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    [Identification of twospecies from Heng County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China by using morphological and DNA barcoding methods].
    Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2016 Apr;28(3):284-288
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective: To distinguish twospecies,andcollected from Heng County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, by using morphological and DNA barcoding methods.

    Methods: The adultandwere collected from the biotope such as rivers, ditches and ponds in Heng County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The two species specimens were identified by measuring shell morphological parameters, comparing the characters of the male reproductive system, and using the COI gene barcoding technique and building phylogenetic tree. Read More

    [Pattern analysis of tempo-spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in marshland epidemic areas in stage of transmission control].
    Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2016 Dec;28(6):624-629
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Commission of Health and Family Planning, WHO Collaborating Center for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective: To investigate the tempo-spatial patterns of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County, Hubei Province, so as to identify the risk areas and provide the scientific evidence in following intervention plans for marshland epidemic areas in the stage of transmission control.

    Methods: The schistosomiasis epidemiological data in Jiangling County from 2009 to 2013 together with the related geographical information were collected and analyzed. The tempo-spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by the spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial clustering analysis. Read More

    Operationalization of the test and not treat strategy to accelerate the elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Central Africa.
    Int Health 2018 Mar;10(suppl_1):i49-i53
    IRD UMI 233-INSERM U1175-Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.
    After 30 years of treatment with Mectizan (ivermectin), cutaneous and ocular complications of Onchocerca volvulus infection are now scarce in endemic communities. Indeed, transmission has been interrupted and the O. volvulus- associated disease has disappeared in some African foci. Read More

    How elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in the Kingdom of Cambodia was achieved.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Feb 20;7(1):15. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Ministry of Health, 477 Betong Street (Corner St.92), Village Trapangsvay, Sanakat Phnom Penh Thmey, Khan Sensok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    Background: Endemicity of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Cambodia was proven in 1956 when microfilariae were detected in mosquitos in the Kratié province. In 2001, an extensive study confirmed the presence of both Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. In 2003, the Ministry of Health established a national task force to develop policies and strategies for controlling and eliminating neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), with the goal of eliminating LF by 2015. Read More

    Management of arthropod vector data - Social and ecological dynamics facing the One Health perspective.
    Acta Trop 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, United States.
    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. Read More

    Subconjunctival ocular filariasis -Case report.
    Rom J Ophthalmol 2017 Jan-Mar;61(1):76-79
    County Emergency Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    We are presenting the case of a patient who was clinically diagnosed with subconjunctival ocular dirofilariasis, confirmed by the parasitological examination. The treatment consisted in the surgical extraction of the parasite, a local treatment with antibiotics and steroidal anti-inflammatory mydriatic and general treatment with antihelminthic, antibiotic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. The intraoperative and postoperative evolution of the case was favorable. Read More

    Multiplex serology for impact evaluation of bed net distribution on burden of lymphatic filariasis and four species of human malaria in northern Mozambique.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Feb 14;12(2):e0006278. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America.
    Background: Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases. Read More

    Community perspectives on persistent transmission of lymphatic filariasis in three hotspot districts in Ghana after 15 rounds of mass drug administration: a qualitative assessment.
    BMC Public Health 2018 02 13;18(1):238. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P.O Box LG 581, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started operation in 2000 and aimed at eliminating the disease by the year 2020, following 5-6 rounds of effective annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA). The MDA programme took off in Ghana in 2001 and has interrupted transmission in many areas while it has persisted in some areas after 10 or more rounds of MDA. This study was to appreciate community members' perspectives on MDA after over 15 years of implementation. Read More

    Estimation of the number of women of reproductive age in need of preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminth infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Feb 12;12(2):e0006269. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Background: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. Globally, as many as 2 billion people are considered to be at risk for soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections. Preschool children (PSAC), school-age children (SAC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of STH-attributable morbidity and preventive chemotherapy (PC) for STH is recommended by the World health Organization (WHO). Read More

    (Papaya) latex: a new paradigm to combat against dengue and filariasis vectorsand(Diptera: Culicidae).
    3 Biotech 2018 Feb 16;8(2):83. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    1Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu India.
    This study manifests the larvicidal efficacy oflatex extract and silver nanoparticles (CPAgNPs) synthesized using latex, against developing immature juveniles ofand. Briefly, the latex was collected and fractioned with different solvents such as chloroform, methanol and aqueously. The obtained crude extracts were subjected to larvicidal activity in the dose-dependent method. Read More

