76 results match your criteria Filaria Journal [Journal]


Contribution of migrant coffee labourers infected with Onchocerca volvulus to the maintenance of the microfilarial reservoir in an ivermectin-treated area of Mexico.

Filaria J 2007 Dec 18;6:16. Epub 2007 Dec 18.

Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Blvd, del Maestro esquina Elías Piña, Col, Narciso Mendoza, 88710, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, México.

Background: Since 1991, in Mexico, ivermectin has been administered twice a year to all residents in the onchocerciasis endemic foci which are mainly located in the coffee growing areas. However, the presence of a potentially infected itinerant seasonal labour force which is not treated regularly could jeopardise the attainment of the 85% coverage which is the present target for elimination of the disease.

Methods: The prevalence and intensity of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf), as well as their transmission from humans to vectors, were assessed during the coffee planting-clearing and harvesting seasons of 1997-1998, and 1998-1999 in two localities (I and II) of Southern Chiapas, Mexico, which regularly receive an influx of untreated migrant coffee labourers. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238739PMC
December 2007
8 Reads

Epidemiology and psycho-social aspects of onchocercal skin diseases in northeastern Nigeria.

Filaria J 2007 Dec 3;6:15. Epub 2007 Dec 3.

Department of Zoology, University of Jos, Nigeria .

Background: Observations were made on the prevalence of onchocerciasis and Onchocercal Skin Diseases (OSD); frequency of occurrence and anatomical distribution of OSD in the Hawal River Valley, an established onchocerciasis endemic focus in north-eastern Nigeria.

Methods: Symptoms of OSD were diagnosed in 5 844 subjects using Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) while 1 479 of the subjects chosen from alternate households had their skin biopsies examined for active microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Also, Focal Group Discussions (FGD) were conducted at the Health District levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238738PMC
December 2007
8 Reads

Contributions of different mosquito species to the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria: implications for monitoring infection by PCR in mosquito pools.

Filaria J 2007 Nov 29;6:14. Epub 2007 Nov 29.

The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, USA and Jos, Nigeria.

Background: Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are important vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known about the relative contributions of all mosquitoes to lymphatic filariasis transmission in this area.

Methods: Over a 28 month period, mosquitoes were collected from 13 villages in Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria and dissected to determine W. bancrofti infection status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2228284PMC
November 2007
8 Reads
7 Citations

Monitoring lymphatic filariasis interventions: Adult mosquito sampling, and improved PCR - based pool screening method for Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Anopheles mosquitoes.

Filaria J 2007 Nov 29;6:13. Epub 2007 Nov 29.

Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, P,O, Box LG 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Monitoring and evaluation are essential to the successful implementation of mass drug administration programmes for LF elimination. Monitoring transmission when it is low requires both large numbers of mosquito vectors and sensitive methods for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti infections in them. PCR-based methods are preferred over classical dissections but the best protocol so far achieved detection of one L3 Wuchereria bancrofti larva in a pool of 35-50 Anopheles mosquitoes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2235849PMC
November 2007
13 Reads

The geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis infection in Malawi.

Filaria J 2007 Nov 29;6:12. Epub 2007 Nov 29.

Lymphatic Filariasis Support Centre, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L3 5QA, UK.

Mapping distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a prerequisite for planning national elimination programmes. Results from a nation wide mapping survey for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Malawi are presented. Thirty-five villages were sampled from 23 districts excluding three districts (Karonga, Chikwawa and Nsanje) that had already been mapped and Likoma, an Island, where access was not possible in the time frame of the survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2233609PMC
November 2007
8 Reads

Social mobilisation, drug coverage and compliance and adverse reactions in a Mass Drug Administration (MDA) Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka.

Filaria J 2007 Nov 15;6:11. Epub 2007 Nov 15.

Filariasis Research Training and Service Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka.

Background: In Sri Lanka filariasis is endemic in Southern, Western and North Western provinces covering eight districts designated as implementation units in the Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF). Despite control activities over sixty years including multidose diethylcarbamazine, 6 mg/kg treatment microfilaria rates had persisted at low levels. Following systematic social mobilisation the first MDA with DEC albendazole combination was conducted in 2002. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2203982PMC
November 2007
6 Reads

Pan LF-ELISA using BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens for detection of lymphatic filariasis.

