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    Assessment of lymphatic filariasis prior to re-starting mass drug administration campaigns in coastal Kenya.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 22;10(1):99. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease associated with extensive disfigurement and is one of a diverse group of diseases referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) which mainly occur among the poorest populations. In line with global recommendations to eliminate LF, Kenya launched its LF elimination programme in 2002 with the aim to implement annual mass drug administration (MDA) in order to interrupt LF transmission. However, the programme faced financial and administrative challenges over the years such that sustained annual MDA was not possible. Read More

    Trapping of ivermectin by a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel upon open-to-closed isomerization.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42481. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Laboratory of Ion Channels, The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences and The Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.
    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. By activating invertebrate pentameric glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl receptors; GluClRs), IVM induces sustained chloride influx and long-lasting membrane hyperpolarization that inhibit neural excitation in nematodes. Although IVM activates the C. Read More

    Detection of anti-filarial antibody among hydrocele patients living in an endemic area for filariasis.
    J Family Med Prim Care 2016 Jul-Sep;5(3):553-557
    Department of Microbiology, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background: The knowledge of the current prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and its transmission will be helpful in its elimination. Thus, the present study is aimed to determine its prevalence among hydrocele patients which is a common presentation in chronically infected cases.

    Materials And Methods: One hundred patients suffering from hydrocele admitted to the surgical ward were included in the study. Read More

    Future Research Priorities for Morbidity Control of Lymphedema.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;62(1):33-40
    Institute of Applied Dermatology, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.
    Background: Innovation in the treatment of lower extremity lymphedema has received low priority from the governments and pharmaceutical industry. Advancing lymphedema is irreversible and initiates fibrosis in the dermis, reactive changes in the epidermis and subcutis. Most medical treatments offered for lymphedema are either too demanding with a less than satisfactory response or patients have low concordance due to complex schedules. Read More

    Identifying the Main Mosquito Species in the Taiwan Strait Using DNA Barcoding.
    Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2017 Feb 17. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University - Key Laboratory of Plant Virology of Fujian Province Fuzhou, Fujian, China.
    Mosquitoes can transmit many types of viruses such West Nile virus and Zika virus and are responsible for virus-causing diseases including malaria, Dengue fever, yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis, and Japanese B encephalitis. On January 19, 2016, the first case of Zika virus infection was identified in Taiwan, which presents the need for studying the mosquito species in the Taiwan Strait and evaluating the risk of the outbreak of this infection. In this study, we collected a total of 144 specimens from 42 mosquito specimens belonging to 9 genera from both sides of the Taiwan Strait during 2013 and 2014. Read More

    Increased Fas ligand expression of peripheral B-1 cells correlated with CD4(+) T cell apoptosis in filarial infected patients.
    Parasite Immunol 2017 Feb 16. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR),, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, (India).
    Cellular hypo responsiveness observed during helminth infections are attributed to factors like Antigen presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased Interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th) cell apoptosis.. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection was demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown. Read More

    Partnering for impact: Integrated transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis, soil transmitted helminths and malaria in Haiti.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 16;11(2):e0005387. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
    Background: Since 2001, Haiti's National Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) has worked to reduce the transmission of LF through annual mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. The NPELF reached full national coverage with MDA for LF in 2012, and by 2014, a total of 14 evaluation units (48 communes) had met WHO eligibility criteria to conduct LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine whether prevalence had been reduced to below a threshold, such that transmission is assumed to be no longer sustainable. Haiti is also endemic for malaria and many communities suffer a high burden of soil transmitted helminths (STH). Read More

    Colorimetric tests for diagnosis of filarial infection and vector surveillance using non-instrumented nucleic acid loop-mediated isothermal amplification (NINA-LAMP).
    PLoS One 2017 15;12(2):e0169011. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA United States of America.
    Accurate detection of filarial parasites in humans is essential for the implementation and evaluation of mass drug administration programs to control onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Determining the infection levels in vector populations is also important for assessing transmission, deciding when drug treatments may be terminated and for monitoring recrudescence. Immunological methods to detect infection in humans are available, however, cross-reactivity issues have been reported. Read More