    Island-Wide Surveillance of Gastrointestinal Protozoan Infections on Fiji by Expanding Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Surveys as an Access Platform.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    As part of lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission assessment surveys (TAS) on Fiji, an island-wide assessment of gastrointestinal protozoan infection was performed through concomitant stool sample collections to investigate the distribution of the protozoan infection. All grade 1 and 2 students of 69 schools in the two main islands were targeted in two phases (one in the Western Division and the other in the Central and Northern, except Taveuni sub-Division of Northern), where fecal samples of 1,800 students were available for coproscopy using the formalin-ether-acetate concentration. The overall prevalence ofinfections was 1. Read More

    Elimination of lymphatic filariasis in west African urban areas: is implementation of mass drug administration necessary?
    Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Lymphatic filariasis in Africa is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and remains a major cause of morbidity and disability in 74 countries globally. A key strategy of the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, which has a target elimination date of 2020, is the treatment of entire endemic communities through mass drug administration of albendazole in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine. Although the strategy of mass drug administration in combination with other interventions, such as vector control, has led to elimination of the infection and its transmission in many rural communities, urban areas in west Africa present specific challenges to achieving the 2020 targets. Read More

    Economic evaluations of lymphatic filariasis interventions: a systematic review and research needs.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Feb 1;11(1):75. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    In 2000, the World Health Organization established the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), with the goal of eliminating the disease as a public health problem by 2020. Since the start of the programme, a cumulative total of 6.2 billion treatments have been delivered to affected populations - with more than 556 million people treated in 2015 alone. Read More

    Cord Blood Anti-Parasite IL-10 as Risk Marker for Compromised Vaccine Immunogenicity in Early Childhood.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Case Western Reserve University, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Cleveland, OH, United States.
    Background: Antenatal exposure to parasites can affect infants' subsequent responses to vaccination. The present study investigated how maternal prenatal infections and newborns' anti-parasite cytokine profiles relate to IgG responses to standard vaccination during infancy.

    Methods: 450 Kenyan women were tested for parasitic infections during pregnancy. Read More

    Filaria surveys in the Armed Forces: Need for a revisit.
    Med J Armed Forces India 2017 Oct 17;73(4):332-337. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Associate Professor, Dept of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune 411040, India.
    Background: Routine annual filarial surveys are conducted amongst various categories of military personnel and their families as per policies in vogue in the Armed Forces. The neglect and inattention faced by this disease needs to be addressed in terms of policy, provisioning and processes while dealing with filariasis in the Armed Forces.

    Methods: Routine annual filarial survey was conducted in a garrison during the months of Nov and Dec in 2013 and 2014. Read More

    Understanding heterogeneities in mosquito-bite exposure and infection distributions for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis.
    Proc Biol Sci 2018 Jan;285(1871)
    Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    It is well known that individuals in the same community can be exposed to a highly variable number of mosquito bites. This heterogeneity in bite exposure has consequences for the control of vector-borne diseases because a few people may be contributing significantly to transmission. However, very few studies measure sources of heterogeneity in a way which is relevant to decision-making. Read More

    Identifying co-endemic areas for major filarial infections in sub-Saharan Africa: seeking synergies and preventing severe adverse events during mass drug administration campaigns.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 31;11(1):70. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are major filarial infections targeted for elimination in most endemic sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries by 2020/2025. The current control strategies are built upon community-directed mass administration of ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis, and ivermectin plus albendazole for LF, with evidence pointing towards the potential for novel drug regimens. When distributing microfilaricides however, considerable care is needed to minimise the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) in areas that are co-endemic for onchocerciasis or LF and loiasis. Read More

    Current epidemiological evidence for predisposition to high or low intensity human helminth infection: a systematic review.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 31;11(1):65. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, London, W2 1PG, UK.
    Background: The human helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infections, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. It is estimated that almost 2 billion people worldwide are infected with helminths. Whilst the WHO treatment guidelines for helminth infections are mostly aimed at controlling morbidity, there has been a recent shift with some countries moving towards goals of disease elimination through mass drug administration, especially for LF and onchocerciasis. Read More