Filaria J 2007 Oct 26;6:10. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Suite 110, Eureka Complex, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Background: Anti-filarial IgG4 antibody has been shown to be a good marker for detection of lymphatic filaria infection. Previous studies demonstrated that anti-filarial IgG4 assay using BmR1 recombinant antigen was highly specific and sensitive for detection of brugian filariasis. For bancroftian filariasis, an equivalent assay employing recombinant antigen expressed from the ORF of SXP1 gene has been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174454PMC
October 2007
6 Reads

Multicentre evaluations of two new rapid IgG4 tests (WB rapid and panLF rapid) for detection of lymphatic filariasis.

Filaria J 2007 Oct 26;6. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universti Sains Malaysia (USM), Malaysia.

In the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF), rapid field-applicable tests are useful tools that will allow on-site testing to be performed in remote places and the results to be obtained rapidly. Exclusive reliance on the few existing tests may jeopardize the progress of the LF elimination program, thus the introduction of other rapid tests would be useful to address this issue. Two new rapid immunochromatographic IgG4 cassette tests have been produced, namely WB rapid and panLF rapid, for detection of bancroftian filariasis and all three species of lymphatic filaria respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2174453PMC
October 2007
11 Reads

Health Related Quality of Life, an appropriate indicator to assess the impact of morbidity management and disability prevention activities towards elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

Filaria J 2007 Aug 28;6. Epub 2007 Aug 28.

Division of Health Economics and Disease Burden, Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis has been identified as one of the six diseases that can be potentially eliminated. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis has been launched, applying principal strategies of mass drug administration to interrupt transmission and morbidity management to prevent disability. The strategy for mass drug administration has been clearly laid out and guidelines have been well documented for implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the programme but such a guideline is warranted for morbidity management and disability prevention activities. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2000866PMC
August 2007
5 Reads

Delivery strategy of mass annual single dose DEC administration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the urban areas of Pondicherry, South India: 5 years of experience.

Filaria J 2007 Aug 24;6. Epub 2007 Aug 24.

Department of Health Economics, Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.

Background: The recommended strategy for elimination of Lymphatic filariasis is single-dose, once-yearly mass treatment with anti-filarial drugs and the program is in operation on a national level in India. Rate of coverage and consumption is the most crucial factor in the success of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) program. In spite of massive efforts, the program demonstrated sub-optimal coverage and consumption in urban areas than rural. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2020462PMC
August 2007
6 Reads

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for differentiation between Thai and Myanmar strains of Wuchereria bancrofti.

Filaria J 2007 Jul 30;6. Epub 2007 Jul 30.

Lymphatic Filariasis Research Unit, Department of Parasitology, Chulalongkorn Medical Research Center (Chula MRC), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by mosquito-transmitted filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. The Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Thailand has reduced the prevalence of nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (Thai strain), mainly transmitted by the Ochlerotatus (Aedes) niveus group in Thailand to 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1976415PMC
July 2007
10 Reads

Physical disability and psychosocial impact due to chronic filarial lymphoedema in Sri Lanka.

Filaria J 2007 Mar 29;6. Epub 2007 Mar 29.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.

Background: Information on the physical and psychosocial disability of lymphatic filariasis in Sri Lanka is scarce. Therefore this study was carried out to describe the physical disability and psychosocial impact associated with chronic lymphoedema in patients attending filariasis clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

Methods: Four hundred and thirteen patients with lymphoedema of limbs attending filariasis clinics in Werahera and Dehiwala in the Colombo district were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed written consent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1851956PMC
March 2007
5 Reads

Socio-cultural insights and lymphatic filariasis control--lessons from the Pacific.

Filaria J 2007 Feb 17;6. Epub 2007 Feb 17.

World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Control of Lymphatic Filariasis, James Cook University, Douglas, Townsville, 4811, Australia.

Background: Sustainable and equitable health programmes require a grounded understanding of the context in which they are being implemented. This socio-cultural understanding is pivotal for effective delivery of elimination programmes. Standardised valid methods are needed for gathering authentic socio-cultural insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805494PMC
February 2007
6 Reads

Morbidity management in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: a review of the scientific literature.

Filaria J 2007 Feb 15;6. Epub 2007 Feb 15.

WHO Collaborating Center for Control and Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Americas, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mailstop F-22, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Georgia, 30341, USA.

