17,684 results match your criteria Filariasis


The development of a capacity-strengthening program to promote self-care practices among people with lymphatic filariasis-related lymphedema in the Upper West Region of Ghana.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 May 7;10(1):64. Epub 2021 May 7.

AIM Initiative-American Leprosy Missions, Greenville, SC, USA.

Background: The Upper West region of Ghana is mostly made up of rural communities and is highly endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), with a significant burden of disability due to lymphedema and hydrocele. The aim of this paper is to describe an enhanced, evidence-based cascading training program for integrated lymphedema management in this region, and to present some initial outcomes.

Main Text: A baseline evaluation in the Upper West Region was carried out in 2019. Read More

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Wolbachia: endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and their vectors.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):245. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy.

Background: Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular maternally transmitted, gram-negative bacterium which forms a spectrum of endosymbiotic relationships from parasitism to obligatory mutualism in a wide range of arthropods and onchocercid nematodes, respectively. In arthropods Wolbachia produces reproductive manipulations such as male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis and cytoplasmic incompatibility for its propagation and provides an additional fitness benefit for the host to protect against pathogens, whilst in onchocercid nematodes, apart from the mutual metabolic dependence, this bacterium is involved in moulting, embryogenesis, growth and survival of the host.

Methods: This review details the molecular data of Wolbachia and its effect on host biology, immunity, ecology and evolution, reproduction, endosymbiont-based treatment and control strategies exploited for filariasis. Read More

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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201525. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Data61, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment of the relative risk of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and o'nyong'nyong arbovirus transmission by mosquito vectors to human hosts given a released transgenic strain of carrying a dominant sterile male gene construct. Harm is quantified by a logarithmic loss function that depends on the causal risk ratio, which is a quotient of basic reproduction numbers derived from mathematical models of disease transmission. Read More

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Co-occurrence of and in and first report of microfilariae in the chigger mite: possible evidence of a lifecycle pathway?

J Helminthol 2021 May 7;95:e25. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

While much attention has been paid to vector-borne filariasis, diseases that threaten millions of people in tropical and subtropical countries, the literature on host-parasite associations and transmission strategies of filarial nematodes in wildlife is scarce. Here, we report the co-occurrence of chigger mites (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi) and onchocercid nematodes (Oswaldofilaria chabaudi) parasitizing the lizard Tropidurus torquatus in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Examination of chiggers established, for the first time, the occurrence of microfilariae in trombiculid mites (Trombiculidae). Read More

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evidences on filarial cystatin as a putative ligand of human TLR4.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 6:1-17. Epub 2021 May 6.

Integrative Biochemistry & Immunology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol, West Bengal, India.

Cystatin is a small molecular weight immunomodulatory protein of filarial parasite that plays a pivotal role in downregulating the host immune response to prolong the survival of the parasite inside the host body. Hitherto, this protein is familiar as an inhibitor of human proteases. However, growing evidences on the role of cystatin in regulating inflammatory homeostasis prompted us to investigate the molecular reasons behind the explicit anti-inflammatory trait of this protein. Read More

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Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymphatic filariasis presenting as a swelling over the left elbow.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

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Trophic Behavior and Species Diversity of the Anopheles barbirostris Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

J Med Entomol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Species of the Anopheles barbirostris complex (Myzorhynchus Series of the subgenus Anopheles) are potential vectors of malaria and filariasis parasites. Owing to the lack of reliable identification methods, the biting activity and host preference of the species within this complex have not been previous described. In this study, the trophic behavior and host preferences of the species in the complex were determined in Thailand, and a map of their geographical distributions constructed. Read More

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Effect of Lymphatic Filariasis and Hookworm Infection on Pregnancy Course and Outcome in Women Living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

1UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), INSERM Unité 1175 and University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Little is known about the effect of helminth infections on the natural gynecological and pregnancy course. Our goal was to assess the relationship between Wuchereria bancrofti and hookworm (HW) infections with pregnancy course and outcome in a group of 82 women living in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Demographics and information on gynecological and obstetrical histories were collected retrospectively with standardized questionnaires. Read More

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Assessment of Etiology of Elephantiasis and Its Associated Risk Factors in Jeldu District, West Shoa, Ethiopia.

