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    A systematic review of factors that shape implementation of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa.
    BMC Public Health 2017 May 22;17(1):484. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Zambia, PO Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Background: Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities. Read More

    Lymphatic filariasis elimination efforts in Rufiji, South-Eastern Tanzania: decline in circulating filarial antigen prevalence in young school children after twelve rounds of mass drug administration and utilization of long lasting insecticide treated nets.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    National Institute for Medical Research, P. O. Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Electronic address:
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors and in sub Saharan Africa it is caused by nematode Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease has been targeted for global elimination by using annual mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. On the other hand, vector control is known to play important complementary role to the MDAs in reducing LF transmission. Read More

    Blood meal induced regulation of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the southern house mosquito.
    BMC Genomics 2017 May 19;18(1):393. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Unit of Chemical Ecology, Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Background: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Read More

    Filariasis Orchitis-Differential for Acute Scrotum Pathology.
    Urol Case Rep 2017 Jul 4;13:117-119. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Madigan Army Medical Center, Urology Department, Tacoma, WA 98431, USA.
    Granulomatous Orchitis secondary to lymphatic filiarisis is a rare diagnosis within the United States. We report a case of a 22yo Male from Sri Lanka, with a new onset scrotal swelling and palpable right testicular mass. Ultrasound identified a 1 cm right testicular mass with signs of tunica albuginea invasion. Read More

    Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Attracted to Human Subjects in Rubber Plantations, Secondary Forests, and Villages in Luang Prabang Province, Northern Lao PDR.
    J Med Entomol 2017 May 15. Epub 2017 May 15.
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1?3LE, United Kingdom
    The impact of the rapid expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia on mosquito populations is uncertain. We compared the abundance and diversity of adult mosquitoes using human-baited traps in four typical rural habitats in northern Lao PDR: secondary forests, immature rubber plantations, mature rubber plantations, and villages. Generalized estimating equations were used to explore differences in mosquito abundance between habitats, and Simpson's diversity index was used to measure species diversity. Read More

    Improving drug delivery strategies for lymphatic filariasis elimination in urban areas in Ghana.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 11;11(5):e0005619. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Taskforce for Global Health, Decatur-Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) advocates for the treatment of entire endemic communities, in order to achieve its elimination targets. LF is predominantly a rural disease, and achieving the required treatment coverage in these areas is much easier compared to urban areas that are more complex. In Ghana, parts of the Greater Accra Region with Accra as the capital city are also endemic for LF. Read More

    Migratory phase of Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial infective larvae is associated with pathology and transient increase of S100A9 expressing neutrophils in the lung.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 9;11(5):e0005596. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Unité Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM, UMR 7245), Sorbonne Universités, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, CNRS, Paris, France.
    Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. Read More

    Brugia malayi microfilariae adhere to human vascular endothelial cells in a C3-dependent manner.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 8;11(5):e0005592. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Royal Veterinary College, Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal College Street, London, United Kingdom.
    Brugia malayi causes the human tropical disease, lymphatic filariasis. Microfilariae (Mf) of this nematode live in the bloodstream and are ingested by a feeding mosquito vector. Interestingly, in a remarkable co-evolutionary adaptation, Mf appearance in the peripheral blood follows a circadian periodicity and reaches a peak when the mosquito is most likely to feed. Read More

    [Epidemiological characteristics of Kala-azar disease in China, during 2005-2015].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;38(4):431-434
    Filariasis, Kala-azar and Echinococcosis Department, National Institution for Parasitic Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Objective: To explore the epidemiological characteristics of Kala-azar disease in China from 2005 to 2015, to provide evidence for the development of related control and measurement strategies. Methods: Data was obtained from Disease Reporting Information System of China CDC, to compare factors on type, distribution, peak season and the age of onset of the cases. Results: Epidemic of Kala-azar had been persistent in China. Read More

    Stage-specific antibody response against two larval stages of Brugia malayi in different clinical spectra of brugian filariasis.
    Trop Parasitol 2017 Jan-Jun;7(1):29-36
    Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Context: T-cell hypo-responsiveness in microfilaria (Mf) carriers against the microfilarial stage antigen of Brugia malayi has been described, but no study has been carried out to assess antibody dynamics against stage-specific antigens.