The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has two major goals: to interrupt transmission of the parasite and to provide care for those who suffer the devastating clinical manifestations of the disease (morbidity control). This latter goal addresses three filariasis-related conditions: acute inflammatory episodes; lymphoedema; and hydrocele. Research during the last decade has confirmed the importance of bacteria as a cause of acute inflammatory episodes in filariasis-endemic areas, known as acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828725PMC
February 2007
7 Reads

Qualitative analysis of the impact of a lymphatic filariasis elimination programme using mass drug administration on Misima Island, Papua New Guinea.

Filaria J 2007 Jan 1;6. Epub 2007 Jan 1.

World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for the Control of Lymphatic Filariasis, James Cook University, Douglas, Townsville, 4811, Australia.

Background: Papua New Guinea is the only endemic country in the Western Pacific Region that has not yet introduced a countrywide programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. However, on Misima Island in Milne Bay Province, government and private sectors have collaborated to implement a pilot elimination programme. Although interim evaluation indicated that the programme has been parasitologically successful, an appreciation that sustainable health gains depend on understanding and accommodating local beliefs prompted this qualitative study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-6-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1770912PMC
January 2007
6 Reads

Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs.

Filaria J 2006 Dec 22;5:13. Epub 2006 Dec 22.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Office of Health Communication, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs.

Methods: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1779268PMC
December 2006
15 Reads

Delimitation of lymphatic filariasis transmission risk areas: a geo-environmental approach.

Filaria J 2006 Nov 9;5:12. Epub 2006 Nov 9.

Vector Control Research Centre, Medical Complex, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry - 605 006, India.

Background: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) depends upon Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission. Therefore, delimitation of transmission risk areas is an important step, and hence we attempted to define a geo-environmental risk model (GERM) for determining the areas of potential transmission of lymphatic filariasis.

Methods: A range of geo-environmental variables has been selected, and customized on GIS platform to develop GERM for identifying the areas of filariasis transmission in terms of "risk" and "non-risk". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1654150PMC
November 2006
9 Reads

The Mectizan Donation Program - highlights from 2005.

Filaria J 2006 Sep 27;5:11. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

The Mectizan Donation Program, 750 Commerce Drive, Suite 400, Decatur, GA 30030, USA.

Through the Mectizan Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1618829PMC
September 2006
9 Reads

The argument for integrating vector control with multiple drug administration campaigns to ensure elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

Filaria J 2006 Aug 16;5:10. Epub 2006 Aug 16.

Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Division of Parasitic Diseases, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop F42, Atlanta, Georgia 03041, USA.

Background: There is a danger that mass drug administration campaigns may fail to maintain adequate treatment coverage to achieve lymphatic filariasis elimination. Hence, additional measures to suppress transmission might be needed to ensure the success of the Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis.

Discussion: Vector control successfully eliminated lymphatic filariasis when implemented alone or with mass drug administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560133PMC
August 2006
6 Reads

Lymphadenovarix in the axilla--an unusual presentation of filariasis.

Filaria J 2006 Jul 30;5. Epub 2006 Jul 30.

Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, India.

Clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis depend on the area of lymphatic involvement and the duration of infection. A 21 year old man, resident in a filariasis endemic region, presented with multiple matted lymph nodes with cystic areas forming a large mass in his left axilla. An ultrasound scan of the axilla using a 7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1552058PMC
July 2006
6 Reads
2 Citations

Concomitant infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti on the Kenyan coast.

Filaria J 2006 May 24;5. Epub 2006 May 24.

Centre for Ecological Entomology, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607E, Peabody drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA.

Background: Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513226PMC
May 2006
7 Reads
20 Citations

Tissue localization of collagenase and leucine aminopeptidase in the bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi.

Filaria J 2006 May 22;5. Epub 2006 May 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India.

Background: Like other helminth proteases, filarial proteases have also been shown to require for parasite survival inside the host and mediate various physiologic processes such as tissue invasion, feeding, embryogenesis and host immune evasion. Many of these proteases have shown potential for vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against active filarial infections. Setaria cervi is a bovine filarial parasite and serves as a good parasite model for the studies in lymphatic filariasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1481592PMC
May 2006
6 Reads
2 Citations

A possible case of spontaneous Loa loa encephalopathy associated with a glomerulopathy.

Filaria J 2006 May 10;5. Epub 2006 May 10.

Département de Médecine Interne, Cliniques Universitaires de Kinshasa, BP 123, Kinshasa IX, République démocratique du Congo.

