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    1 OF 317

    Upon entering an age of global ivermectin-based integrated mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases and malaria.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):168. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    River Blindness, Lymphatic Filariasis and Schistosomiasis Programs, The Carter Center, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.
    Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) in humans to reduce malaria vectors is yet another use for this remarkable medicine whose discoverers shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine with the discoverer of artemisinin. The malaria community should join those who have long used ivermectin MDA in an integrated battle to break transmission of three vector-borne parasitic diseases. Read More

    Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission I. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations regarding efficacy and safety.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):161. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ivermectin is an endectocide that has been used broadly in single dose community campaigns for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis for more than 30 years. There is now interest in the potential use of ivermectin regimens to reduce malaria transmission, envisaged as community-wide campaigns tailored to transmission patterns and as complement of the local vector control programme. The development of new ivermectin regimens or other novel endectocides will require integrated development of the drug in the context of traditional entomological tools and endpoints. Read More

    Immunoprophylaxis of multi-antigen peptide (MAP) vaccine for human lymphatic filariasis.
    Immunol Res 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600 025, India.
    Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model. Read More

    Monitoring thermal and chemical unfolding of Brugia malayi calreticulin using fluorescence and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226021, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
    Calreticulin of Brugia malayi (BmCRT) play very important role in host-parasite interaction. In previous study it was found that BmCRT is responsible for prevention of host classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with first component C1q of the human host. Therefore, BmCRT is an essential protein for parasite survival and an important drug target to fend filariasis. Read More

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extracts of Lippia citriodora: Antimicrobial, larvicidal and photocatalytic evaluations.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Jun 1;75:980-989. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), P.M.B. 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
    Nanoscience and nanotechnology represent new and enabling platforms that promise to provide broad range of novel and improved technologies for environmental, biological and other scientific applications. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Lippia citriodora at two different temperatures of 50°C and 90°C. The synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was monitored by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy at different temperatures and time intervals. Read More

    Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 14;10(1):182. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo. Read More

    Application of a household-based molecular xenomonitoring strategy to evaluate the lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Tamil Nadu, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 13;11(4):e0005519. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: The monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis (LF) has largely relied on the detection of antigenemia and antibodies in human populations. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes, may be an effective complementary method, particularly for detecting signals in low-level prevalence areas where Culex is the primary mosquito vector. This paper investigated the application of a household-based sampling method for MX in Tamil Nadu, India. Read More

    Novel carbazole aminoalcohols as inhibitors of β-hematin formation: Antiplasmodial and antischistosomal activities.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2017 Apr 2;7(2):191-199. Epub 2017 Apr 2.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis, and Filariasis, Key Laboratory of Parasitology and Vector Biology of the Chinese Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Malaria and schistosomiasis are two of the most socioeconomically devastating parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. Since current chemotherapeutic options are limited and defective, there is an urgent need to develop novel antiplasmodials and antischistosomals. Hemozoin is a disposal product formed from the hemoglobin digestion by some blood-feeding parasites. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Programme National de Lutte contre l'Onchocercose, Direction de l'Epidémiologie et de la Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministère de la Santé et de la Population, Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo.
    Background: The standard treatment strategy of mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed. We investigated one such alternative strategy for mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Republic of the Congo. Read More

    Reaching endpoints for lymphatic filariasis elimination- results from mass drug administration and nocturnal blood surveys, South Gujarat, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005476. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat, India.
    Background: Following the World Health Assembly resolution on Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (ELF) as a public health problem by the year 2020, a Global Program (GPELF) was launched in 1997 to help endemic countries to initiate national programs. The current strategy to interrupt transmission of LF, is administration of once-yearly, single-dose, two-drug regimen (Albendazole with Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) to be used in endemic areas with the goal of reaching 65% epidemiological coverage for 4-6 years. We report findings of independent assessment from year 2010 to 2015 for last six rounds, after initial five rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) since 2005 for ELF in endemic area of Gujarat. Read More

    Microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology: A rare finding.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):143-144
    Department of Pathology, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Read More

    Measuring the physical and economic impact of filarial lymphoedema in Chikwawa district, Malawi: a case-control study.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Apr 3;6(1):28. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi.