    Aim: The work was carried out with the aim to assess stage-specific antibody responses against L3 and microfilarial stage antigens in brugian filariasis in an endemic area.

    Setting And Design: Patients with different clinical spectra of brugian filariasis were recruited to evaluate antibody responses to brugian antigens. Read More

    Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks.
    Soc Sci Med 2017 Jun 8;183:37-47. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom.
    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Read More

    Commentary: restarting NTD programme activities after the Ebola outbreak in Liberia.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 May 1;6(1):52. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases (CNTD), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    It is widely known that the recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa caused a serious disruption to the national health system, with many of ongoing disease focused programmes, such as mass drug administration (MDA) for onchocerciasis (ONC), lymphatic filariasis (LF) and schistosomiasis (SCH), being suspended or scaled-down. As these MDA programmes attempt to restart post-EVD it is important to understand the challenges that may be encountered. This commentary addresses the opinions of the major health sectors involved, as well as those of community members, regarding logistic needs and challenges faced as these important public health programmes consider restarting. Read More

    A Novel Ligand of Toll-like Receptor 4 From the Sheath of Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilaria Induces Proinflammatory Response in Macrophages.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Mar;215(6):954-965
    Department of Zoology (Centre for Advanced Studies), Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal, India; and.
    Background.: Lymphatic filariasis, frequently caused from Wuchereria bancrofti infection, is endemic in several parts of the globe and responsible for human health problems and socioeconomic loss to a large extent. Inflammatory consequences originating from host-parasite interaction play a major role in the disease pathology and allied complications. Read More

    Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding lymphatic filariasis: study on systematic noncompliance with mass drug administration.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 20;59:e23. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães, Departamento de Parasitologia, Pernambuco, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting lymphatic filariasis, in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information on socioenvironmental demographics, perceptions of lymphatic filariasis and MDA, and reasons for systematic noncompliance with treatment. A rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) was performed during the survey to screen for filariasis. Read More

    Upon entering an age of global ivermectin-based integrated mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases and malaria.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):168. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    River Blindness, Lymphatic Filariasis and Schistosomiasis Programs, The Carter Center, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.
    Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) in humans to reduce malaria vectors is yet another use for this remarkable medicine whose discoverers shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine with the discoverer of artemisinin. The malaria community should join those who have long used ivermectin MDA in an integrated battle to break transmission of three vector-borne parasitic diseases. Read More

    Ivermectin to reduce malaria transmission I. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations regarding efficacy and safety.
    Malar J 2017 Apr 24;16(1):161. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ivermectin is an endectocide that has been used broadly in single dose community campaigns for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis for more than 30 years. There is now interest in the potential use of ivermectin regimens to reduce malaria transmission, envisaged as community-wide campaigns tailored to transmission patterns and as complement of the local vector control programme. The development of new ivermectin regimens or other novel endectocides will require integrated development of the drug in the context of traditional entomological tools and endpoints. Read More

    Immunoprophylaxis of multi-antigen peptide (MAP) vaccine for human lymphatic filariasis.
    Immunol Res 2017 Jun;65(3):729-738
    Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600 025, India.
    Human lymphatic filariasis, the parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, is ranked as the second most complex clinical condition leading to permanent and long-term disability. The multiple antigen peptide (MAP) approach is an effective method to chemically synthesize and deliver multiple T and B cell epitopes as the constituents of a single immunogen. Here, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and immunoprophylaxis of three epitopes that have been identified from promising vaccine candidates reported in our previous studies, constructed as MAP on an inert lysine core for human lymphatic filariasis in Jird model. Read More

