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    Generation and selection of naïve fab library for parasitic antigen: Anti-BmSXP antibodies for lymphatic filariasis.
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
    Phage display has been applied successfully as a tool for the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Naive antibody libraries are unique as they are able to overcome several limitations associated with conventional monoclonal antibody generation methods like the hybridoma technology. Here, we performed an in vitro selection and generation of Fab antibodies against BmSXP, a recombinant antigen for the detection of lymphatic filariasis. Read More

    Improving the efficacy of a prophylactic vaccine formulation against lymphatic filariasis.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, 61107, USA.
    Mass drug administration (MDA) is the current strategy for interrupting the transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and control of the disease in endemic areas. However, subject non-compliance has resulted in the presence of several "transmission hotspots" in the endemic regions threatening the reemergence of LF. This situation is further complicated by the fact that the drugs used in MDA are not effective against adult LF worms, a major concern for the control strategy. Read More

    Community-based field implementation scenarios of a short message service reporting tool for lymphatic filariasis case estimates in Africa and Asia.
    Mhealth 2017 21;3:28. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) targeted for global elimination by 2020. Currently there is considerable international effort to scale-up morbidity management activities in endemic countries, however there remains a need for rapid, cost-effective methods and adaptable tools for obtaining estimates of people presenting with clinical manifestations of LF, namely lymphoedema and hydrocele. The mHealth tool 'MeasureSMS-Morbidity' allows health workers in endemic areas to use their own mobile phones to send clinical information in a simple format using short message service (SMS). Read More

    Molecular cloning and characterization of protein disulfide isomerase of Brugia malayi, a human lymphatic filarial parasite.
    EXCLI J 2017 1;16:824-839. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Lymphatic filariasis results in an altered lymphatic system and the abnormal enlargement of body parts, causing pain, serious disability and social stigma. Effective vaccines are still not available nowadays, drugs against the disease is required. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential catalyst of the endoplasmic reticulum which is involved in folding and chaperone activities in different biological systems. Read More

    Screening and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis in immigrants from endemic countries residing in a focus where it is considered eliminated in the Southern Region of Brazil: a risk of reemergence?
    Acta Trop 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó - Unochapecó, Faculdade de Medicina, Chapecó, SC, Brazil; Médica Infectologista, Hospital Unimed Chapecó, Brazil.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been targeted by the World Health Organization for elimination by the year 2020. However, migration of infected individuals from areas where LF is endemic to areas considered non-endemic or foci for the control and elimination may jeopardize the achievement of this goal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of filarial infection by way of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) circulation using the point of care AD12-immunochromatography card (POC-ICT) among immigrants from Haiti residing in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, between May and October 2015. Read More

    Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance.
    Acta Trop 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Laboratório de Malária e Dengue, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Avenida André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, Amazonas, 69067-375, Brazil.
    The occurrence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles potentiate the spread of several diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, urban yellow fever, filariasis, and malaria, a situation currently existing in Brazil and in Latin America. Control of the disease vectors is the most effective tool for containing the transmission of the pathogens causing these diseases, and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis has been widely used and has shown efficacy over many years. Read More

    Imported Infections with Mansonella perstans Nematodes, Italy.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Sep;23(9):1539-1542
    We report 74 patients in Italy infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes, a poorly described filarial parasite. M. perstans nematodes should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia from disease-endemic countries. Read More

    An evaluation of Wb123 antibody elisa in individuals treated with ivermectin and albendazole, and implementation challenges in Africa.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 29;27:65. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Ghana.
    The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that takes longer to develop. To this end a new antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123 has been developed and further designed into a point of care rapid diagnostic test, under evaluation. Read More

    Sequence analysis of mtDNA COI barcode region revealed three haplotypes within Culex pipiens assemblage.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Aug 14;181:102-110. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.
    Members of the Culex (Culex) pipiens assemblage are known vectors of deadly encephalitides, periodic filariasis, and West Nile virus throughout the world. However, members of this assemblage are morphologically indistinguishable or hard to distinguish and play distinct roles in transmission of the diseases. The current study aimed to provide further evidence on utility of the two most popular nuclear (ITS2-rDNA) and mitochondrial (COI barcode region) genetic markers to identify members of the assemblage. Read More