    Assessing the feasibility of integration of self-care for filarial lymphoedema into existing community leprosy self-help groups in Nepal.
    BMC Public Health 2018 01 30;18(1):201. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    American Leprosy Missions, Greenville, USA.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are disabling infectious diseases endemic in Nepal. LF infection can lead to lymphoedema and hydrocoele, while secondary effects of leprosy infection include impairments to hands, eyes and feet. The disabling effects of both conditions can be managed through self-care and the supportive effects of self-help groups (SHGs). Read More

    Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jan 30;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 4009, Libreville, Gabon.
    Background: Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon.

    Methods: During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. Read More

    Human infection with sub-periodic Brugia spp. in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka: a threat to filariasis elimination status?
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 29;11(1):68. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Post-mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance during the lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program in Sri Lanka, revealed the re-emergence of brugian filariasis after four decades. This study was done with the objectives of investigating the epidemiology and age-specific vulnerability to infection. Surveillance was done using night blood smears (NBS) and the Brugia rapid test (BRT), to detect microfilaria (MF) and anti-Brugia IgG4 antibodies in blood samples collected from an age-stratified population enrolled from two high-risk study areas (SA)s, Pubudugama and Wedamulla in the Gampaha District. Read More

    A superhydrophobic cone to facilitate the xenomonitoring of filarial parasites, malaria, and trypanosomes using mosquito excreta/feces.
    Gates Open Res 2017 Nov 6;1. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the testing of insect vectors for the presence of human pathogens, has the potential to provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method for monitoring the prevalence of disease within a community. Current MX methods require the capture and processing of large numbers of mosquitoes, particularly in areas of low endemicity, increasing the time, cost and labour required. Screening the excreta/feces (E/F) released from mosquitoes, rather than whole carcasses, improves the throughput by removing the need to discriminate vector species since non-vectors release ingested pathogens in E/F. Read More

    Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes In Deltamethrin-Resistant Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2017 Dec;33(4):324-330
    Culex quinquefasciatus is one of China's major house-dwelling mosquito species and an important vector of filariasis and encephalitis. Chemical treatments represent one of the most successful approaches for comprehensive mosquito prevention and control. However, the widespread use of chemical pesticides has led to the occurrence and development of insecticide resistance. Read More

    Immunomodulation of allergic response in children and adolescents: What we can learn from lymphatic filarial infection.
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2018 Mar - Apr;46(2):167-174. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Centro de Pesquisas em Alergia e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Background: Although it is well known that allergic diseases involve a strong Th2 immune response, with production of high levels of specific IgE allergen, knowledge on the association between filarial infection and allergies, among paediatric patients is scarce.

    Objective: To evaluate the allergic response patterns in cases of filarial infection by comparing peripheral eosinophils, total IgE levels, immediate hypersensitivity and cytokine levels in children and adolescents in Brazil.

    Methods: This was an exploratory study with three groups: (I) with filarial infection and without allergic diseases; (II) without filarial infection and with allergic diseases; and (III) without filarial infection and without allergic diseases. Read More

    A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Children in Suburban Public Primary Schools, Saraburi, the Central Region of Thailand.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Intestinal parasitic infection rate among school-aged children in Thailand has been decreasing. However, certain intestinal parasites remain problematic in some regions. This cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September 2016 in three suburban government primary schools (KK, BR, and HK), Saraburi, Thailand. Read More

    Molecular xenomonitoring for post-validation surveillance of lymphatic filariasis in Togo: no evidence for active transmission.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 23;11(1):52. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne filarial disease targeted for elimination by the year 2020. The Republic of Togo undertook mass treatment of entire endemic communities from 2000 to 2009 to eliminate the transmission of the disease and is currently the first sub-Saharan African country to be validated by WHO for the elimination of LF as a public health problem. However, post-validation surveillance activities are required to ensure the gains achieved are sustained. Read More

    Single dose moxidectin versus ivermectin for Onchocerca volvulus infection in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomised, controlled, double-blind phase 3 trial.
    Lancet 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: The morbidity and socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease that is primarily endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, have motivated large morbidity and transmission control programmes. Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. Elimination requires intensified efforts, including more efficacious treatments. Read More