J Trop Med 2021 15;2021:5551637. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Elephantiasis is the main cause of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The aim of the current study was to assess the etiology of elephantiasis and its associated risk factors. Cross-sectional community-based study was carried out from March to May 2020 in seven purposively selected villages of Jeldu district. Read More

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Triggering the downstream apoptotic signal inside human parasitic organisms demonstrates a promising approach for anti-parasitic drug development: A mechanistic perspective.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 23;125:193-213. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Siksha-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Parasitic organisms of various genera have threatened humankind. Although they are not always fatal but can damage the well-being of an individual in terms of both economic and societal crisis. Marked progress has been made toward eliminating those pathogenic organisms, however, complete removal is still not possible. Read More

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January 2021

Assessing the Filariasis Causing Parasites in Adult Mosquitoes and the Vector Mosquito Larval Breeding in Selected Medical Officer of Health Areas in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

J Trop Med 2021 10;2021:6643226. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya 11600, Sri Lanka.

The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of filariasis causing parasites in adult mosquitoes and vector mosquito larval breeding in four Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Adult female mosquitoes at their resting places were collected using a prokopack aspirator operated twice a day from 7.00 am to 8. Read More

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Natural Products That Changed Society.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 26;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The Museum of Natural Medicine & The Pharmacognostic Collection, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Until the end of the 19th century all drugs were natural products or minerals. During the 19th century chemists succeeded in isolating pure natural products such as quinine, morphine, codeine and other compounds with beneficial effects. Pure compounds enabled accurate dosing to achieve serum levels within the pharmacological window and reproducible clinical effects. Read More

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Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti-Bestrophin Antibodies against Experimental Filariasis: Immunological, Immune-Informatics and Immune Simulation Investigations.

Antibodies (Basel) 2021 Apr 17;10(2). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Integrative Biochemistry & Immunology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol 713340, West Bengal, India.

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating parasitic disease caused by filarial parasites and it is prevalent across the underprivileged population throughout the globe. The inadequate efficacy of the existing treatment options has provoked the conception of alternative strategies, among which immunotherapy is steadily emerging as a promising option. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of an antibody-based immunotherapeutic approach in an experimental model of filariasis, i. Read More

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Triple-Drug Treatment Is Effective for Lymphatic Filariasis Microfilaria Clearance in Samoa.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 1;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia.

Following the first triple-drug mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis in Samoa in 2018, unexpected persistence of microfilaria (Mf) positivity in 18 (15%) of 121 antigen-positive persons was observed in a nationwide household survey 1-2 months later. Of the 18 Mf positive persons, 14 reported taking the MDA, raising concerns about MDA efficacy. In 2019, 5-6 months after the 2018 survey, a monitored treatment study was done to evaluate directly observed weight-based treatment in these Mf positive individuals. Read More

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Alternative approaches to lymphoedema care in lymphatic filariasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 29;15(4):e0009293. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

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Coverage Validation Survey for Lymphatic Filariasis Treatment in Itang Special District of Gambella Regional State of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 21;14:1537-1543. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Arba Minch University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Collaborative Research and Training Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia. In order to alleviate this problem Mass drug administration (MDA) has been given once a year for the public living in endemic sites. Despite this fact there might be a difference between reported coverage and the actual coverage on the ground due to various errors, so assessing the actual coverage through coverage validation survey appears imperative. Read More

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Unusual localization of blood-borne Loa loa microfilariae in the skin depends on microfilarial density in the blood: Implications for onchocerciasis diagnosis in co-endemic areas.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: The diagnostic gold standard for onchocerciasis relies on identification and enumeration of (skin-dwelling) Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) using the skin snip technique (SST). In a recent study, blood-borne Loa loa mf were found by SST in individuals heavily infected with L. loa, and microscopically misidentified as O. Read More

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Evaluating the diagnostic test accuracy of molecular xenomonitoring methods for characterising community burden of lymphatic filariasis.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Background: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of pathogen DNA in mosquitoes, is a recommended approach to support lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination efforts. Potential roles of MX include detecting presence of LF in communities and quantifying progress towards elimination of the disease. However, the relationship between MX results and human prevalence is poorly understood. Read More

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Survey design to monitor drug efficacy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis relies heavily on regular preventive chemotherapy. Monitoring drug efficacy is crucial to provide early warning of treatment failures. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a survey design in which only egg-positive individuals are retested after treatment. Read More

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Modelling the impact of vector control on lymphatic filariasis programmes: current approaches and limitations.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, UK.

Vector control is widely considered an important tool for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination but is not usually included in programme budgets and has often been secondary to other policy questions in modelling studies. Evidence from the field demonstrates that vector control can have a large impact on programme outcomes and even halt transmission entirely, but implementation is expensive. Models of LF have the potential to inform where and when resources should be focused, but often simplify vector dynamics and focus on capturing human prevalence trends, making them comparatively ill-designed for direct analysis of vector control measures. Read More

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Culex/ mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded along the Nile River in central and northern Sudan, with a key for the identification of all species of the genus known to occur in the country.

