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    The Complexity of Zoonotic Filariasis Episystem and Its Consequences: A Multidisciplinary View.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 31;2017:6436130. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-na-Donu, Russia.
    Vector-borne transmitted helminthic zoonosis affects the health and economy of both developing and developed countries. The concept of episystem includes the set of biological, environmental, and epidemiological elements of these diseases in defined geographic and temporal scales. Dirofilariasis caused by different species of the genus Dirofilaria is a disease affecting domestic and wild canines and felines and man, transmitted by different species of culicid mosquitoes. Read More

    Surveillance efforts after mass drug administration to validate elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem in Vanuatu.
    Trop Med Health 2017 16;45:18. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    WHO Office of the Representative for the South Pacific and Division of Pacific Technical Support, Suva, Fiji.
    Background: Vanuatu was formerly highly endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF), caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. After a baseline survey showing 4.8% antigen prevalence in 1998, the country conducted nationwide (in one implementation unit) annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate from 2000 to 2004 and achieved prevalence of 0. Read More

    Kolaviron shows anti-proliferative effect and down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and toll like receptor-2 in Wuchereria bancrofti infected blood lymphocytes.
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria; African Centre of Excellence for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Forensic Biotechnology, Nigeria.
    The anti-proliferative effect and down regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C and toll like receptor-2 by kolaviron on Wuchereria bancrofti infected peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Blood were collected from consenting volunteers in Talata Mafara, Nigeria, between the hours of 10pm to 12am, and microscopically identified for microfilariae. W. Read More

    Identification and control of an isolated, but intense focus of lymphatic filariasis on Satawal Island, Federated States of Micronesia, in 2003.
    Trop Med Health 2017 9;45:17. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland Australia.
    Background: There is very limited data available on the prevalence of Bancroftian filariasis in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Considerable attempts to eliminate the disease had occurred in the Pacific region by the year 2003, and the prevalence in FSM was thought to be sufficiently low that the region was considered non-endemic. However, a survey conducted in 2003 on an isolated atoll of FSM, Satawal Island, challenged that assumption. Read More

    Malignant Pleural Effusion with Filariasis.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 May;65(5):106-107
    Professor, Medicine and Nephrology, Command Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
    The occurrence of microfilaria in pleural fluid is rare. Filarial lung involvement occurs in the form of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia with pulmonary infiltrates and peripheral eosinophilia. We report a 74-year-old male patient, non smoker who was admitted to our hospital with breathlessness and chest discomfort of two weeks duration. Read More

    Impact of the Lymphatic Filariasis Control Program towards elimination of filariasis in Vanuatu, 1997-2006.
    Trop Med Health 2017 1;45. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. The filarial worms affect the lymphatic system which leads to abnormal enlargement of body parts, chronic pain, disability, and social discrimination. In 1999, a commitment was made to eliminate LF from the Pacific Region by 2010. Read More

    Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 1;11(6):e0005567. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    CBM International and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. Read More

    Applying a mobile survey tool for assessing lymphatic filariasis morbidity in Mtwara Municipal Council of Tanzania.
    Mhealth 2017 15;3. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    RTI International, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: A number of methods have been used to estimate lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity, including: routine programmatic data, cluster random surveys and the "town crier" method. Currently, few accurate data exist on the global LF morbidity burden in Tanzania. We aimed to estimate prevalence of lymphedema and hydrocele in Mtwara Municipal Council using mobile phone based survey. Read More

    Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Haitian immigrants and the risk of re-emergence of lymphatic filariasis in the Brazilian Amazon.
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Mar-Apr;50(2):256-259
    Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brasil.
    Introduction:: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a public health problem in Haiti. Thus, the emigration of Haitians to Brazil is worrisome because of the risk for LF re-emergence.