It is well known that renal and neurological complications may occur after antifilarial treatment of patients infected with Loa loa. Conversely, spontaneous cases of visceral complications of loiasis have been rarely reported. A 31-year-old Congolese male patient who had not received any antifilarial drug developed oedema of the lower limbs, and then transient swellings of upper limbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1471781PMC
May 2006
14 Reads

Advances and challenges in predicting the impact of lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes by mathematical modelling.

Filaria J 2006 Mar 28;5. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P,O, Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Mathematical simulation models for transmission and control of lymphatic filariasis are useful tools for studying the prospects of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Two simulation models are currently being used. The first, EPIFIL, is a population-based, deterministic model that simulates average trends in infection intensity over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448203PMC
March 2006
6 Reads

Onchocerca parasites and Wolbachia endosymbionts: evaluation of a spectrum of antibiotic types for activity against Onchocerca gutturosa in vitro.

Filaria J 2006 Mar 24;5. Epub 2006 Mar 24.

Tropical Parasitic Diseases Unit, Northwick Park Institute for Medical Research, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ, UK.

Background: The filarial parasites of major importance in humans contain the symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia and recent studies have shown that targeting of these bacteria with antibiotics results in a reduction in worm viability, development, embryogenesis, and survival. Doxycycline has been effective in human trials, but there is a need to develop drugs that can be given for shorter periods and to pregnant women and children. The World Health Organisation-approved assay to screen for anti-filarial activity in vitro uses male Onchocerca gutturosa, with effects being determined by worm motility and viability as measured by reduction of MTT to MTT formazan. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1471782PMC
March 2006
6 Reads

Cytokine profiles of filarial granulomas in jirds infected with Brugia pahangi.

Filaria J 2006 Mar 16;5. Epub 2006 Mar 16.

Infectious Diseases Division, Internal Medicine Department, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, St, Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Background: A granulomatous inflammatory response develops in jirds infected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with filarial nematodes namely Brugia pahangi and B. malayi. Previous studies by light and electron microscopy have shown cellular inflammatory responses in and around these granulomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1479342PMC
March 2006
4 Reads

PCR and dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes in French Polynesia.

Filaria J 2006 Feb 24;5. Epub 2006 Feb 24.

Institut Louis Malardé, P0 Box 30, Papeete, 98713 Tahiti, French Polynesia.

Background: Entomological methods may provide important tools for monitoring the transmission of filariasis in French Polynesia. In order to standardize our PCR method and refine our protocol to assess filarial infection levels in mosquitoes, we compared dissection of the vector, Aedes polynesiensis, with the poolscreening polymerase chain reaction (PS-PCR) assay.

Methods: (1) Mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches in five areas in Moorea island, French Polynesia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1403774PMC
February 2006
8 Reads

Assessment of microfilarial loads in the skin of onchocerciasis patients after treatment with different regimens of doxycycline plus ivermectin.

Filaria J 2006 Feb 5;5. Epub 2006 Feb 5.

Institute for Medical Parasitology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str, 25, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.

Background: Infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus can lead to severe dermatitis, visual impairment, and ultimately blindness. Since the currently used drug, ivermectin does not have macrofilaricidal or strong permanent sterilising effects on the adult worm, more effective drugs are needed to complement the use of ivermectin alone. Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria in filariae have emerged as a new target for treatment with antibiotics which can lead to long -term sterilization of the adult female filariae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-5-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1388215PMC
February 2006
6 Reads
14 Citations

A flow cytometry based method for studying embryogenesis and immune reactivity to embryogenic stages in filarial parasites.

Filaria J 2005 Nov 7;4(1):11. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

Division of Immunology, Regional Medical Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Chandrasekarpur, Bhubaneswar, 751023, India.

Background: In the absence of intermediate animal hosts, the process of embryogenesis leading to fecundity of adult female filarial worms is very critical for persistence of these obligate parasites in human communities. Embryogenesis in adult female filarial parasites involves fertilization of eggs or oocytes by sperms and their subsequent development into motile microfilariae inside the uterine cavity of worms. Development of assays for monitoring embryogenesis in adult female worms is a critical requirement in filariasis research--filarial worms are known to harbour endosymbionts such as Wolbachia which play a significant role in fecundity. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1291383PMC
November 2005
8 Reads

The chromosomes of the Filariae.

Authors:
Rory Post

Filaria J 2005 Nov 2;4:10. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK.