    Monitoring thermal and chemical unfolding of Brugia malayi calreticulin using fluorescence and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy.
    Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 14;102:986-995. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226021, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
    Calreticulin of Brugia malayi (BmCRT) play very important role in host-parasite interaction. In previous study it was found that BmCRT is responsible for prevention of host classical complement pathway activation via its interaction with first component C1q of the human host. Therefore, BmCRT is an essential protein for parasite survival and an important drug target to fend filariasis. Read More

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extracts of Lippia citriodora: Antimicrobial, larvicidal and photocatalytic evaluations.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Jun 1;75:980-989. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Chemistry, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo (FUNAI), P.M.B. 1010, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
    Nanoscience and nanotechnology represent new and enabling platforms that promise to provide broad range of novel and improved technologies for environmental, biological and other scientific applications. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by aqueous leaf extract of Lippia citriodora at two different temperatures of 50°C and 90°C. The synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was monitored by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy at different temperatures and time intervals. Read More

    Examining the role of macrolides and host immunity in combatting filarial parasites.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 14;10(1):182. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Boehringer Ingelheim, 3239 Satellite Boulevard, Duluth, GA, 30096, USA.
    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs), specifically the avermectins and milbemycins, are known for their effectiveness against a broad spectrum of disease-causing nematodes and arthropods in humans and animals. In most nematodes, drugs in this class induce paralysis, resulting in starvation, impaired ability to remain associated with their anatomical environment, and death of all life stages. Initially, this was also thought to be the ML mode of action against filarial nematodes, but researchers have not been able to validate these characteristic effects of immobilization/starvation of MLs in vitro, even at higher doses than are possible in vivo. Read More

    Application of a household-based molecular xenomonitoring strategy to evaluate the lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Tamil Nadu, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 13;11(4):e0005519. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: The monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis (LF) has largely relied on the detection of antigenemia and antibodies in human populations. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes, may be an effective complementary method, particularly for detecting signals in low-level prevalence areas where Culex is the primary mosquito vector. This paper investigated the application of a household-based sampling method for MX in Tamil Nadu, India. Read More

    Novel carbazole aminoalcohols as inhibitors of β-hematin formation: Antiplasmodial and antischistosomal activities.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2017 Apr 2;7(2):191-199. Epub 2017 Apr 2.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis, and Filariasis, Key Laboratory of Parasitology and Vector Biology of the Chinese Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
    Malaria and schistosomiasis are two of the most socioeconomically devastating parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. Since current chemotherapeutic options are limited and defective, there is an urgent need to develop novel antiplasmodials and antischistosomals. Hemozoin is a disposal product formed from the hemoglobin digestion by some blood-feeding parasites. Read More

    A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 7;11(4):e0005455. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Background: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. Read More

    Loa loa vectors Chrysops spp.: perspectives on research, distribution, bionomics, and implications for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Apr 5;10(1):172. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Loiasis is a filarial disease caused Loa loa. The main vectors are Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata which are confined to the tropical rainforests of Central and West Africa. Read More

    Effect of 3 years of biannual mass drug administration with albendazole on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in Republic of the Congo.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Mar 31. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    Programme National de Lutte contre l'Onchocercose, Direction de l'Epidémiologie et de la Lutte contre la Maladie, Ministère de la Santé et de la Population, Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo.
    Background: The standard treatment strategy of mass drug administration with ivermectin plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis cannot be applied in central Africa, because of the risk of serious adverse events in people with high Loa loa microfilaraemia. Thus, alternative strategies are needed. We investigated one such alternative strategy for mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in Republic of the Congo. Read More

    Reaching endpoints for lymphatic filariasis elimination- results from mass drug administration and nocturnal blood surveys, South Gujarat, India.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005476. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Surat, Gujarat, India.
    Background: Following the World Health Assembly resolution on Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (ELF) as a public health problem by the year 2020, a Global Program (GPELF) was launched in 1997 to help endemic countries to initiate national programs. The current strategy to interrupt transmission of LF, is administration of once-yearly, single-dose, two-drug regimen (Albendazole with Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) to be used in endemic areas with the goal of reaching 65% epidemiological coverage for 4-6 years. We report findings of independent assessment from year 2010 to 2015 for last six rounds, after initial five rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) since 2005 for ELF in endemic area of Gujarat. Read More

    Microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology: A rare finding.
    J Lab Physicians 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):143-144
    Department of Pathology, Calcutta National Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in India and Southeast Asia. Detection of microfilaria is infrequently reported during cytological evaluation of various lesions or body cavity fluids. Presence of microfilaria in pleural fluid cytology is very rare finding even in endemic areas. Read More

    Measuring the physical and economic impact of filarial lymphoedema in Chikwawa district, Malawi: a case-control study.
    Infect Dis Poverty 2017 Apr 3;6(1):28. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the primary causes of lymphoedema in sub-Saharan Africa, and has a significant impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those affected. In this paper we assess the relative impact of lymphoedema on mobility and income in Chikwawa district, Malawi.

    Methods: A random sample of 31 people with lymphoedema and 31 matched controls completed a QoL questionnaire from which both an overall and a mobility-specific score were calculated. Read More

    Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 30;11(3):e0005357. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Background: Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. Read More

    Oleanolic acid from antifilarial triterpene saponins of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in filarial parasite Setaria digitata in vitro.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Mar 27;177:13-21. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:
    Absence of a drug that kills adult filarial parasites remains the major challenge in eliminating human lymphatic filariasis (LF); the second leading cause of long-term and permanent disability. Thus, the discovery of novel antifilarial natural products with potent adulticidal activity is an urgent need. In the present study, methanol extracts of leaves, bark and winged seeds of Dipterocarpus zeylanicus (Dipterocarpaceae) were investigated for macro and microfilaricidal activity. Read More

    Probing intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine citrate salt by fast MAS (1)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy and GIPAW calculations.
    Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 2017 Mar 2. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.
    Fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is used to probe intermolecular interactions in a diethylcarbamazine salt, that is widely used as a treatment against adult worms of Wuchereria bancrofti which cause a common disease in tropical countries named filariasis. Specifically, a dihydrogen citrate salt that has improved thermal stability and solubility as compared to the free form is studied. One-dimensional (1)H, (13)C and (15)N and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C and (14)N-(1)H heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments under moderate and fast MAS together with GIPAW (CASTEP) calculations enable the assignment of the (1)H, (13)C and (14)N/(15)N resonances. Read More

    Boswellia ovalifoliolata (Burseraceae) essential oil as an eco-friendly larvicide? Toxicity against six mosquito vectors of public health importance, non-target mosquito fishes, backswimmers, and water bugs.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.
    The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Read More

    Ascension Island: a survey to assess the presence of Zika virus vectors.
    J R Army Med Corps 2017 Mar 22. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Entomology Department, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus), RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus.
    Background And Aim: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island.

    Methods: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches. Read More

    Posttreatment Reactions After Single-Dose Diethylcarbamazine or Ivermectin in Subjects With Loa loa Infection.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(8):1017-1025
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Background.: Severe adverse reactions have been observed in individuals with Loa loa infection treated with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC), the drug of choice for loiasis, or ivermectin (IVM), which is used in mass drug administration programs for control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in Africa. In this study, posttreatment clinical and immunologic reactions were compared following single-dose therapy with DEC or IVM to assess whether these reactions have the same underlying pathophysiology. Read More

    The Role of Spatial Statistics in the Control and Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Human African Trypanosomiasis, Schistosomiasis and Lymphatic Filariasis.
    Adv Parasitol 2017 9;97:187-241. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Read More

    Short-Course, High-Dose Rifampicin Achieves Wolbachia Depletion Predictive of Curative Outcomes in Preclinical Models of Lymphatic Filariasis and Onchocerciasis.
    Sci Rep 2017 Mar 16;7(1):210. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Read More

    Pneumococcal Vaccine Response After Exposure to Parasites in Utero, in Infancy, or Mid-Childhood.
    Pediatrics 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.
    Background And Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization. Read More

    Mathematical analysis of a lymphatic filariasis model with quarantine and treatment.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Mar 16;17(1):265. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    School of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, Wits, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa.
    Background: Lymphatic filariasis is a globally neglected tropical parasitic disease which affects individuals of all ages and leads to an altered lymphatic system and abnormal enlargement of body parts.