    Follow-up Study of Patients Previously Diagnosed with Lymphatic Filariasis in Korea.
    Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2017 Dec 31;8(6):421-424. Epub 2017 Dec 31.
    Division of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, National Research Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Osong, Korea.
    Objectives: Korea was an endemic area for lymphatic filariasis (LF), caused by the nematode parasite, until the 1970s. The World Health Organization recognized Korea as LF-free in June 2008. However, it is necessary to confirm that patients that have had LF in the past still test negative, to prevent the re-emergence of LF in Korea. Read More

    Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 01 18;12(1):e0006020. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad Nacional de Salta/CONICET, Oran, Argentina.
    Ivermectin is a pivotal drug for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, which is increasingly identified as a useful drug for the control of other Neglected Tropical Diseases. Its role in the treatment of soil transmitted helminthiasis through improved efficacy against Trichuris trichiura in combination with other anthelmintics might accelerate the progress towards breaking transmission. Ivermectin is a derivative of Avermectin B1, and consists of an 80:20 mixture of the equipotent homologous 22,23 dehydro B1a and B1b. Read More

    Identification of anti-filarial leads against aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi: combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics approaches.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn 2018 Feb 6:1-17. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    a Department of Bioinformatics , Alagappa University , Karaikudi , India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating vector borne parasitic disease that infects human lymphatic system by nematode Brugia malayi. Currently available anti-filarial drugs are effective only on the larval stages of parasite. So far, no effective drugs are available for humans to treat filarial infections. Read More

    The Population Biology and Transmission Dynamics of Loa loa.
    Trends Parasitol 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research and MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Faculty of Medicine (St Mary's Campus), Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; Joint last authors. Electronic address:
    Endemic to Central Africa, loiasis - or African eye worm (caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa) - affects more than 10 million people. Despite causing ocular and systemic symptoms, it has typically been considered a benign condition, only of public health relevance because it impedes mass drug administration-based interventions against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in co-endemic areas. Recent research has challenged this conception, demonstrating excess mortality associated with high levels of infection, implying that loiasis warrants attention as an intrinsic public health problem. Read More

    Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 01 11;12(1):e0006126. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Background: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. Read More

    Travel-Related Parasitic Infections in Travellers to Southeast Asia and Western Pacific Countries.
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017 Dec;41(4):239-245
    Ege Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Parazitoloji Anabilim Dalı, İzmir, Türkiye.
    In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in international human mobility with increase in the prosperity, travel possibilities, and number of refugees. In the first half of 2016, the Asian continent showed the fastest growth in the number of tourists. Such increase is seen due to the interest in Asian history, culture, and cuisine. Read More

    Climate Change Contribution to the Emergence or Re-Emergence of Parasitic Diseases.
    Infect Dis (Auckl) 2017 25;10:1178633617732296. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences and Technology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA.
    The connection between our environment and parasitic diseases may not always be straightforward, but it exists nonetheless. This article highlights how climate as a component of our environment, or more specifically climate change, has the capability to drive parasitic disease incidence and prevalence worldwide. There are both direct and indirect implications of climate change on the scope and distribution of parasitic organisms and their associated vectors and host species. Read More

    A cross-sectional study of the filarial and Leishmania co-endemicity in two ecologically distinct settings in Mali.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Jan 8;11(1):18. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    International Center of Excellence in Research, Faculty of Medicine and Odontostomatology, Point G, Bamako, Mali.
    Background: Filariasis and leishmaniasis are two neglected tropical diseases in Mali. Due to distribution and associated clinical features, both diseases are of concern to public health. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with filarial (Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans) and Leishmania major parasites in two ecologically distinct areas of Mali, the Kolokani district (villages of Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana) in North Sudan Savanna area, and the district of Kolondieba (village of Boundioba) in the South Sudan Savanna area. Read More

    LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of diethylcarbamazine, albendazole and albendazole metabolites in human plasma: Application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Mar 24;151:84-90. Epub 2017 Dec 24.
    Dept of Pharmacy Practice, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States; Fred and Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States. Electronic address:
    Combination therapy with anti-filarial drugs is now widely used for treatment of lymphatic filariasis. A rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), albendazole (ABZ) and albendazole metabolites in human plasma. Separation and detection of analytes were achieved on a reversed phase column (Acquity UPLCBEH C18 column (100 × 2. Read More