    Molecular cloning, purification and characterization of Brugia malayi phosphoglycerate kinase.
    Protein Expr Purif 2017 Feb 9. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:
    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a glycolytic enzyme present in many parasites. It has been reported as a candidate molecule for drug and vaccine developments. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding the Brugia malayi 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (BmPGK) with an open reading frame of 1. Read More

    Coexistence of microfilaria with metastatic adenocarcinomatous deposit from breast in axillary lymph node cytology: A rare association.
    J Cytol 2017 Jan-Mar;34(1):43-45
    Department of Pathology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Filariasis is a global social health problem of tropical and sub tropical countries like India. W.bancrofti accounts for 95% of cases of lymphatic filariasis. Read More

    Circulating microfilariae in haematological malignancies: do they have a role in pathogenesis?
    J Helminthol 2017 Feb 9:1-3. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    National Institute of Immunohaematology,13th Floor,KEM Hospital,Parel,Mumbai 400012,India.
    Filariasis is very common in tropical countries. It is endemic in the coastal areas of India. We report four cases of haematological malignancy where peripheral blood and bone marrow smears did not show any microfilariae but conventional cytogenetic preparations from all the four cases showed the presence of parasites. Read More

    Immunity in filarial infections: lessons from animal models and human studies.
    Scand J Immunol 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science Technology, PMB, Kumasi.
    Our understanding of immunity to filarial infection is enigmatic and continues to be passionately debated. The mechanisms whereby filarial nematodes are killed in vivo and how these parasites avoid these mechanisms are poorly understood. Although vaccination studies in permissive animals took off seven decades ago, the exact mechanisms driving protective immunity is extensively being investigated. Read More

    Socio-ecological dynamics and challenges to the governance of Neglected Tropical Disease control.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Feb 6;6(1):35. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
    The current global attempts to control the so-called "Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)" have the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity suffered by some of the world's poorest communities. However, the governance of these control programmes is driven by a managerial rationality that assumes predictability of proposed interventions, and which thus primarily seeks to improve the cost-effectiveness of implementation by measuring performance in terms of pre-determined outputs. Here, we argue that this approach has reinforced the narrow normal-science model for controlling parasitic diseases, and in doing so fails to address the complex dynamics, uncertainty and socio-ecological context-specificity that invariably underlie parasite transmission. Read More

    Molecular xenomonitoring (MX) and transmission assessment survey (TAS) of lymphatic filariasis elimination in two villages, Menoufyia Governorate, Egypt.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Feb 2. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, 11566, Cairo, Egypt.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is focally endemic in Egypt where the female mosquito, Culex pipiens, is responsible for its transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of implementation of the 13th round of MDA in two Egyptian villages in the Menoufyia Governorate area after failing the transmission assessment survey (TAS) in 2005 using two methods, and to decide whether it is safe to stop MDA in these, as well as in similar implementation units (IUs). To achieve this aim, both the immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and molecular xenomonitoring (MX) techniques were employed. Read More

    Costs of Transmission Assessment Surveys to Provide Evidence for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 1;11(2):e0005097. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Neglected Tropical Disease Program, United States Agency for International Development, Washington DC, United States of America.
    Background: To reach the global goal of elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by 2020, national programs will have to implement a series of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine prevalence of the disease by evaluation unit. It is expected that 4,671 surveys will be required by 2020. Planning in advance for the costs associated with these surveys is essential to ensure that the required resources are available for this essential program activity. Read More

    The significant scale up and success of Transmission Assessment Surveys 'TAS' for endgame surveillance of lymphatic filariasis in Bangladesh: One step closer to the elimination goal of 2020.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 31;11(1):e0005340. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Background: Bangladesh had one of the highest burdens of lymphatic filariasis (LF) at the start of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) with an estimated 70 million people at risk of infection across 34 districts. In total 19 districts required mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission, and 15 districts were considered low endemic. Since 2001, the National LF Programme has implemented MDA, reduced prevalence, and been able to scale up the WHO standard Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) across all endemic districts as part of its endgame surveillance strategy. Read More