An understanding of the nature of the chromosomes of the filariae is expected to greatly assist the future interpretation of genome data. Filarial development is not eutelic, and there does not seem to be a fixed number of cell divisions in the way that there is in Caenorhabditis. It is not clear whether the chromosomes of the filariae have localized centromeres or whether they are holocentric. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1282586PMC
November 2005
5 Reads

Studies on Acanthocheilonema viteae cystatin: genomic organization, promoter studies and expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Filaria J 2005 Aug 9;4. Epub 2005 Aug 9.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt University Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

Cystatins are reversible, tightly binding inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Filarial cystatins have been ascribed immunomodulatory properties and have been implicated in protective immunity. To continue exploration of this potential, here we have determined the sequence, structure and genomic organization of the cystatin gene locus of A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1187909PMC
August 2005
5 Reads

Repeated high doses of avermectins cause prolonged sterilisation, but do not kill, Onchocerca ochengi adult worms in African cattle.

Filaria J 2005 Aug 8;4. Epub 2005 Aug 8.

Division of Parasite and Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, University of Liverpool, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Ivermectin (Mectizan, Merck and CO. Inc.) is being widely used in the control of human onchocerciasis (Onchoverca volvulus) because of its potent effect on microfilariae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1200428PMC
August 2005
5 Reads

Defining the cost of the Egyptian lymphatic filariasis elimination programme.

Filaria J 2005 Aug 2;4. Epub 2005 Aug 2.

Research & Training Center on Vectors of Diseases, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination. LF elimination programmes in different countries, including Egypt, are supported financially by national and international agencies. The national programme in Egypt is based on mass drug administration (MDA) of an annual dose of a combination of 2 drugs (DEC and albendazole) to all endemic villages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1187908PMC
August 2005
6 Reads

Mass ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis: lack of evidence for collateral impact on transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in areas of co-endemicity.

Filaria J 2005 Jul 15;4. Epub 2005 Jul 15.

The Carter Center, One Copenhill, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA.

There has long been interest in determining if mass ivermectin administration for onchocerciasis has 'unknowingly' interrupted lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission where the endemicity of the two diseases' overlaps. We studied 11 communities in central Nigeria entomologically for LF by performing mosquito dissections on Anopheline LF vectors. Six of the communities studied were located within an onchocerciasis treatment zone, and five were located outside of that zone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1208930PMC
July 2005
4 Reads
10 Citations

Impact of two rounds of mass drug administration using diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole on the prevalence of Brugia timori and of intestinal helminths on Alor Island, Indonesia.

Filaria J 2005 Jul 13;4. Epub 2005 Jul 13.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht-Strasse 74, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamizine (DEC, 6 mg/kg) combined with albendazole (alb, 400 mg) is recommended by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). This strategy has been shown to be efficient in the of control bancroftian filariasis, but data on brugian filariasis as well as on the positive side effects on intestinal helminths are lacking.

Methods: The effect of one selective treatment and two rounds of MDA using DEC and alb on the prevalence and intensity of Brugia timori infection were studied on Alor island using a cross-sectional and a cohort approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1201159PMC
July 2005
13 Reads

Diethylcarbamazine activity against Brugia malayi microfilariae is dependent on inducible nitric-oxide synthase and the cyclooxygenase pathway.

Filaria J 2005 Jun 2;4. Epub 2005 Jun 2.

Filariasis Research Laboratory, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

Background: Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been used for many years in the treatment of human lymphatic filariasis. Its mode of action is not well understood, but it is known to interact with the arachidonic acid pathway. Here we have investigated the contribution of the nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways to the activity of DEC against B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1173132PMC
June 2005
5 Reads

The subcutaneous movements of filarial infective larvae are impaired in vaccinated hosts in comparison to primary infected hosts.

Filaria J 2005 May 25;4. Epub 2005 May 25.

Parasitologie Comparée et Modèles Expérimentaux, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Our aim in this study was to observe the movements of filarial infective larvae following inoculation into the mammalian host and to assess the effect of vaccination on larval migration, in situ. Here we present recordings of larvae progressing through the subcutaneous tissues and inguinal lymph node of primary infected or vaccinated mice. We used the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis in BALB/c mice that were necropsied 6 hours after the challenge inoculation of 200 larvae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1177976PMC
May 2005
9 Reads

Combined Utilisation of Rapid Assessment Procedures for Loiasis (RAPLOA) and Onchocerciasis (REA) in Rain forest Villages of Cameroon.