    Wuchereria bancrofti infection at four primary schools and surrounding communities with no previous blood surveys in northern Uganda: the prevalence after mass drug administrations and a report on suspected non-filarial endemic elephantiasis.
    Trop Med Health 2017 15;45:20. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Department of Molecular Protozoology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan.
    Background: A prevalence study of Wuchereria bancrofti infection was carried out in 2014 at 4 study sites in northern Uganda using antigen and microfilaria tests. Each study site consists of a primary school and surrounding communities. These sites are inside the filariasis endemic area and have been covered by mass drug administration under the national elimination programme. Read More

    The design of target specific antibodies (scFv) by applying de novo workflow: Case study on BmR1 antigen from Brugia malayi.
    J Mol Graph Model 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:
    De novo approach was applied to design single chain fragment variable (scFv) for BmR1, a recombinant antigen from Bm17DIII gene which is the primary antigen used for the detection of anti-BmR1 IgG4 antibodies in the diagnostic of lymphatic filariasis. Three epitopes of the BmR1 was previously predicted form an ab initio derived three-dimensional structure. A collection of energetically favourable conformations was generated via hot-spot-centric approach. Read More

    Adherence to ivermectin is more associated with perceptions of community directed treatment with ivermectin organization than with onchocerciasis beliefs.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 14;11(8):e0005849. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: The fight against onchocerciasis in Africa has boomed thanks to the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) program. However, in Cameroon, after more than 15 years of mass treatment, onchocerciasis prevalence is still above the non-transmission threshold. This study aimed to explore a possible association between people's beliefs/perceptions of onchocerciasis and of CDTI program, and their adherence to ivermectin in three regions of Cameroon. Read More

    Imported Asymptomatic Bancroftian Filariasis Discovered from a Plasmodium vivax Infected Patient: A Case Report from Singapore.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 18;2017:1972587. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074.
    Human lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease mainly caused by the parasitic nematode Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted worldwide within the tropical and subtropical regions. Singapore was once endemic for bancroftian filariasis but recent reports are scarce and the disease is nearly forgotten. The case report presented here reports the incidental hospital laboratory finding of an asymptomatic microfilaremia in a relapsing Plasmodium vivax imported case during a malaria treatment follow-up appointment. Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors associated with lymphatic filariasis in American Samoa after mass drug administration.
    Trop Med Health 2017 4;45:22. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine and College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia.
    Background: In 2000, American Samoa had 16.5% prevalence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) antigenemia. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was conducted using single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine from 2000 to 2006. Read More

    Molluscicidal activity and mechanism of toxicity of a novel salicylanilide ester derivative against Biomphalaria species.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Aug 10;10(1):383. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Parasitology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.
    Background: Schistosomiasis mansoni is one of the most important, but often neglected, tropical diseases transmitted by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. Control of the intermediate host snail plays a crucial role in preventing the spread of schistosomiasis. However, there is only one molluscicide, niclosamide, recommended by the World Health Organization. Read More

    Recombinant Calponin of human filariid Brugia malayi: Secondary structure and immunoprophylactic potential.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 5. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Division of Parasitology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, New Campus, BS 10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Lucknow 226 031, India. Electronic address:
    In the search for potential vaccine candidates for the control of human lymphatic filariasis, we recently identified calponin-like protein, that regulates actin/myosin interactions, in a proinflammatory fraction F8 (45.24-48.64kDa) of Brugia malayi adult worms. Read More

    Efficacy and tolerability of treatment with single doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and DEC plus albendazole (ABZ) for three consecutive years in lymphatic filariasis: a field study in India.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    World Health Organization (WHO), Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Product Research and Development, 20 Avenue Appia, Geneva 27, 1211, Geneva, CH, Switzerland.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) affects 73 countries, causes morbidity and impedes socioeconomic development. We had found no difference in safety and micro (Mf) and macro filarial action of single-dose diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and DEC + albendazole (ABZ) in an F01 study done in India (year 2000). There was a programmatic need to evaluate safety and efficacy of multiple annual treatments (F02). Read More

    Assessing endgame strategies for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis: A model-based evaluation of the impact of DEC-medicated salt.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 7;7(1):7386. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.
    Concern is growing regarding the prospects of achieving the global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) by 2020. Apart from operational difficulties, evidence is emerging which points to unique challenges that could confound achieving LF elimination as extinction targets draw near. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-medicated salt may overcome these complex challenges posed by the endgame phase of parasite elimination. Read More