    Methods: A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated. Read More

    Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 30;11(3):e0005357. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Background: Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. Read More

    Oleanolic acid from antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Mar 27;177:13-21. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:
    Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Read More

    Probing intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine citrate salt by fast MAS (1)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy and GIPAW calculations.
    Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 2017 Mar 2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.
    Fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is used to probe intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine salt, that is widely used as a treatment against adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti which cause a common disease in tropical countries named filariasis. Specifically, a dihydrogen citrate salt that has improved thermal stability and solubility as compared to the free form is studied. One-dimensional (1)H, (13)C and (15)N and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C and (14)N-(1)H heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments under moderate and fast MAS together with GIPAW (CASTEP) calculations enable the assignment of the (1)H, (13)C and (14)N/(15)N resonances. Read More


    Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? Toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.
    The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Read More

    Ascension Island: a survey to assess the presence of Zika virus vectors.
    J R Army Med Corps 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Entomology Department, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus), RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus.
    Background And Aim: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island.

    Methods: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches. Read More

    Posttreatment Reactions After Single-Dose Diethylcarbamazine or Ivermectin in Subjects With Loa loa Infection.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(8):1017-1025
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Background.: Severe adverse reactions have been observed in individuals with Loa loa infection treated with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC), the drug of choice for loiasis, or ivermectin (IVM), which is used in mass drug administration programs for control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa. In this study, posttreatment clinical and immunologic reactions were compared following single-dose therapy with DEC or IVM to assess whether these reactions have the same underlying pathophysiology. Read More

    The Role of Spatial Statistics in the Control and Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Human African Trypanosomiasis, Schistosomiasis and Lymphatic Filariasis.
    Adv Parasitol 2017 9;97:187-241. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Read More

    Short-Course, High-Dose Rifampicin Achieves Wolbachia Depletion Predictive of Curative Outcomes in Preclinical Models of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 16;7(1):210. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Read More

    Pneumococcal Vaccine Response After Exposure to Parasites in Utero, in Infancy, or Mid-Childhood.
    Pediatrics 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.
    Background And Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization. Read More

    Mathematical analysis of a lymphatic filariasis model with quarantine and treatment.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Mar 16;17(1):265. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    School of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis is a globally neglected tropical parasitic disease which affects individuals of all ages and leads to an altered lymphatic system and abnormal enlargement of body parts.

    Methods: A mathematical model of lymphatic filariaris with intervention strategies is developed and analyzed. Control of infections is analyzed within the model through medical treatment of infected-acute individuals and quarantine of infected-chronic individuals. Read More

    Toxicity of β-citronellol, geraniol and linalool from Pelargonium roseum essential oil against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
    Res Vet Sci 2017 Mar 6;114:36-40. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Insect vectors are responsible for spreading devastating parasites and pathogens. A large number of botanicals have been suggested for eco-friendly control programs against mosquito vectors, and some of them are aromatic plants. Pelargonium roseum, a species belonging to the Geraniaceae family, due to its pleasant rose-like odor may represent a suitable candidate as mosquito repellent and/or larvicide. Read More

    Dynamic transcriptomes identify biogenic amines and insect-like hormonal regulation for mediating reproduction in Schistosoma japonicum.
    Nat Commun 2017 Mar 13;8:14693. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.
    Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. Read More

    Lymphatic Filariasis in Southwestern Nigerian Rural Communities: A Cross-sectional Survey of the Knowledge, Awareness, and Predisposing Factors.
    Ann Glob Health 2016 Sep - Oct;82(5):806-812
    Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
    Background: Nigeria is the second most endemic country in the world for lymphatic filariasis, with control efforts often hampered by poor community awareness and involvement in intervention strategies.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and psychosocial aspects of some residents in Nigerian rural communities about lymphatic filariasis in order to develop disease control and intervention strategies with active community involvement.