Filaria J 2005 Apr 7;4(1). Epub 2005 Apr 7.

University of Buea, Faculty of Science, Department of Life Sciences, P,O, Box 63, Buea, Cameroon.

BACKGROUND: Individuals with high microfilarial loads of Loa loa are at increased risk of neurologic serious adverse (SAE) events following ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis. RAPLOA (Rapid Assessment Procedure for loiasis), a newly developed rapid assessment procedure for loiasis that relates the prevalence of key clinical manifestation of loiasis (history of eye worm) to the level of endemicity of the infection (prevalence of high intensity), is a very useful tool to identify areas at potential risk of L. loa post ivermectin treatment encephalopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1090603PMC
April 2005
14 Reads

Frequent detection of worm movements in onchocercal nodules by ultrasonography.

Filaria J 2005 Mar 23;4(1). Epub 2005 Mar 23.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany.

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (USG) is known to be a suitable tool for diagnosis in lymphatic filariasis as the adult filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti in scrotal lymphatic vessels of infected men can be detected by the characteristic pattern of movement, the Filaria Dance Sign. In onchocerciasis, moving adult worms have not yet been demonstrated by USG. In addition the verification of drug effects on living adult Onchocerca volvulus filariae in trials is hampered by the lack of tools for longitudinal observation of alterations induced by potentially macrofilaricidal drugs in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-4-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1079913PMC
March 2005
8 Reads
9 Citations

Homologs of the Brugia malayi diagnostic antigen BmR1 are present in other filarial parasites but induce different humoral immune responses.

Filaria J 2004 Dec 31;3(1):10. Epub 2004 Dec 31.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine and School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

BACKGROUND: The recombinant antigen BmR1 has been extensively employed in both ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid dipstick (Brugia Rapid) formats for the specific and sensitive detection of IgG4 antibodies against the lymphatic filarial parasites Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. In sera of individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti the IgG4 reactivity to BmR1 is variable, and cross-reactivity of sera from individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus or Loa loa was observed only in single cases. In order to characterize the homologs of the BmR1 antigen in W. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544840PMC
December 2004
7 Reads

Recombinant antigen-based antibody assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis - a multicenter trial.

Filaria J 2004 Sep 3;3(1). Epub 2004 Sep 3.

Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS-F13, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, Georgia, 30341, USA.

The development of antifilarial antibody responses is a characteristic feature of infection with filarial parasites. It should be possible to exploit this fact to develop tools to monitor the progress of the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF); however, assays based on parasite extracts suffer from a number of limitations, including the paucity of parasite material, the difficulty of assay standardization and problems with assay specificity. In principle, assays based on recombinant filarial antigens should address these limitations and provide useful tools for diagnosis and surveillance of LF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC519021PMC
September 2004
32 Reads

Comparison of IgG4 assays using whole parasite extract and BmR1 recombinant antigen in determining antibody prevalence in brugian filariasis.

Filaria J 2004 Aug 12;3(1). Epub 2004 Aug 12.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.

BACKGROUND: Brugia malayi is endemic in several Asian countries with the highest prevalence in Indonesia. Determination of prevalence of lymphatic filariasis by serology has been performed by various investigators using different kinds of antigen (either soluble worm antigen preparations or recombinant antigens). This investigation compared the data obtained from IgG4 assays using two different kinds of antigen in a study on prevalence of antibodies to B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC517507PMC
August 2004
5 Reads

Mapping the distribution of Loa loa in Cameroon in support of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control.

Filaria J 2004 Aug 6;3(1). Epub 2004 Aug 6.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK, L3 5QA.

BACKGROUND: Loa loa has recently emerged as a filarial worm of significant public health importance as a consequence of its impact on the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Severe, sometimes fatal, encephalopathic reactions to ivermectin (the drug of choice for onchocerciasis control) have occurred in some individuals with high Loa loa microfilarial counts. Since high density of Loa loa microfilariae is known to be associated with high prevalence rates, a distribution map of the latter may determine areas where severe reactions might occur. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514498PMC
August 2004
11 Reads

Lymphoedema management knowledge and practices among patients attending filariasis morbidity control clinics in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

Filaria J 2004 Aug 3;3(1). Epub 2004 Aug 3.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, PO Box 6 Talagolla Road, Ragama, Sri Lanka.