    Important progress towards elimination of onchocerciasis in the West Region of Cameroon.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Aug 3;10(1):373. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Faculté de santé publique, Université catholique de Louvain, Clos Chapelle-aux-champs 30 bte B1.30.13, BE-1200, Brussels, Belgium.
    Background: After more than a decade of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in the West Region of Cameroon, epidemiological evaluation conducted in 2011 showed that onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities. The conceptual framework for onchocerciasis elimination recommends in such case, to conduct additional phase 1A surveys at intervals of three to four years. Therefore, to assess the progress made towards the elimination of onchocerciasis in the West CDTI projects, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in May 2015 in 15 unevaluated communities where the highest baseline endemicity level were found in 1996. Read More

    Embryonal carcinoma presenting as a calcified solitary testicular mass on ultrasound.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 31;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Urology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, USA.
    A 24-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of a painless right testicular mass; ultrasound demonstrated a dense, solitary calcified mass. The patient elected observation after further workup showed no evidence of metastasis.A repeat ultrasound 3 months later showed interval growth and the patient underwent right radical orchiectomy. Read More

    Ocular Dirofilariasis: A Rare case from Mumbai, India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):DD09-DD10. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, B.Y.L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Dirofilariasis is a worldwide zoonotic filariasis. Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection most commonly caused by Dirofilariarepens. Dirofilariasis, caused by Dirofilaria repens, has been reported to occur widely throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. Read More

    The Current Status of Molecular Xenomonitoring for Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis.
    Trends Parasitol 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    The capacity of vector insect surveillance to provide estimates of pathogen prevalence and transmission potential has long been recognized within the global communities tasked with eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF), the underlying cause of elephantiasis and hydrocele, and onchocerciasis (river blindness). Initially restricted to the practice of dissection, the potential of vector monitoring has grown due to the advent of molecular methods capable of increasing the sensitivity and throughput of testing. However, despite such advancement, operational research gaps remain. Read More

    A novel rapid test for detecting antibody responses to Loa loa infections.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 27;11(7):e0005741. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Drugs & Diagnostics for Tropical Diseases, San Diego, California, United States of America.
    Ivermectin-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs have achieved remarkable success towards the elimination of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. However, their full implementation has been hindered in Central Africa by the occurrence of ivermectin-related severe adverse events (SAEs) in a subset of individuals with high circulating levels of Loa loa microfilariae. Extending MDA to areas with coincident L. Read More

    Criteria to Stop Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Have Been Achieved Throughout Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Nigeria has the largest population at risk for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Africa. This study used a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine whether mass drug administration (MDA) for LF could stop in 21 districts, divided into four evaluation units (EUs), of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, after 8-12 years of annual albendazole-ivermectin treatment. A total of 7,131 first- and second-year primary school children (approximately 6-7 years old) were tested for LF antigen by immunochromatographic test (ICT) from May to June 2012. Read More

    Genome-wide analysis of ivermectin response by Onchocerca volvulus reveals that genetic drift and soft selective sweeps contribute to loss of drug sensitivity.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 26;11(7):e0005816. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Background: Treatment of onchocerciasis using mass ivermectin administration has reduced morbidity and transmission throughout Africa and Central/South America. Mass drug administration is likely to exert selection pressure on parasites, and phenotypic and genetic changes in several Onchocerca volvulus populations from Cameroon and Ghana-exposed to more than a decade of regular ivermectin treatment-have raised concern that sub-optimal responses to ivermectin's anti-fecundity effect are becoming more frequent and may spread.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Pooled next generation sequencing (Pool-seq) was used to characterise genetic diversity within and between 108 adult female worms differing in ivermectin treatment history and response. Read More

    Lipid profiling of the filarial nematodes Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis reveals the accumulation of nematode-specific ether phospholipids in the host.
    Int J Parasitol 2017 Jul 23. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    Institute of Molecular Physiology and Biotechnology of Plants, University of Bonn, Karlrobert-Kreiten-Str. 13, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:
    Onchocerciasis, a neglected tropical disease prevalent in western and central Africa, is a major health problem and has been targeted for elimination. The causative agent for this disease is the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Onchocerca ochengi and Litomosoides sigmodontis, infectious agents of cattle and rodents, respectively, serve as model organisms to study filarial nematode infections. Read More