    Methods: A standardized questionnaire was adapted and a scale of measurement was developed. Read More

    Modeling the Parasitic Filariasis Spread by Mosquito in Periodic Environment.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 8;2017:4567452. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    School of Innovation Experiment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.
    In this paper a mosquito-borne parasitic infection model in periodic environment is considered. Threshold parameter R0 is given by linear next infection operator, which determined the dynamic behaviors of system. We obtain that when R0 < 1, the disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable and when R0 > 1 by Poincaré map we obtain that disease is uniformly persistent. Read More

    Predicting lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination dynamics using a multi-model ensemble framework.
    Epidemics 2017 Mar;18:16-28
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. Electronic address:
    Mathematical models of parasite transmission provide powerful tools for assessing the impacts of interventions. Owing to complexity and uncertainty, no single model may capture all features of transmission and elimination dynamics. Multi-model ensemble modelling offers a framework to help overcome biases of single models. Read More

    [Chyluria with "nephrotic syndrome-like" presentation: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach].
    Prog Urol 2016 Dec 27;26(16):1153-1156. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Service diététique, centre hospitalier métropole Savoie, place Lucien-Biset, BP 31125, 73011 Chambéry cedex, France. Electronic address:
    Chyluria implies an abnormal communication between the lymphatic system and the urinary tract. It is more frequent in endemic areas of lymphatic filariasis, which constitutes the main cause. Chyluria may mimic a nephrotic syndrome. Read More

    Amelanotic Melanoma Arising in Filarial Leg: A Report of a Rare Case.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):ED07-ED09. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, AIIMS, BBSR , Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .
    Amelanotic melanoma arising on chronic lymphoedema has not been reported earlier. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of right leg developing in a background of chronic lymphoedema of filarial origin in an elderly male of 60 years, who underwent wide local excision of the lesion followed by skin grafting for the same. A histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was made. Read More

    Seroprevalence of five neglected parasitic diseases among immigrants accessing five infectious and tropical diseases units in Italy: a cross-sectional study.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Objective: This multicentre cross-sectional study aims to estimate the prevalence of five neglected tropical diseases (Chagas disease, filariasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis and toxocariasis) among immigrants accessing health care facilities in five Italian cities (Bologna, Brescia, Florence, Rome, Verona).

    Methods: Individuals underwent a different set of serological tests, according to country of origin and presence of eosinophilia. Seropositive patients were treated and further followed up. Read More

    Assessment of lymphatic filariasis prior to re-starting mass drug administration campaigns in coastal Kenya.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 22;10(1):99. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease associated with extensive disfigurement and is one of a diverse group of diseases referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) which mainly occur among the poorest populations. In line with global recommendations to eliminate LF, Kenya launched its LF elimination programme in 2002 with the aim to implement annual mass drug administration (MDA) in order to interrupt LF transmission. However, the programme faced financial and administrative challenges over the years such that sustained annual MDA was not possible. Read More

    Trapping of ivermectin by a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel upon open-to-closed isomerization.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42481. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Laboratory of Ion Channels, The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences and The Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.
    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. By activating invertebrate pentameric glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl receptors; GluClRs), IVM induces sustained chloride influx and long-lasting membrane hyperpolarization that inhibit neural excitation in nematodes. Although IVM activates the C. Read More

    Detection of anti-filarial antibody among hydrocele patients living in an endemic area for filariasis.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):553-557
    Department of Microbiology, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background: The knowledge of the current prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and its transmission will be helpful in its elimination. Thus, the present study is aimed to determine its prevalence among hydrocele patients which is a common presentation in chronically infected cases.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred patients suffering from hydrocele admitted to the surgical ward were included in the study. Read More