    Demography, maternal health and the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases in the rural department Tsamba-Magotsi, Ngounie Province, in central African Gabon.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jan 28;17(1):130. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné , Lambaréné, Gabon.
    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations. To address this question for a remote rural region located in the central African rainforest region of Gabon, this study was conducted to assess reasons for health care attendance and to characterize the epidemiology of malaria and other major infectious diseases for the department of Tsamba Magotsi. Read More

    Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.
    Acta Trop 2017 Jan 23;169:43-50. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. Read More

    Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Mar 24;116(3):963-970. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Medical Parasitology Department, Kasr Al-Ainy Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. Read More

    Humans from Wuchereria bancrofti endemic area elicit substantial immune response to proteins of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi and its endosymbiont Wolbachia.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 24;10(1):40. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Division of Parasitology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS 10/1, Sector 10 Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, UP, 226031, India.
    Background: In the past, immune responses to several Brugia malayi immunodominant antigens have been characterized in filaria-infected populations; however, little is known regarding Wolbachia proteins. We earlier cloned and characterized few B. malayi (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, Bm-TPP and heavy chain myosin, BmAF-Myo) and Wolbachia (translation initiation factor-1, Wol Tl IF-1 and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase, wBm-LigA) proteins and investigated the immune responses, which they triggered in animal models. Read More

    Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.
    Parasitol Int 2017 Apr 18;66(2):166-171. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Read More

    Performance of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility for the rapid Diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of Drug resistance in Bamako, Mali.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    SEREFO Laboratories of the University Clinical Research Center, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
    Objectives: In Mali early detection and treatment of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are still challenging due to cost, time and/or complexity associated with regular tests. Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) is a low-cost assay validated by WHO in 2010. It is a liquid culture based assay to detect the "cording" characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) and to assess susceptibility to both isoniazid and rifampicin defining MDR-TB. Read More

    RNA interference mediated knockdown of Brugia malayi UDP-Galactopyranose mutase severely affects parasite viability, embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Jan 19;10(1):34. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, New Delhi, India.
    Background: Galactofuranose is an essential cell surface component present in bacteria, fungi and several nematodes such as Caenorhabditis spp., Brugia spp., Onchocerca spp. Read More

    The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 19;11(1):e0005289. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Institute of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)-also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. Read More

    Species differences in hepatic biotransformation of the anthelmintic drug flubendazole.
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jan 16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Laboratorio de Farmacología, Centro de Investigación Veterinaria de Tandil (CIVETAN-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UNCPBA, Tandil, Argentina.
    Flubendazole (FLBZ) is a broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used in pigs, poultry, and humans. It has been proposed as a candidate for development for use in elimination programmes for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in humans. Moreover, FLBZ has shown promise in cancer chemotherapy, particularly for neuroblastoma. Read More

    Epidemiology of Echinococcosis among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China
    Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Read More

    Low Level of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Children 20 Years after Initiation of Infant Vaccination Program in Wallis and Futuna.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Division of Pacific Technical Support, World Health Organization, Suva, Fiji
    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Wallis and Futuna (WAF) was one of the highest in the Pacific and was the driving factor for introducing hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination in 1992 and HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) in 2006. Using transmission assessment survey (TAS) as a survey platform for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF), we assessed HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, HepB vaccination coverage, and its timeliness among schoolchildren in WAF. From one finger prick of all registered fourth and fifth grade students, we tested HBsAg and filariasis antigen simultaneously, and estimated HepB vaccination coverage and timeliness by reviewing students' immunization cards. Read More

    Potential Value of Triple Drug Therapy with Ivermectin, Diethylcarbamazine, and Albendazole (IDA) to Accelerate Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis in Africa.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 5;11(1):e0005163. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

    Spectrum and burden of neglected tropical diseases observed in an infectious and tropical diseases unit in Florence, Italy (2000-2015).
    Intern Emerg Med 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università di Firenze, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134, Florence, Italy.
    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of acute and chronic conditions with distinct characteristics that thrive mainly among the poorest populations, almost exclusively in tropical countries. To evaluate the relevance and impact of NTDs in a temperate area, the number and features of patients diagnosed with NTDs at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit (ITDU), Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Overall 289 NTD cases were diagnosed in 283 subjects accounting for 2. Read More