    Pathological manifestations in lymphatic filariasis correlate with lack of inhibitory properties of IgG4 antibodies on IgE-activated granulocytes.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 24;11(7):e0005777. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Helminth parasites are known to be efficient modulators of their host's immune system. To guarantee their own survival, they induce alongside the classical Th2 a strong regulatory response with high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and elevated plasma levels of IgG4. This particular antibody was shown in different models to exhibit immunosuppressive properties. Read More

    In vivo neutralization of α4 and β7 integrins inhibits eosinophil trafficking and prevents lung injury during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in mice.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Parasitology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
    Integrins regulate leukocyte trafficking during homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. However, the role of α4 and β7 integrins in guiding eosinophil transmigration into the lungs during filarial manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia (TPE) has not been explored. In this study, mice exhibiting TPE manifestations were administered with in vivo neutralizing antibodies against integrins α4 and β7 or their combination and immuno-pathological parameters were evaluated. Read More

    Impact of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Nepal.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 19;11(7):e0005788. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Epidemiology and Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Nepal has implemented a national effort to eliminate LF by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB). We assessed the impact of MDAs on LF in selected districts of Nepal after the recommended six MDA rounds had been completed. Read More

    Side Benefits of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Strongyloides stercoralis Prevalence on Pemba Island, Tanzania.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Strongyloides stercoralis, although endemic in many countries, is not included in helminth control programs. Few data are available on the prevalence and morbidity linked to this infection. We compared data from two studies conducted in 1998 and 2013 on Pemba Island, Tanzania, involving 525 and 509 schoolchildren, respectively. Read More

    Risk Factors for Podoconiosis: Kamwenge District, Western Uganda, September 2015.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1490-1496
    World Health Organization Uganda Country Office, Kampala, Uganda.
    AbstractPodoconiosis, a noninfectious elephantiasis, is a disabling neglected tropical disease. In August 2015, an elephantiasis case-cluster was reported in Kamwenge District, western Uganda. We investigated to identify the disease's nature and risk factors. Read More

    The antenna transcriptome changes in mosquito Anopheles sinensis, pre- and post- blood meal.
    PLoS One 2017 17;12(7):e0181399. Epub 2017 Jul 17.
    College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Antenna is the main chemosensory organ in mosquitoes. Characterization of the transcriptional changes after blood meal, especially those related to chemoreception, may help to explain mosquito blood sucking behavior and to identify novel targets for mosquito control. Anopheles sinensis is an Asiatic mosquito species which transmits malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Read More

    Filariasis Presenting As Bone Marrow Suppression.
    J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2016 Jul-Sep;28(3):609-610
    Department of Anaesthesia, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna-India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is caused by most commonly Wuchereria bancrofti in India. The diagnosis is made by demonstration of microfilariae in the peripheral blood, body fluids, fine needle aspirates and in bronchial brushings. Presence of microfilariae in the bone marrow is unusual and not been reported frequently. Read More

    High prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 14;11(7):e0005732. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Background: An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and investigate whether a higher annual intake of Ivermectin was associated with a lower prevalence of epilepsy.

    Methodology/principle Findings: Between July 2014 and February 2016, house-to-house epilepsy prevalence surveys were carried out in areas with a high level of onchocerciasis endemicity: 3 localities in the Bas-Uele, 24 in the Tshopo and 21 in the Ituri province. Read More

    Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 14;11(7):e0005748. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases (CNTD), Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area.

    Methodology/principle Findings: A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Read More

    Ivermectin treatment of Loa loa hyper-microfilaraemic baboons (Papio anubis): Assessment of microfilarial load reduction, haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological changes following treatment.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005576. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Filarial Programmes Support Unit, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background: Individuals with high intensity of Loa loa are at risk of developing serious adverse events (SAEs) post treatment with ivermectin. These SAEs have remained unclear and a programmatic impediment to the advancement of community directed treatment with ivermectin. The pathogenesis of these SAEs following ivermectin has never been investigated experimentally. Read More

    The esperanza window trap reduces the human biting rate of Simulium ochraceum s.l. in formerly onchocerciasis endemic foci in Southern Mexico.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 7;11(7):e0005686. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Global Health Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.
    Background: The Esperanza Window Trap (EWT) baited with CO2 and human sweat compounds is attractive to Simulium ochraceum s.l., the primary vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the historically largest endemic foci in México and Guatemala. Read More