BACKGROUND: Little information is available on methods of treatment practiced by patients affected by filarial lymphoedema in Sri Lanka. The frequency and duration of acute dematolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) attacks in these patients remain unclear. This study reports the knowledge, practices and perceptions regarding lymphoedema management and the burden of ADLA attacks among patients with lymphoedema. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514715PMC
August 2004
10 Reads

Failed attempts at experimental transplantation and transmission of nocturnally-periodic simian Loa from monkey to man.

Authors:
BOL Duke

Filaria J 2004 Jul 29;3(1). Epub 2004 Jul 29.

River Blindness Foundation, 2 Hillside, Lancaster LA1 1YH, UK.

This paper describes unsuccessful attempts to induce a nocturnally-periodic infection with simian Loa in a human volunteer (the author of this paper) by means of 1. Transplanting adult simian Loa worms from a wild drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to man; and 2. Infecting the same volunteer by sub-cutaneous inoculation with infective larvae of simian Loa from a laboratory-bred, experimentally infected Chrysops silacea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514527PMC
July 2004
5 Reads

Genetic heterogeneity in Loa loa parasites from southern Cameroon: A preliminary study.

Filaria J 2004 Jun 29;3(1). Epub 2004 Jun 29.

Division of Geographic Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA.

Ivermectin (or Mectizan trade mark ) is widely used by onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis control programs worldwide. Generally, Mectizan trade mark is both safe and well tolerated. An exception to this general pattern is in some areas co-endemic for Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa, where a number of severe adverse reactions to Mectizan trade mark have been noted in L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC459234PMC
June 2004
7 Reads

Spatial clustering of filarial transmission before and after a Mass Drug Administration in a setting of low infection prevalence.

Filaria J 2004 May 5;3(1). Epub 2004 May 5.

Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA.

BACKGROUND: In the global program for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) longitudinal assessment of the prevalence of microfilaremia and antigenemia is recommended to monitor the effect of mass treatment on transmission. Additional monitoring tools such as entomologic and antibody methods may be useful in identifying residual foci of infection. In this study, we characterized serologic markers of infection and exposure spatially both before and after mass treatment, in an area of initial low Wuchereria bancrofti infection prevalence. Read More

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http://filariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/147
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-3-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC420477PMC
May 2004
12 Reads

Programmatic and Communication Issues in Relation to Serious Adverse Events Following Ivermectin Treatment in areas Co-endemic for Onchocerciasis and Loiasis.

Filaria J 2003 Oct 24;2 Suppl 1:S10. Epub 2003 Oct 24.

Helen Keller International, B,P, 14227, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

In areas co-endemic for loiasis and onchocerciasis, the classic Community-Directed Treatment using ivermectin (Mectizan(R)) must be adapted as additional program activities, better communication and tighter control of ivermectin stocks are required to minimize risk and manage serious adverse events following ivermectin treatment in patients co-infected with Loa loa. The importance of these serious adverse events on community participation in onchocerciasis control efforts has not been adequately studied. Program implementers do not as of yet fully understand the psychological impact of serious adverse events on communities and therefore have not designed communication strategies that adequately address the real concerns of community members. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2147071PMC
October 2003
10 Reads

A Framework for Decision-Making for Mass Distribution of Mectizan(R) in Areas Endemic for Loa loa.

Filaria J 2003 Oct 24;2 Suppl 1:S9. Epub 2003 Oct 24.

U,S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of Loa loa encephalopathy following mass treatment of onchocerciasis with Mectizan(R) has adversely affected onchocerciasis control efforts in central Africa. Persons with very high densities of L. loa microfilaremia are at increased risk of encephalopathy, but little is known about the geographic distribution of these persons within central Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2147661PMC
October 2003
6 Reads

Ivermectin: does P-glycoprotein play a role in neurotoxicity?

Authors:
Geoffrey Edwards

Filaria J 2003 Oct 24;2 Suppl 1:S8. Epub 2003 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool, UK.

The macrocyclic lactone ivermectin (Mectizan(R)) is widely used for the control of human filarial infections, particularly as a donated product for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In the case of control of lymphatic filariasis in Africa, it is used in combination with donated albendazole. In areas co-endemic for Onchocerciasis and Loa loa, serious adverse reactions have been observed in patients with apparently high microfilaria counts of Loa loa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2147658PMC
October 2003
6 Reads