    Pulmonary localization of Mansonella perstans in a 16 months-old male patient in a tertiary care hospital in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Germs 2016 Dec 2;6(4):151-154. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    MD, Université Catholique de Bukavu, Bukvau, Democratic Republic of Congo, Université de Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Introduction: Mansonella perstans is a human filarial parasite transmitted by biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the genus Culicoides and it is widely spread in sub-Saharan Africa. While most cases are asymptomatic, mansonelliasis can be associated with angioedema, arthralgia, swellings, pain in the scrotum or in serous cavities such as the pleura, the peritoneum, the pericardium, etc. Mansonelliasis can be really hard to treat, but it has been shown that an intensive treatment using albendazole can clear the parasite. Read More

    Current Epidemiological Assessment of Bancroftian Filariasis in Tanga Region, Northeastern Tanzania.
    J Trop Med 2016 6;2016:7408187. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    National Institute for Medical Research, Tanga Research Centre, P.O. Box 5004, Tanga, Tanzania.
    Background. Tanzania started a countrywide lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in 2000 adopting the mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. The drug used for the programme was the combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Read More

    Pterodon emarginatus oleoresin-based nanoemulsion as a promising tool for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) control.
    J Nanobiotechnology 2017 Jan 3;15(1). Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em Fármacos, Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Campus Universitário Marco Zero do Equador, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, KM-02 Bairro Zerão, Macapá, AP, CEP 68902-280, Brazil.
    Background: Preparation of nanoformulations using natural products as bioactive substances is considered very promising for innovative larvicidal agents. On this context, oil in water nanoemulsions develop a main role, since they satisfactorily disperse poor-water soluble substances, such as herbal oils, in aqueous media. Pterodon emarginatus, popularly known as sucupira, has a promising bioactive oleoresin. Read More

    Human Leukocytes Kill Brugia malayi Microfilariae Independently of DNA-Based Extracellular Trap Release.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 3;11(1):e0005279. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States of America.
    Background: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. Read More

    The Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development against Neglected Tropical Diseases.
    Molecules 2016 Dec 31;22(1). Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.
    Endemic in 149 tropical and subtropical countries, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than 1 billion people annually, including 875 million children in developing economies. These diseases are also responsible for over 500,000 deaths per year and are characterized by long-term disability and severe pain. The impact of the combined NTDs closely rivals that of malaria and tuberculosis. Read More

    Interruption of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Kashoya-Kitomi focus, western Uganda by long-term ivermectin treatment and elimination of the vector Simulium neavei by larviciding.
    Acta Trop 2017 Mar 26;167:128-136. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    The Carter Center, One Copenhill, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.
    Uganda is the only country in sub-Saharan Africa whose onchocerciasis elimination programme extensively uses vector control and biannual treatment with ivermectin. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of combined strategies on interrupting onchocerciasis transmission in the Kashoya-Kitomi focus. Mass Drug Administration annually (13 years) followed by biannual treatments (6 years) and ground larviciding (36 cycles in 3 years) with temephos (Abate(®), EC500) against Simulium neavei were conducted. Read More

    Characterization of immunoreactive proteins of Setaria cervi isolated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
    Acta Parasitol 2017 Mar;62(1):29-37
    Filarial parasites are complex mixtures of antigenic proteins and characterization of these antigenic molecules is essential to identify the diagnostically important filaria-specific antigens. In the present study, we have fractionated the somatic extracts from adults of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) on preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested the immunoreactivity of the separated gel fractions with polyclonal antibodies against filarial excretory-secretory antigens as well as filarial patients sera. The SDS-PAGE analysis of gel eluted fractions revealed 1 protein band in F-1 fraction, 2 protein bands in F-2 fraction and 2-3 protein bands in all other fractions (F3- F11). Read More

    Effectiveness of a triple-drug regimen for global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a modelling study.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole) has been shown to clear the transmissible stage of the helminth completely in treated individuals. Read More