    First evidence of lymphatic filariasis transmission interruption in Cameroon: Progress towards elimination.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 29;11(6):e0005633. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is among the 10 neglected tropical diseases targeted for control or elimination by 2020. For LF elimination, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a comprehensive strategy including (i) interruption of LF transmission through large-scale annual treatment (or mass drug administration (MDA)) of all eligible individuals in endemic areas, and (ii) alleviation of LF-associated suffering through morbidity management and disability prevention. In Cameroon, once-yearly mass administration of ivermectin and albendazole has been implemented since 2008. Read More

    [Lymphedema of the lower limbs: Initial manifestation of gastric linitis plastica].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Aug - Sep;144(8-9):530-535. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Archet 2, CHU de Nice, 151, route de Saint-Antoine-de-Ginestière, 06200 Nice, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Primary lymphedemas are constitutional abnormalities of the lymphatic system. Secondary lymphedemas occur after damage to the lymphatic system, mainly after cancer treatments or tumour mass compression. There are many other causes, including filariasis, which is nonetheless very rare in France. Read More

    The Complexity of Zoonotic Filariasis Episystem and Its Consequences: A Multidisciplinary View.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 31;2017:6436130. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia.
    Vector-borne transmitted helminthic zoonosis affects the health and economy of both developing and developed countries. The concept of episystem includes the set of biological, environmental, and epidemiological elements of these diseases in defined geographic and temporal scales. Dirofilariasis caused by different species of the genus Dirofilaria is a disease affecting domestic and wild canines and felines and man, transmitted by different species of culicid mosquitoes. Read More

    Surveillance efforts after mass drug administration to validate elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in Vanuatu.
    Trop Med Health 2017 16;45:18. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    WHO Office of the Representative for the South Pacific and Division of Pacific Technical Support, Suva, Fiji.
    Background: Vanuatu was formerly highly endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. After a baseline survey showing 4.8% antigen prevalence in 1998, the country conducted nationwide (in one implementation unit) annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate from 2000 to 2004 and achieved prevalence of 0. Read More

    Kolaviron shows anti-proliferative effect and down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and toll like receptor-2 in Wuchereria bancrofti infected blood lymphocytes.
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria; African Centre of Excellence for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Forensic Biotechnology, Nigeria.
    The anti-proliferative effect and down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C and toll like receptor-2 by kolaviron on Wuchereria bancrofti infected peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Blood were collected from consenting volunteers in Talata Mafara, Nigeria, between the hours of 10pm to 12am, and microscopically identified for microfilariae. W. Read More

    Identification and control of an isolated, but intense focus of lymphatic filariasis on Satawal Island, Federated States of Micronesia, in 2003.
    Trop Med Health 2017 9;45:17. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland Australia.
    Background: There is very limited data available on the prevalence of Bancroftian filariasis in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Considerable attempts to eliminate the disease had occurred in the Pacific region by the year 2003, and the prevalence in FSM was thought to be sufficiently low that the region was considered non-endemic. However, a survey conducted in 2003 on an isolated atoll of FSM, Satawal Island, challenged that assumption. Read More

    Validation of onchocerciasis biomarker N-acetyltyramine-O-glucuronide (NATOG).
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 Aug 29;27(15):3436-3440. Epub 2017 May 29.
    Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States; Department of Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Worm Institute of Research and Medicine (WIRM), The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey, La Jolla, CA 92037, United States.
    The Neglected Tropical Disease onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease. Despite many control programmes by the World Health Organization (WHO), large communities in West and Central Africa are still affected. Besides logistic challenges during biannual mass drug administration, the lack of a robust, point-of-care diagnostic is limiting successful eradication of onchocerciasis. Read More

    Malignant Pleural Effusion with Filariasis.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 May;65(5):106-107
    Professor, Medicine and Nephrology, Command Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
    The occurrence of microfilaria in pleural fluid is rare. Filarial lung involvement occurs in the form of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with pulmonary infiltrates and peripheral eosinophilia. We report a 74-year-old male patient, non smoker who was admitted to our hospital with breathlessness and chest discomfort of two weeks duration. Read More

    Impact of the Lymphatic Filariasis Control Program towards elimination of filariasis in Vanuatu, 1997-2006.
    Trop Med Health 2017 1;45. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. The filarial worms affect the lymphatic system which leads to abnormal enlargement of body parts, chronic pain, disability, and social discrimination. In 1999, a commitment was made to eliminate LF from the Pacific Region by 2010. Read More

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