18,147 results match your criteria Filariasis


Canine filaria species in selected lymphatic filariasis endemic and non-endemic areas in Sri Lanka.

Parasitol Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Deparment of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

Subperiodic brugian filariasis and dirofilariasis show a rising trend in Sri Lanka posing a threat to public health. As information was limited on canine filaria species in Sri Lanka, we studied the filaria parasites among dog populations in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic and non-endemic regions by microscopy and molecular methods. Thick blood smears (TBSs) were performed among 295 dogs presenting to veterinary clinics for surgical or sterilization procedures in Galle (LF endemic) and Mullaitivu (LF non-endemic) districts, of which 55. Read More

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Filariasis presenting as pancytopenia in a child.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 23;15(5). Epub 2022 May 23.

Pediatrics, Bankura Sammilani Medical College Bankura, Bankura, West Bengal, India.

A female child hailing from South Asia, India presented with pallor, multiple petechiae and ecchymosis. Based on the clinical picture and demography, the differentials considered were pancytopenia of nutritional origin, acute leukaemia, autoimmune and infective aetiologies. After ruling these out by respective tests, a literature review was done which revealed the possibility of filariasis especially in a patient with eosinophilia which was present in our case. Read More

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Podoconiosis: Clinical spectrum and microscopic presentations.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 May 23;16(5):e0010057. Epub 2022 May 23.

University of Amsterdam, Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Podoconiosis is a skin Neglected Tropical Disease (skin NTD) that causes lymphoedema, and affects barefooted subsistence farmers in some tropical countries. The clinical presentation and histopathologic correlates of podoconiosis have been understudied. Here, we systematically document the clinical and histopathologic spectrum of podoconiosis. Read More

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Characterization of a novel microfilarial antigen for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 May 23;16(5):e0010407. Epub 2022 May 23.

Infectious Diseases Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. The Global Program to Eliminate LF uses mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs that clear microfilariae (Mf) from blood to interrupt transmission by mosquitos. New diagnostic tools are needed to assess the impact of MDA on bancroftian filariasis, because available serologic tests can remain positive after successful treatment. Read More

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Serum protein electrophoresis in Dirofilaria immitis naturally infected dogs: Latest news and a systematic literature review.

Vet Parasitol 2022 May 13;305:109720. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Italy. Electronic address:

According to the main Guidelines on canine heartworm disease (HWD) by the American and European Societies (i.e., AHS, ESDA, and ESCCAP), a correct diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis infection should include the detection of circulating microfilariae in the whole blood and the adult antigens in serum or plasma sample. Read More

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Nanoliposomes containing limonene and limonene-rich essential oils as novel larvicides against malaria and filariasis mosquito vectors.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 May 19;22(1):140. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran.

Background: Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and encephalitis are still the cause of several hundred thousand deaths annually. The excessive use of chemical insecticides for transmission control has led to environmental pollution and widespread resistance in mosquitoes. Botanical insecticides' efficacies improvement has thus received considerable attention recently. Read More

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[Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey in Burkina Faso in Connection with 4 Districts].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 Jun 4;1(2). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Programme national de lutte contre les maladies tropicales négligées, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Objective: In this impact survey on the preventive chemotherapy against lymphatic filariasis, the national neglected tropical diseases programme team conducted a Transmission Assessment Survey in the health districts of Leo, Sapouy, Boromo and Dedougou. The purpose of this study was to assess lymphatic filariasis transmission in these four districts (included in two evaluation units (EU): Boucle du Mouhoun 3 and Centre-Ouest 2 after more than ten to thirteen years of mass drug treatment.

Methodology: The study was a cross sectional survey which targeted the school aged children based on the cluster survey method conducted at community level. Read More

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Ivermectin as a possible treatment for COVID-19: a review of the 2022 protocols.

Braz J Biol 2022 20;84:e258325. Epub 2022 May 20.

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inovações Tecnológicas - PPGIT, Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil.

Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug in humans and has been approved for use in numerous parasitic infections for over 50 years. In addition, many studies have already shown its antiviral activity. Ivermectin is generally well tolerated, with no indication of central nervous system-associated toxicity at doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 µg/kg. Read More

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Forging Ahead the Repositioning of Multitargeted Drug Ivermectin.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, Telangana, 500037, India.

With the advent of ivermectin, tremendous improvement in public health has been observed, especially in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis that created chaos mostly in rural, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin American countries. The discovery of ivermectin became a boon to millions of people that had suffered in the pandemic and still hold its pharmacological potential against these. Ivermectin continued to surprise scientists because of its notable role in the treatment of various other tropical diseases (Chagas, leishmaniasis, worm infections, etc. Read More

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Theoretical modeling and design of some pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors, targeting lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.

In Silico Pharmacol 2022 7;10(1). Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two common filarial diseases caused by a group of parasitic nematodes called filarial worms, which play host to the bacteria organism . One good treatment approach seeks as drug target. Here, a QSAR study was conducted to investigate the anti- activities (pEC) of 52 pyrazolopyrimidine analogues, while using the built model to predict the pEC values of the newly designed analogues. Read More

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Chronic lymphoedema: a nidus for squamous cell carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 10;15(5). Epub 2022 May 10.

Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition characterised by diffuse swelling caused by lymphatic obstruction. The secondary form of lymphoedema is more common than the primary form. Untreated filariasis remains an important cause of lymphoedema in developing countries. Read More

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Potential of triple-drug therapy to accelerate lymphatic filariasis elimination.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Livestock and One Health, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK. Electronic address:

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Mass drug administration of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, plus albendazole compared with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole for reduction of lymphatic filariasis endemicity in Papua New Guinea: a cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Veterans Affairs Research Administration, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A single co-administered dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole) has been shown to be safe and more efficacious for clearing Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae than the standard two-drug regimen of diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole in clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of mass drug administration with the triple-drug regimen compared with the two-drug regimen is unknown. We compared the effectiveness of mass drug administration with the triple-drug and two-drug regimens for reducing microfilariae prevalence to less than 1% and circulating filarial antigen prevalence to less than 2%, levels that are unlikely to sustain transmission of lymphatic filariasis, in Papua New Guinea. Read More

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Dirofilaria immitis antigenemia and microfilaremia in Iberian wolves and red foxes from Portugal.

Parasit Vectors 2022 May 9;15(1):119. Epub 2022 May 9.

ICBAS-School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Porto University, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode endemic in the Mediterranean countries, which causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in wild and domestic animals. Despite being recognized hosts of D. immitis, wild carnivores such as wolves and foxes are frequently disregarded when considering a potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic nematodes. Read More

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Onchocerca volvulus-specific antibody and cellular responses in onchocerciasis patients treated annually with ivermectin for 30 years and exposed to parasite transmission in central Togo.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 3;16(5):e0010340. Epub 2022 May 3.

University Clinics Tübingen, Institute for Tropical Medicine, Eberhard-Karls University, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Annual mass drug administrations (MDA) of ivermectin will strongly reduce Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) in the skin and in the onchocerciasis patients' eyes. Ivermectin treatment will also affect the expression of immunity in patients, such that activated immune defenses may help control and contribute to clearance of mf of O. volvulus. Read More

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Prevalence and molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis in road killed canids of northern Iran.

BMC Vet Res 2022 May 2;18(1):161. Epub 2022 May 2.

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne filarial nematode, which infects primarily wild and domestic canids, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characterize molecular features of D. immitis in road killed canids, northern Iran. Read More

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A call for loiasis to be added to the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Health Studies, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA.

Loiasis, also called African eye worm, is not currently on WHO's list of priority neglected tropical diseases, even though the risk that individuals with high Loa loa microfilarial densities will develop potentially fatal encephalopathy when they take ivermectin has complicated efforts to use mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (river blindness) and lymphatic filariasis control in co-endemic areas. At least 10 million residents of central and west Africa are thought to have loiasis, which causes painful and itchy subcutaneous oedema, arthralgia, and discomfort when adult helminths that are 3-7 cm in length are present under the conjunctiva of the eye. High levels of microfilaraemia are associated with renal, cardiac, neurological, and other sequelae, and an increased risk of death. Read More

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Relationship between skin snip and Ov16 ELISA: Two diagnostic tools for onchocerciasis in a focus in Cameroon after two decades of ivermectin-based preventive chemotherapy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 2;16(5):e0010380. Epub 2022 May 2.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Onchocerciasis elimination currently relies on repeated ivermectin-based preventive chemotherapy. Current World Health Organization's guidelines strongly recommend, though with low evidence of certainty, the use of Ov16 serology testing in children younger than 10 years old to assess whether mass drugs administration can be safely stopped. Therefore, more evidences are needed to support the use of this marker as sero-evaluation tool. Read More

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2022 Update of the Consensus on the Rational Use of Antithrombotics and Thrombolytics in Veterinary Critical Care (CURATIVE) Domain 1- Defining populations at risk.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2022 May 2;32(3):289-314. Epub 2022 May 2.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Australia.

Objectives: To expand the number of conditions and interventions explored for their associations with thrombosis in the veterinary literature and to provide the basis for prescribing recommendations.

Design: A population exposure comparison outcome format was used to represent patient, exposure, comparison, and outcome. Population Exposure Comparison Outcome questions were distributed to worksheet authors who performed comprehensive searches, summarized the evidence, and created guideline recommendations that were reviewed by domain chairs. Read More

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First case of ocular dirofilariosis in Bulgaria caused by gravid female Dirofilaria repens.

Ann Parasitol 2022 ;68(1):191-193

Department of Epidemiology, Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Pleven, Sv. Kliment Ohridski 1, Pleven 5800, Bulgaria

Dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens is recorded sporadically among people in Europe, Asia and Africa. Still a worldwide controversy exist upon human parasite hosting. Herein, the first case of ocular dirofilariosis in Bulgaria caused by gravid female is presented. Read More

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High infection rates for onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in children under five not receiving preventive chemotherapy: a bottleneck to elimination.