    Schistosoma hemozoin and its possible roles.
    Int J Parasitol 2016 Dec 22. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Institute for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Development, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:
    More than 95years ago Schistosoma pigment had been deemed as a degradation product of haemoglobin. Until the 1950s, scientists initiated to pay attention to understand the hematophagous habit of schistosomes, and to study the degradation of haemoglobin as well as the formation of hemozoin inside the gut of the worms. For a long time, the formation of hemozoin in both Plasmodium and in Schistosoma was considered to be the major route of heme detoxification, and hemozoin served a role in waste disposal. Read More

    Central nervous system filariasis masquerading as a glioma: case report.
    J Neurosurg 2016 Dec 23:1-3. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Saket Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
    Filariasis, an endemic zoonosis in the Southeast Asia region, has been reported to affect various organs as well as the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammatory reactions mimicking those from neoplastic lesions clinically and radiologically have been reported in the breast and urinary bladder. To date, a CNS manifestation of filarial infestation has been reported in the form of meningoencephalitis. Read More

    Chylous Ascites in Advanced Gallbladder Cancer.
    Indian J Surg 2016 Oct 22;78(5):407-408. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P. 221005 India.
    Chylous ascites is a very rare occurrence in a patient with gallbladder cancer (GBC), and only six cases have been reported. We report here one such case in a 55-year-old lady who presented to us with upper abdominal pain for 6 months. A polypoidal gallbladder mass with minimal liver invasion but with multiple subcentimeter pericholedochal, common hepatic, mesenteric, and para-aortic lymph nodes was found on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Read More

    The Impact of Lymphatic Filariasis Mass Drug Administration Scaling Down on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Control in School-Age Children. Present Situation and Expected Impact from 2016 to 2020.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 19;10(12):e0005202. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted-helminths (STH) are co-endemic in 58 countries which are mostly in Africa and Asia. Worldwide, 486 million school-age children are considered at risk of both diseases. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the global programme to eliminate LF by 2020. Read More

    Current status of genome editing in vector mosquitoes: A review.
    Biosci Trends 2017 Jan 18;10(6):424-432. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Division of Vector Control, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College.
    Mosquitoes pose a major threat to human health as they spread many deadly diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and Zika. Identification and use of novel molecular tools are essential to combat the spread of vector borne diseases. Genome editing tools have been used for the precise alterations of the gene of interest for producing the desirable trait in mosquitoes. Read More

    Ivermectin: a complimentary weapon against the spread of malaria?
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2017 Mar 29;15(3):231-240. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    a Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology & Arthropod-borne Infectious Diseases Laboratory , Colorado State University , Fort Collins , CO , USA.
    Introduction: Ivermectin has transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases and led to incommensurable benefits to humans and animals. Ivermectin is effective in treating several neglected infectious diseases and recently it has been shown to reduce malaria parasite transmission. Areas covered: Malaria control strategies could benefit from the addition of ivermectin to interrupt the transmission cycle if it is a long lasting formulation or repeatedly administered. Read More

    Helminth infection during pregnancy: insights from evolutionary ecology.
    Int J Womens Health 2016 11;8:651-661. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
    Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Read More

    Investment success in public health: An analysis of the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis.
    Clin Infect Dis 2016 Dec 12. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Global Health Programs, GlaxoSmithKline, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: It has been estimated that US$154 million per year will be required during 2015-2020 to continue the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). In light of this, it is important to understand the current value of the programme. In the paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the preventive chemotherapy provided under the GPELF between 2000-2014. Read More

    Surgical Reconstruction of Giant Penoscrotal Lymphoedema in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Urology 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
    Objective: To present management challenges, surgical technique and outcome associated with penoscrotal reconstruction in patients with giant scrotal lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Method: A prospective study of all patients who had penoscrotal reconstruction for giant scrotal lymphoedema at our university teaching hospital between January 2003 and December 2012 was carried out. Patients' pre-operative clinical evaluation findings, operative technique and post-operative course were reviewed after obtaining ethical approval and informed consent from the patients. Read More

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