Zootaxa 2021 Apr 20;4963(3):zootaxa.4963.3.1. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Vector Genetics and Control Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan..

Despite the importance of Culex species as major vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus and the microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis, information on these mosquitoes in Sudan is limited to works published 65 years ago in the former Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, where some species were only recorded from areas of the territory now known as South Sudan. In this paper, we provide updated information on Culex mosquitoes collected indoors during surveillance studies conducted along the Nile River in central and northern areas of Sudan between 2012 and 2019. Of 3,411 female mosquitoes collected in Khartoum and northern states along the river, 2,560 (75%) were specimens of Culex belonging to 12 species: Cx. Read More

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Baseline Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Africa: The Accelerated WHO/AFRO Mapping Project.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

7The Taskforce for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia.

Mapping is a prerequisite for effective implementation of interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Before the accelerated WHO/AFRO NTD Mapping Project was initiated in 2014, mapping efforts in many countries were frequently carried out in an ad hoc and nonstandardized fashion. In 2013, there were at least 2,200 different districts (of the 4,851 districts in the WHO African region) that still required mapping, and in many of these districts, more than one disease needed to be mapped. Read More

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Disruption of redox homeostasis with synchronized activation of apoptosis highlights the antifilarial efficacy of novel piperine derivatives: An in vitro mechanistic approach.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 23;169:343-360. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Siksha-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, 731235, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

A series of novel piperine derivatives were synthesized with high yield and were evaluated for its antifilarial potential against the bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Among 21 (3a-3u) compounds screened, three of them (3k, 3l, 3s) showed significant potential against all the developmental stages (oocytes, microfilariae and adult) of the filarial worm in time and dose dependent manner. 3l showed the highest efficacy among the selected three compounds. Read More

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Supporting drug development for neglected tropical diseases using mathematical modelling.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Imperial College London, UK.

Drug-based interventions are at the heart of global efforts to reach elimination as a public health problem (trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis) or elimination of transmission (onchocerciasis) for five of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases tackled via the World Health Organization preventive chemotherapy strategy. While for some of these diseases there is optimism that currently available drugs will be sufficient to achieve the proposed elimination goals, for others-particularly onchocerciasis-there is a growing consensus that novel therapeutic options will be needed. Since in this area no high return of investment is possible, minimizing wasted money and resources is essential. Read More

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Filariasis presenting as a breast lump.

Breast J 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Medicine (1), Yangon, Myanmar.

Lymphatic filariasis is common in Myanmar. Filariasis of breast is rare. This is a case report of filariasis presenting as breast lump. Read More

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How should Indonesia consider its neglected tropical diseases in the COVID-19 era? Hopes and challenges (Review).

Biomed Rep 2021 Jun 6;14(6):53. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Dengue Study Group, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java 60115, Indonesia.

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some countries, including Indonesia, have faced a double burden with regards to disease control. As Indonesia is a tropical country, it serves as a suitable host for disease vectors and multiple microorganisms of causative agents of disease. In total, five of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) should be a consideration in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic, including leprosy, yaws, filariasis, soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis. Read More

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Development of an integrated, holistic care package for people with lymphoedema for use at the level of the Primary Health Care Unit in Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 20;15(4):e0009332. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of several communicable and non-communicable diseases prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. The co-endemicity of these diseases, the similarity of their clinical signs, and the need to maximize limited financial and human resources suggest the importance of adoptingan integratedapproach to their prevention and treatment.

Aims: This study describes the development of a comprehensive package of physical, mental health and psychosocial care for people with lower-limb lymphoedema caused bypodoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF)or leprosy as part of the EnDPoINT program in Ethiopia. Read More

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Preventive chemotherapy for the control of strongyloidiasis in school-age children: Estimating the ivermectin need.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 15;15(4):e0009314. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious-Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy.

Background: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) that affects approximately 600 million people worldwide. Interventions targeting S. stercoralis have not been implemented yet. Read More

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Larval habitat diversity and Anopheles mosquito species distribution in different ecological zones in Ghana.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 7;14(1):193. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Understanding the ecology of larval malaria and lymphatic filariasis mosquitoes in a changing environment is important in developing effective control tools or programmes. This study characterized the breeding habitats of Anopheles mosquitoes in rural communities in different ecological zones in Ghana during the dry and rainy seasons.

Methods: The spatio-temporal distribution, species composition, and abundance of larval Anopheles mosquitoes in breeding habitats were studied in five locations in three ecological zones of Ghana. Read More

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