    Methods:: Blood samples of Haitian immigrants, aged ≥18 years, who emigrated to Manaus (Brazilian Amazon), were examined using thick blood smears, membrane blood filtration, and immunochromatography. Read More

    New developments in chyluria after global programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.
    Int J Urol 2017 May 26. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Urology, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Chyluria, commonly seen in south Asian countries, is mainly a manifestation of lymphatic filariasis as a result of infestation with Wuchereria bancrofti, although many other causes can contribute. Many patients can be effectively treated with dietary modifications and drug therapy. The most widely used drug is diethyl carbamazine. Read More

    Detecting infection hotspots: Modeling the surveillance challenge for elimination of lymphatic filariasis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 19;11(5):e0005610. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: During the past 20 years, enormous efforts have been expended globally to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). However, small endemic foci (microfoci) of LF may threaten the presumed inevitable decline of infections after MDA cessation. We conducted microsimulation modeling to assess the ability of different types of surveillance to identify microfoci in these settings. Read More

    Measuring changes in transmission of neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and enteric pathogens from quantitative antibody levels.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 19;11(5):e0005616. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays. Read More

    Enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of TiO2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem, Tamil Nadu, 636011, India.
    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the P. Read More

    The past matters: estimating intrinsic hookworm transmission intensity in areas with past mass drug administration to control lymphatic filariasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 May 23;10(1):254. Epub 2017 May 23.
    London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research (LCNTDR), Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Background: Current WHO guidelines for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on mass drug administration (MDA) targeting preschool-aged (pre-SAC) and school-aged children (SAC), with the goal of eliminating STH as a public health problem amongst children. Recently, attention and funding has turned towards the question whether MDA alone can result in the interruption of transmission for STH. The lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme, have been successful in reaching whole communities. Read More

    A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Public Health 2017 May 22;17(1):484. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, PO Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Background: Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. Read More

    Lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in Rufiji, southeastern Tanzania: decline in circulating filarial antigen prevalence in young school children after twelve rounds of mass drug administration and utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 May 17;61:38-43. Epub 2017 May 17.
    National Institute for Medical Research, PO Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Electronic address:
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors, and in Sub-Saharan Africa it is caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease has been targeted for global elimination with the annual mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. Vector control is known to play an important complementary role to MDA in reducing the transmission of LF. Read More

    Blood meal induced regulation of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the southern house mosquito.
    BMC Genomics 2017 May 19;18(1):393. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Unit of Chemical Ecology, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Background: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Read More

    Filariasis Orchitis-Differential for Acute Scrotum Pathology.
    Urol Case Rep 2017 Jul 4;13:117-119. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Madigan Army Medical Center, Urology Department, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA.
    Granulomatous Orchitis secondary to lymphatic filiarisis is a rare diagnosis within the United States. We report a case of a 22yo Male from Sri Lanka, with a new onset scrotal swelling and palpable right testicular mass. Ultrasound identified a 1 cm right testicular mass with signs of tunica albuginea invasion. Read More

    Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Attracted to Human Subjects in Rubber Plantations, Secondary Forests, and Villages in Luang Prabang Province, Northern Lao PDR.
    J Med Entomol 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1?3LE, United Kingdom
    The impact of the rapid expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia on mosquito populations is uncertain. We compared the abundance and diversity of adult mosquitoes using human-baited traps in four typical rural habitats in northern Lao PDR: secondary forests, immature rubber plantations, mature rubber plantations, and villages. Generalized estimating equations were used to explore differences in mosquito abundance between habitats, and Simpson's diversity index was used to measure species diversity. Read More

    Improving drug delivery strategies for lymphatic filariasis elimination in urban areas in Ghana.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 11;11(5):e0005619. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Taskforce for Global Health, Decatur-Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) advocates for the treatment of entire endemic communities, in order to achieve its elimination targets. LF is predominantly a rural disease, and achieving the required treatment coverage in these areas is much easier compared to urban areas that are more complex. In Ghana, parts of the Greater Accra Region with Accra as the capital city are also endemic for LF. Read More

    Migratory phase of Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial infective larvae is associated with pathology and transient increase of S100A9 expressing neutrophils in the lung.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 9;11(5):e0005596. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Unité Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM, UMR 7245), Sorbonne Universités, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Paris, France.
    Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. Read More

    Brugia malayi microfilariae adhere to human vascular endothelial cells in a C3-dependent manner.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 8;11(5):e0005592. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Royal Veterinary College, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal College Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Brugia malayi causes the human tropical disease, lymphatic filariasis. Microfilariae (Mf) of this nematode live in the bloodstream and are ingested by a feeding mosquito vector. Interestingly, in a remarkable co-evolutionary adaptation, Mf appearance in the peripheral blood follows a circadian periodicity and reaches a peak when the mosquito is most likely to feed. Read More

