flap-A Workhorse Flap for Sternal Defect Reconstruction: A Single-Center Experience.

J Pers Med 2022 Mar 9;12(3). Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Ludwig-Guttmann-Str. 13, D-67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Introduction: Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) after cardiac surgery pose a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. In this context, free flaps represent well-established options. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome after free myocutaneous tensor fasciae latae (TFL) flap reconstruction of sternal defects, with a special focus on surgical complications and donor-site morbidity. Read More

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The reconstructive strategy for pelvic oncological surgery with various types of MS-VRAM flaps.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Feb 24. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.41 Damucang Hutong, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: Muscle-sparing vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-VRAM) flaps are widely used in pelvic reconstruction. Aiming at optimal reconstructive outcomes, flap design and modification should be individualized to restore various kinds of defects.

Objective: Summarize an empirical strategy about MS-VRAM selection for different pelvic and perineal reconstructions. Read More

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February 2022

Circumferential pharyngeal reconstruction after total laryngopharyngectomy: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Oral Oncol 2022 04 14;127:105809. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, 20090 Pieve Emanuele - Milan, Italy; Otorhinolaryngology Unit, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano - Milan, Italy.

Objective: To compare the functional outcomes of different reconstructive techniques for circumferential pharyngeal reconstruction.

Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. Retrospective and prospective studies were included. Read More

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Analysis of 461 Consecutive Patients' Donor Site Morbidity following Abdominal Tissue-Based Breast Reconstruction without Fascia Reinforcement Graft.

Biomed Res Int 2022 15;2022:7221203. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Despite the popularity of breast reconstruction with abdominal flap, the integrity of the abdominal wall gets compromised after the operation. To decrease donor site morbidity, researchers have developed various inlay or onlay graft materials. However, the indications of use are unclear and dependent on the subjective decision of the surgeons. Read More

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24-hour Perfusion of Porcine Myocutaneous Flaps Mitigates Reperfusion Injury: A 7-day Follow-up Study.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Feb 21;10(2):e4123. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Static cold storage is the gold standard of preservation in vascularized composite allotransplantation and allows a preservation time of 4-6 hours. Machine preservation is a promising technique for prolonged preservation; however, studies on extended preservation that compare different preservatives are scarce. This study aims to assess the feasibility of 24-hour acellular perfusion and compares different preservation solutions in a porcine myocutaneous flap replantation model. Read More

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February 2022

Vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap to reconstruct thigh and groin defects: A retrospective cohort and systematic review.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Jun 19;75(6):1893-1901. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap is one of the options for soft-tissue reconstruction in the groin and thigh. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes, risk factors for complications, and the utility of using mesh to prevent abdominal hernia.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent VRAM flap reconstruction to reconstruct proximal thigh and groin defects from 1997 to 2018 was performed. Read More

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Musculocutaneous flap of the medial head of the triceps brachii: pedicled flap to cover the posterior cubital region.

Surg Radiol Anat 2022 Mar 10;44(3):479-484. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Medical School, Institute of Normal Anatomy, 4 rue Kirschleger, 67085, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: The medial head of the triceps brachii flap is already described as a local muscular or as a free flap. It allows coverage of defects of the posterior cubital region. The aim of this study was to describe the vascular anatomy of the musculocutaneous medial triceps brachii pedicled flap. Read More

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Reconstruction of a large chest wall defect using bilateral pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps and V-Y rotation advancement flaps: a case report.

Arch Plast Surg 2022 Jan 15;49(1):39-42. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Bilateral pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps are commonly used to reconstruct large chest wall defects. We report a case of large chest wall defect reconstruction using bilateral PMMC flaps augmented with axillary V-Y advancement rotation flaps for additional flap advancement. A 74-year-old male patient was operated on for recurrent glottic squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

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January 2022

[Application of free peroneal artery chimeric perforator flap in repairing the defect after advanced local lesions resection in parotid gland carcinoma].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jan;36(1):79-85

Department of Stomatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu Anhui, 233004, P. R. China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of free peroneal artery chimeric perforator flap in repairing the defect after advanced local lesions resection in parotid gland carcinoma (PGC).

Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2020, 32 patients with advanced local lesions of PGC were treated with extended radical resection. After that, 17 patients were repaired with the free peroneal artery chimeric perforator flaps (trial group) and another 15 patients were repaired with the pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (control group). Read More

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January 2022

Chest wall resection in locally advanced or recurrent breast cancer - series of three cases.

Gulf J Oncolog 2021 May;1(36):72-75

Department of Surgical Oncology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai.

Background: The usefulness of chest wall resection in breast cancer is poorly defined as extensive surgical resection is seen inappropriate, as it is regarded as harbinger of systemic disease. We report our experience of chest wall resection in recurrent or locally advanced breast cancers Case Presentation: We reviewed our institute records for chest wall resection in locally advanced or locally recurrent breast cancers from 2016 - 2018. There were 3 cases of chest wall resection for carcinoma breast. Read More

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Free tissue transfers for reconstruction of weight-bearing heel defects: Flap selection, ulceration management, and contour revisions.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 May 2;75(5):1557-1566. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung Medical College and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Soft tissue defects in the weight-bearing heel represent a reconstructive challenge because of tissue complexity and lack of local/regional coverage. This study presents our reconstruction outcomes of different defect aetiologies, reconstruction timing, and flap selection.

Methods: Patients with weight-bearing heel defects who underwent free tissue transfer from 2003 to 2014 and with at least 6 months of follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Limiting the fascia incision length in a DIEP flap: Repercussion on abdominal wall morbidity.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 03 15;75(3):1108-1116. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; University Hospitals Leuven; Belgium; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; AZ Delta Roeselare; Belgium.

Background: The evolution from free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap leads to less donor-site morbidity. However, rectus fascia is usually incised longitudinally from perforator(s) to iliac vessels, often exceeding 15 cm when including longitudinal muscle spreading. By using a limited fascia incisional (LFI-) technique, we try to diminish abdominal wall functional decrease. Read More

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Unilateral breast reconstruction using double transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flaps.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 03 14;75(3):1164-1170. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

St. Andrew's Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET UK; St Andrew's Anglia Ruskin (StAAR) Research Group, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine & Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK.

Introduction: When the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is unavailable, autologous reconstruction of a moderate-to-large breast presents a surgical challenge. We retrospectively review our experience of unilateral breast reconstruction using double transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flaps and highlight specific technical considerations.

Methods: Thirty-four patients underwent double TUG flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction between 2012 and 2020. Read More

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Abdominal and perineal hernia rates following vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap reconstruction - a supraregional experience.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 03 12;75(3):1158-1163. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of plastic and reconstructive surgery, Christchurch hospital.

Background: Vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap has proven to be a robust reconstruction method following radical pelvic surgery. Radical pelvic surgery is associated with high morbidity due to pelvic complications and non-healing perineal wounds, as a result of non-collapsible pelvic dead space and pre-operative adjuvant radiotherapy insult. VRAM flap reconstruction addresses both issues by obliterating the dead space and introducing healthy non-radiated tissue. Read More

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The sub-fascial pattern of the myocutaneous platysma flap - The anatomical basis and preliminary cases for oral reconstruction.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2022 Mar 2;50(3):267-273. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Dept. Maxillofacial Surgery, Head and Neck Cancer Centre, University and University Hospital of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

To verify the feasibility of the SF-MPF for oral reconstruction, the anatomic, sonographic and histologic features of the SF-MPF were investigated and the outcome in a series of patients was evaluated. The sonographic and histologic results showed a supra-fascial arterio-venous vascular blood supply to the sub-fascial design of the MPF. The clinical course of 12 consecutive patients who underwent oral reconstruction using the SF-MPF along with ipsi- or lateral neck dissection for treatment of oral cancer showed sufficient pedicle length and reliable blood supply. Read More

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