    Combinations of registered drugs reduce treatment times required to deplete Wolbachia in the Litomosoides sigmodontis mouse model.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 4;12(1):e0006116. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Filarial parasites can be targeted by antibiotic treatment due to their unique endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia bacteria. This finding has led to successful treatment strategies in both, human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A 4-6 week treatment course using doxycycline results in long-term sterility and safe macrofilaricidal activity in humans. Read More

    Geographical distribution and species identification of human filariasis and onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.
    Acta Trop 2018 Apr 28;180:12-17. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Malaria & Emerging Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, National Microbiology Center, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:
    Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. Read More

    Assessment of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for filariae detection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 20;11(12):e0006093. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Aix-Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar), Inserm 1095, AP-HM Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging tool for routine identification of bacteria, archaea and fungi. It has also been recently applied as an accurate approach for arthropod identification. Preliminary studies have shown that the MALDI-TOF MS was able to differentiate whether ticks and mosquitoes were infected or not with some bacteria and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Read More

    Cytomorphological spectrum of epididymal nodules: An institution's experience.
    Cytojournal 2017 12;14:26. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Address: Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Epididymal lesions are uncommon in clinical practice. Few case series has been described in the literature documenting the role of cytology in the evaluation of epididymal nodules. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytomorphology of epididymal nodules and to evaluate role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in early definitive diagnosis of epididymal nodules. Read More

    The interruption of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti transmission by integrated chemotherapy in the Obongi focus, North Western Uganda.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(12):e0189306. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    University of South Florida, Global Health Infectious Disease Research, College of Public Health, Tampa, FL, United States of America.
    Intervention: Few studies have documented the interruption of onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) by integrated chemotherapy in Uganda. The study describes the interruption of transmission of the two diseases co-endemic in Obongi focus, north western Uganda. Base line data for Onchocerciasis and LF were collected in 1994 and 2006, respectively. Read More

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall.bark extract and their larvicidal activity against dengue and filariasis vectors.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Feb 17;117(2):377-389. Epub 2017 Dec 17.
    Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, India.
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal potential of methanol, hexane, acetone, chloroform, and aqueous bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous bark extract against the third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Read More

    Nanotitania crystals induced efficient photocatalytic color degradation, antimicrobial and larvicidal activity.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 6;178:496-504. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:
    Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Read More

    Lymph Node Enlargement in Neck Filariasis as a Rare Cause: A Case Report.
    Iran J Med Sci 2017 Sep;42(5):493-496
    Department of ENT, Kannur Medical College, Anjarakandy, Kerala, India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic to tropical countries and is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema in the the main etiological agent responsible. While the presentation of filariasis in limbs is common, isolated presentation as a single enlarged lymph node in the neck is very rare. Read More

    Moderating Factors in Tissue Tonometry and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measures in the Lower Extremity of Healthy Young People in Australia and Myanmar.
    Lymphat Res Biol 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    3 College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia .
    Background: Expected values for tissue tonometry and bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) in the lower extremity of young people have not been established. These measures are commonly used to assess tissue changes in adult, breast cancer-related lymphedema of the arm. In tropical regions, identification of tissue changes in the lower limbs related to lymphatic filariasis is required; hence expected values and factors contributing to variation in tissue tonometry and BIS in two tropical populations were investigated. Read More

    TLR Specific Immune Responses against Helminth Infections.
    J Parasitol Res 2017 31;2017:6865789. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Immunology, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India.
    Despite marked improvement in the quality of lives across the globe, more than 2 million individuals in socioeconomically disadvantaged environments remain infected by helminth (worm) parasites. Owing to the longevity of the worms and paucity of immunologic controls, these parasites survive for long periods within the bloodstream, lymphatics, and gastrointestinal tract resulting in pathologic conditions such as anemia, cirrhosis, and lymphatic filariasis. Despite infection, an asymptomatic state may be maintained by the host immunoregulatory environment, which involves multiple levels of regulatory cells and cytokines; a breakdown of this regulation is observed in pathological disease. Read More

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