    [Epidemiological characteristics of Kala-azar disease in China, during 2005-2015].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):431-434
    Filariasis, Kala-azar and Echinococcosis Department, National Institution for Parasitic Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristics of Kala-azar disease in China from 2005 to 2015, to provide evidence for the development of related control and measurement strategies. Methods: Data was obtained from Disease Reporting Information System of China CDC, to compare factors on type, distribution, peak season and the age of onset of the cases. Results: Epidemic of Kala-azar had been persistent in China. Read More

    Stage-specific antibody response against two larval stages of Brugia malayi in different clinical spectra of brugian filariasis.
    Trop Parasitol 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):29-36
    Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Context: T-cell hypo-responsiveness in microfilaria (Mf) carriers against the microfilarial stage antigen of Brugia malayi has been described, but no study has been carried out to assess antibody dynamics against stage-specific antigens.

    Aim: The work was carried out with the aim to assess stage-specific antibody responses against L3 and microfilarial stage antigens in brugian filariasis in an endemic area.

    Setting And Design: Patients with different clinical spectra of brugian filariasis were recruited to evaluate antibody responses to brugian antigens. Read More

    Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks.
    Soc Sci Med 2017 Jun 8;183:37-47. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom.
    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Read More

    Commentary: restarting NTD programme activities after the Ebola outbreak in Liberia.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 May 1;6(1):52. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases (CNTD), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    It is widely known that the recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa caused a serious disruption to the national health system, with many of ongoing disease focused programmes, such as mass drug administration (MDA) for onchocerciasis (ONC), lymphatic filariasis (LF) and schistosomiasis (SCH), being suspended or scaled-down. As these MDA programmes attempt to restart post-EVD it is important to understand the challenges that may be encountered. This commentary addresses the opinions of the major health sectors involved, as well as those of community members, regarding logistic needs and challenges faced as these important public health programmes consider restarting. Read More

    A Novel Ligand of Toll-like Receptor 4 From the Sheath of Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilaria Induces Proinflammatory Response in Macrophages.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Mar;215(6):954-965
    Department of Zoology (Centre for Advanced Studies), Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal, India; and.
    Background.: Lymphatic filariasis, frequently caused from Wuchereria bancrofti infection, is endemic in several parts of the globe and responsible for human health problems and socioeconomic loss to a large extent. Inflammatory consequences originating from host-parasite interaction play a major role in the disease pathology and allied complications. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding lymphatic filariasis: study on systematic noncompliance with mass drug administration.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 20;59:e23. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães, Departamento de Parasitologia, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting lymphatic filariasis, in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioenvironmental demographics, perceptions of lymphatic filariasis and MDA, and reasons for systematic noncompliance with treatment. A rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) was performed during the survey to screen for filariasis. Read More

    Upon entering an age of global ivermectin-based integrated mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases and malaria.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):168. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    River Blindness, Lymphatic Filariasis and Schistosomiasis Programs, The Carter Center, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.
    Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) in humans to reduce malaria vectors is yet another use for this remarkable medicine whose discoverers shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine with the discoverer of artemisinin. The malaria community should join those who have long used ivermectin MDA in an integrated battle to break transmission of three vector-borne parasitic diseases. Read More

    Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission I. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations regarding efficacy and safety.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):161. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ivermectin is an endectocide that has been used broadly in single dose community campaigns for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis for more than 30 years. There is now interest in the potential use of ivermectin regimens to reduce malaria transmission, envisaged as community-wide campaigns tailored to transmission patterns and as complement of the local vector control programme. The development of new ivermectin regimens or other novel endectocides will require integrated development of the drug in the context of traditional entomological tools and endpoints. Read More

    Immunoprophylaxis of multi-antigen peptide (MAP) vaccine for human lymphatic filariasis.
    Immunol Res 2017 Jun;65(3):729-738
    Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600 025, India.
    Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model. Read More