    Future Research Priorities for Morbidity Control of Lymphedema.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;62(1):33-40
    Institute of Applied Dermatology, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.
    Background: Innovation in the treatment of lower extremity lymphedema has received low priority from the governments and pharmaceutical industry. Advancing lymphedema is irreversible and initiates fibrosis in the dermis, reactive changes in the epidermis and subcutis. Most medical treatments offered for lymphedema are either too demanding with a less than satisfactory response or patients have low concordance due to complex schedules. Read More

    Identifying the Main Mosquito Species in the Taiwan Strait Using DNA Barcoding.
    Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University - Key Laboratory of Plant Virology of Fujian Province Fuzhou, Fujian, China.
    Mosquitoes can transmit many types of viruses such West Nile virus and Zika virus and are responsible for virus-causing diseases including malaria, Dengue fever, yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis, and Japanese B encephalitis. On January 19, 2016, the first case of Zika virus infection was identified in Taiwan, which presents the need for studying the mosquito species in the Taiwan Strait and evaluating the risk of the outbreak of this infection. In this study, we collected a total of 144 specimens from 42 mosquito specimens belonging to 9 genera from both sides of the Taiwan Strait during 2013 and 2014. Read More

    Increased Fas ligand expression of peripheral B-1 cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis in filarial-infected patients.
    Parasite Immunol 2017 Apr 3;39(4). Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Cellular hyporesponsiveness observed during helminth infections is attributed to factors such as antigen-presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th)-cell apoptosis. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL-expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection were demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th-cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown. In this study, we have scored the profile of apoptotic Th-cell population and FasL-expressing B-1 cells in different clinical categories of filariasis. Read More

    Partnering for impact: Integrated transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis, soil transmitted helminths and malaria in Haiti.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 16;11(2):e0005387. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
    Background: Since 2001, Haiti's National Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) has worked to reduce the transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. The NPELF reached full national coverage with MDA for LF in 2012, and by 2014, a total of 14 evaluation units (48 communes) had met WHO eligibility criteria to conduct LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine whether prevalence had been reduced to below a threshold, such that transmission is assumed to be no longer sustainable. Haiti is also endemic for malaria and many communities suffer a high burden of soil transmitted helminths (STH). Read More

    Colorimetric tests for diagnosis of filarial infection and vector surveillance using non-instrumented nucleic acid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (NINA-LAMP).
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(2):e0169011. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA United States of America.
    Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Read More

    Molecular cloning, purification and characterization of Brugia malayi phosphoglycerate kinase.
    Protein Expr Purif 2017 Apr 10;132:152-163. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:
    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a glycolytic enzyme present in many parasites. It has been reported as a candidate molecule for drug and vaccine developments. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Brugia malayi 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (BmPGK) with an open reading frame of 1. Read More

    Coexistence of microfilaria with metastatic adenocarcinomatous deposit from breast in axillary lymph node cytology: A rare association.
    J Cytol 2017 Jan-Mar;34(1):43-45
    Department of Pathology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Filariasis is a global social health problem of tropical and sub tropical countries like India. W.bancrofti accounts for 95% of cases of lymphatic filariasis. Read More

    Circulating microfilariae in haematological malignancies: do they have a role in pathogenesis?
    J Helminthol 2017 Feb 9:1-3. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    National Institute of Immunohaematology,13th Floor,KEM Hospital,Parel,Mumbai 400012,India.
    Filariasis is very common in tropical countries. It is endemic in the coastal areas of India. We report four cases of haematological malignancy where peripheral blood and bone marrow smears did not show any microfilariae but conventional cytogenetic preparations from all the four cases showed the presence of parasites. Read More

    Immunity in Filarial Infections: Lessons from Animal Models and Human Studies.
    Scand J Immunol 2017 Apr;85(4):251-257
    Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science Technology, PMB, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity are extensively being investigated. Read More

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