Infect Dis Poverty 2022 Apr 28;11(1):47. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Centre for Research on Filariasis and other Tropical Diseases (CRFilMT), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: The current mainstay for control/elimination of onchocerciasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) relies on ivermectin- and mebendazole/albendazole-based preventive chemotherapies. However, children under five years of age have been excluded in both research activities and control programs, because they were believed to have insignificant infection rates. There is therefore a need for up-to-date knowledge on the prevalence and intensity of STH and onchocerciasis infections in this age group. Read More

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Subcutaneous dirofilariosis in Italy: a diagnostic hypothesis to remind when the anamnesis is misleading.

Pathologica 2022 Apr;114(2):174-177

Pathology Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Institute, Milan, Italy.

Subcutaneous parasitic infections are possible matches in routine pathology and can be detected not only in patients coming from or travelling in tropical countries, but also when the anamnesis does not suggest at first worm infestations.

Here we report the case of a young man from the north-west of Italy, with a negative anamnesis for travels but the presence of dogs at home, who presented a subcutaneous nodule showing a nematode surrounded by a fibrous capsule; the morphology was suggestive for Dirofilaria repens. Dirofilariosis is a zoonosis caused by D. Read More

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Further data on the distribution of Dirofilaria spp. in the Czech Republic in dogs.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2022 Mar 31;69. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Pathology and Parasitology, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Based on previously published data, the Czech Republic is regarded an endemic country of the onchocercid nematodes Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) and Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, 1911. Nevertheless, while cases of D. repens are commonly reported from dogs in South Moravia, no recent records of D. Read More

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Early Demonstration of Spontaneous Perinodal Lymphangiogenesis by Lymphoscintigraphy after Vascularized Lymph Node Transplantation - A Pilot Study.

Indian J Nucl Med 2022 Jan-Mar;37(1):1-6. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin, Kerala, India.

Background: Despite the lymphatic system being so important and extensive, the field of lymphatic diseases, research is still very young. Lymphedema is a progressively debilitating condition with no known "cure." Specific pathologies that could benefit from improved lymphatic drainage by advanced super surgical techniques or engineered tissue transfer are being sought. Read More

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Effect of a single dose of 8 mg moxidectin or 150 μg/kg ivermectin on O. volvulus skin microfilariae in a randomized trial: Differences between areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and Ghana and impact of intensity of infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 27;16(4):e0010079. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO/TDR), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Our study in CDTI-naïve areas in Nord Kivu and Ituri (Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC), Lofa County (Liberia) and Nkwanta district (Ghana) showed that a single 8 mg moxidectin dose reduced skin microfilariae density (microfilariae/mg skin, SmfD) better and for longer than a single 150μg/kg ivermectin dose. We now analysed efficacy by study area and pre-treatment SmfD (intensity of infection, IoI).

Methodology/principal Findings: Four and three IoI categories were defined for across-study and by-study area analyses, respectively. Read More

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Bma-LAD-2, an Intestinal Cell Adhesion Protein, as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Lymphatic Filariasis.

mBio 2022 Apr 27:e0374221. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Microbiology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciencesgrid.265436.0, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease that afflicts over 70 million people worldwide. It is caused by the parasitic nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. Despite substantial success, efforts to eliminate LF will likely require more time and resources than predicted. Read More

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Prevalence and risk factors for blood filariasis among HIV-infected adults in Gabon, Central Africa: a pilot study.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Parasitology-Mycology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université des Sciences de la Santé, BP 4009, Libreville, Gabon.

Background: The level of blood filariasis parasitaemia as well as the frequency of and the relationship between cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTX-P), antiretroviral therapy (ART) intake and CD4 cell count among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in rural areas of Gabon were being studied.

Methods: Sociodemographic data and recent biological tests of PLHIV and HIV-negative participants were collected. Loa loa and Mansonella perstans microfilaria were detected by direct microscopy examination and leucoconcentration. Read More

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Anti-Th17 and anti-Th2 responses effects of hydro-ethanolic extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Khaya senegalensis and Xylopia aethiopica in hyperreactive onchocerciasis individuals' peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 25;16(4):e0010341. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (IMMIP), University Hospital Bonn (UKB), Bonn, Germany.

Hyperreactive onchocerciasis (HO) is characterized by a severe skin inflammation with elevated Th17-Th2 combined responses. We previously demonstrated the anthelminthic activity of Aframomum melegueta (AM), Xylopia aethiopica (XA) and Khaya senegalensis (KS) used by traditional healers to treat helminthiasis in the endemic area of Togo. However, their effect on severe onchocerciasis is poorly investigated. Read More

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Case 305.

Radiology 2022 05;303(2):477-479

From the Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, Radiology Unit, IRCCS ISMETT (Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies), Via Tricomi 5, Palermo 90127, Sicily, Italy.

History: A 27-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with fever and thoracic pain. In the previous 6 months, the patient lost a substantial amount of weight (12 kg). His family history was negative for cardiac disease. Read More

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