    Monitoring thermal and chemical unfolding of Brugia malayi calreticulin using fluorescence and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 14;102:986-995. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226021, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
    Calreticulin of Brugia malayi (BmCRT) play very important role in host-parasite interaction. In previous study it was found that BmCRT is responsible for prevention of host classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with first component C1q of the human host. Therefore, BmCRT is an essential protein for parasite survival and an important drug target to fend filariasis. Read More

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extracts of Lippia citriodora: Antimicrobial, larvicidal and photocatalytic evaluations.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Jun 1;75:980-989. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), P.M.B. 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
    Nanoscience and nanotechnology represent new and enabling platforms that promise to provide broad range of novel and improved technologies for environmental, biological and other scientific applications. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Lippia citriodora at two different temperatures of 50°C and 90°C. The synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was monitored by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy at different temperatures and time intervals. Read More

    Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 14;10(1):182. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo. Read More

    Application of a household-based molecular xenomonitoring strategy to evaluate the lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Tamil Nadu, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 13;11(4):e0005519. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: The monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis (LF) has largely relied on the detection of antigenemia and antibodies in human populations. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes, may be an effective complementary method, particularly for detecting signals in low-level prevalence areas where Culex is the primary mosquito vector. This paper investigated the application of a household-based sampling method for MX in Tamil Nadu, India. Read More

    Novel carbazole aminoalcohols as inhibitors of β-hematin formation: Antiplasmodial and antischistosomal activities.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2017 Apr 2;7(2):191-199. Epub 2017 Apr 2.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis, and Filariasis, Key Laboratory of Parasitology and Vector Biology of the Chinese Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Malaria and schistosomiasis are two of the most socioeconomically devastating parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. Since current chemotherapeutic options are limited and defective, there is an urgent need to develop novel antiplasmodials and antischistosomals. Hemozoin is a disposal product formed from the hemoglobin digestion by some blood-feeding parasites. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Programme National de Lutte contre l'Onchocercose, Direction de l'Epidémiologie et de la Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministère de la Santé et de la Population, Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo.
    Background: The standard treatment strategy of mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed. We investigated one such alternative strategy for mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Republic of the Congo. Read More

    Reaching endpoints for lymphatic filariasis elimination- results from mass drug administration and nocturnal blood surveys, South Gujarat, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005476. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat, India.
    Background: Following the World Health Assembly resolution on Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (ELF) as a public health problem by the year 2020, a Global Program (GPELF) was launched in 1997 to help endemic countries to initiate national programs. The current strategy to interrupt transmission of LF, is administration of once-yearly, single-dose, two-drug regimen (Albendazole with Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) to be used in endemic areas with the goal of reaching 65% epidemiological coverage for 4-6 years. We report findings of independent assessment from year 2010 to 2015 for last six rounds, after initial five rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) since 2005 for ELF in endemic area of Gujarat. Read More

    Microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology: A rare finding.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):143-144
    Department of Pathology, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Read More

    Measuring the physical and economic impact of filarial lymphoedema in Chikwawa district, Malawi: a case-control study.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Apr 3;6(1):28. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi.

    Methods: A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated. Read More

    GRANULOMATOUS FILARIAL ENCEPHALOMYELITIS CAUSED BY CHANDLERELLA QUISCALI IN A NORTHERN CRESTED CARACARA (CARACARA CHERIWAY).
    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Mar;48(1):237-240
    A northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway) was presented after being found nonambulatory in a field. On physical examination, the bird had severe hind-limb paresis. The bird did not improve after 10 days of hospitalization and was euthanized. Read More

    Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 30;11(3):e0005357. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Background: Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. Read More

    Pre-control relationship of onchocercal skin disease with onchocercal infection in Guinea Savanna, Northern Nigeria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 29;11(3):e0005489. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ahmadu Bello University Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria.
    Background: Onchocerca volvulus infection can result in blindness, itching and skin lesions. Previous research concentrated on blindness.

    Methods: A clinical classification system of the cutaneous changes in onchocerciasis was used for the first time in this study within the context of an early ivermectin drug trial in the savanna region of Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. Read More

    Oleanolic acid from antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Jun 27;177:13-21. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:
    Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Read More

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