    Methods: A mathematical model of lymphatic filariaris with intervention strategies is developed and analyzed. Control of infections is analyzed within the model through medical treatment of infected-acute individuals and quarantine of infected-chronic individuals. Read More

    Toxicity of β-citronellol, geraniol and linalool from Pelargonium roseum essential oil against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).
    Res Vet Sci 2017 Mar 6;114:36-40. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    Insect vectors are responsible for spreading devastating parasites and pathogens. A large number of botanicals have been suggested for eco-friendly control programs against mosquito vectors, and some of them are aromatic plants. Pelargonium roseum, a species belonging to the Geraniaceae family, due to its pleasant rose-like odor may represent a suitable candidate as mosquito repellent and/or larvicide. Read More

    Dynamic transcriptomes identify biogenic amines and insect-like hormonal regulation for mediating reproduction in Schistosoma japonicum.
    Nat Commun 2017 Mar 13;8:14693. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.
    Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. Read More

    Lymphatic Filariasis in Southwestern Nigerian Rural Communities: A Cross-sectional Survey of the Knowledge, Awareness, and Predisposing Factors.
    Ann Glob Health 2016 Sep - Oct;82(5):806-812
    Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Abraham Adesanya Polytechnic, Ijebu-Igbo, Ogun State, Nigeria.
    Background: Nigeria is the second most endemic country in the world for lymphatic filariasis, with control efforts often hampered by poor community awareness and involvement in intervention strategies.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and psychosocial aspects of some residents in Nigerian rural communities about lymphatic filariasis in order to develop disease control and intervention strategies with active community involvement.

    Methods: A standardized questionnaire was adapted and a scale of measurement was developed. Read More

    Modeling the Parasitic Filariasis Spread by Mosquito in Periodic Environment.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 8;2017:4567452. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    School of Innovation Experiment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.
    In this paper a mosquito-borne parasitic infection model in periodic environment is considered. Threshold parameter R0 is given by linear next infection operator, which determined the dynamic behaviors of system. We obtain that when R0 < 1, the disease-free periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable and when R0 > 1 by Poincaré map we obtain that disease is uniformly persistent. Read More

    Predicting lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination dynamics using a multi-model ensemble framework.
    Epidemics 2017 Mar;18:16-28
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. Electronic address:
    Mathematical models of parasite transmission provide powerful tools for assessing the impacts of interventions. Owing to complexity and uncertainty, no single model may capture all features of transmission and elimination dynamics. Multi-model ensemble modelling offers a framework to help overcome biases of single models. Read More

    [Chyluria with "nephrotic syndrome-like" presentation: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach].
    Prog Urol 2016 Dec 27;26(16):1153-1156. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Service diététique, centre hospitalier métropole Savoie, place Lucien-Biset, BP 31125, 73011 Chambéry cedex, France. Electronic address:
    Chyluria implies an abnormal communication between the lymphatic system and the urinary tract. It is more frequent in endemic areas of lymphatic filariasis, which constitutes the main cause. Chyluria may mimic a nephrotic syndrome. Read More

    Amelanotic Melanoma Arising in Filarial Leg: A Report of a Rare Case.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):ED07-ED09. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, AIIMS, BBSR , Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .
    Amelanotic melanoma arising on chronic lymphoedema has not been reported earlier. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of right leg developing in a background of chronic lymphoedema of filarial origin in an elderly male of 60 years, who underwent wide local excision of the lesion followed by skin grafting for the same. A histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was made. Read More

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