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    585 results match your criteria Fibrodysplasia Ossificans

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    Unresolving trismus following third molar surgery: Report of a case of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva with review of literature.
    Cranio 2017 Aug 11:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    a FDS, M.S.R.U.A.S., Gnanagangotri Campus , Bengaluru , India.
    Background: Trismus is a problem commonly encountered by the dental practitioner. It has a number of potential causes, and its treatment will depend on the cause. However, there are very few reports of trismus due to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) following third molar surgery. Read More

    The Expansion of Heterotopic Bone in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva is Activin A-Dependent.
    J Bone Miner Res 2017 Aug 7. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591.
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by episodic yet cumulative heterotopic ossification (HO) in skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments over a patient's lifetime. FOP is caused by missense mutations in the type I Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptor ACVR1. We have determined that the formation of heterotopic bone in FOP requires activation of mutant ACVR1 by Activin A, in part by showing that prophylactic inhibition of Activin A blocks HO in a mouse model of FOP. Read More

    Shared ACVR1 mutations in FOP and DIPG: Opportunities and challenges in extending biological and clinical implications across rare diseases.
    Bone 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Division of Neurosurgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Colket Translational Research Building Room 4052, 3501 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia 19104, PA, United States; Department of Biomedical and Health Informatics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Colket Translational Research Building Room 4052, 3501 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia 19104, PA, United States; Center for Data Driven Discovery in Biomedicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Colket Translational Research Building Room 4052, 3501 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia 19104, PA, United States; Center for Childhood Cancer Research, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Colket Translational Research Building Room 4052, 3501 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia 19104, PA, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3501 Civic Center Blvd, Room 4052, Philadelphia 19104, PA, United States. Electronic address:
    Gain-of-function mutations in the Type I Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) receptor ACVR1 have been identified in two diseases: Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP), a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by genetically driven heterotopic ossification, and in 20-25% of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPGs), a pediatric brain tumor with no effective therapies and dismal median survival. While the ACVR1 mutation is causal for FOP, its role in DIPG tumor biology remains under active investigation. Here, we discuss cross-fertilization between the FOP and DIPG fields, focusing on the biological mechanisms and principles gleaned from FOP that can be applied to DIPG biology. Read More

    Activin-A enhances mTOR signaling to promote aberrant chondrogenesis in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    J Clin Invest 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Life Science Frontiers, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and intractable disease characterized by extraskeletal bone formation through endochondral ossification. Patients with FOP harbor point mutations in ACVR1, a type I receptor for BMPs. Although mutated ACVR1 (FOP-ACVR1) has been shown to render hyperactivity in BMP signaling, we and others have uncovered a mechanism by which FOP-ACVR1 mistransduces BMP signaling in response to Activin-A, a molecule that normally transduces TGF-β signaling. Read More

    Heterotopic bone induction via BMP signaling: Potential therapeutic targets for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    Bone 2017 Jul 25. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1241, Japan.
    More than 50years ago, Marshal M. Urist detected "heterotopic bone-inducing activity" in demineralized bone matrix. This unique activity was referred to as "bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)" because it was sensitive to trypsin digestion. Read More

    Atypical presentation and management of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 27;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central EPE, Serviço de Ortopedia - Hospital de Curry Cabral, Lisboa, Portugal.
    We report a case of an 18-year-old woman, with bilateral acute inflammatory pain on the hip area, during the premenstrual period, and progressive increase in volume and rigidity of both hips. Bilateral exuberant soft tissue calcifications were present on the radiographic exams, and the patient also presented with bilateral short-length hallux valgus. A heterozygous mutation in the protein kinase domain of ACVR1 gene was found, allowing the diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive. Read More

    Early clinical observations on the use of imatinib mesylate in FOP: A report of seven cases.
    Bone 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultrarare genetic disorder of progressive, disabling heterotopic ossification (HO) for which there is presently no definitive treatment. Research studies have identified multiple potential targets for therapy in FOP, and novel drug candidates are being developed for testing in clinical trials. A complementary approach seeks to identify approved drugs that could be re-purposed for off-label use against defined targets in FOP. Read More

    [Characteristics of the joint involvement in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and follow up].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Jul;55(7):519-522
    Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing 100020, China.
    Objective: To summarize the clinical data of 15 patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), follow up and analyze the characteristics of the joint involvement in FOP. Method: From May 2005 to December 2016, fifteen FOP cases had been diagnosed in the Children's Hospital Capital Institute of Pediatrics. All medical records and follow-up data were collected and a retrospective analysis was made on the joint involvement in FOP. Read More

    Strategic Targeting of Multiple BMP Receptors Prevents Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification.
    Mol Ther 2017 Aug 15;25(8):1974-1987. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:
    Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification (tHO) is a condition of pathologic wound healing, defined by the progressive formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue following severe burns or trauma. Because previous studies have shown that genetic variants of HO, such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), are caused by hyperactivating mutations of the type I bone morphogenetic protein receptor (T1-BMPR) ACVR1/ALK2, studies evaluating therapies for HO have been directed primarily toward drugs for this specific receptor. However, patients with tHO do not carry known T1-BMPR mutations. Read More

    Application of human induced pluripotent stem cells to model fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    Bone 2017 Jul 14. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine and the Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States. Electronic address:
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic condition characterized by massive heterotopic ossification. FOP patients have mutations in the Activin A type I receptor (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor. FOP is a progressive and debilitating disease characterized by bone formation flares that often occur after trauma. Read More

    Periodontal ligament fibroblasts as a cell model to study osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    Bone 2017 Jul 10. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a progressive disease characterized by periods of heterotopic ossification of soft connective tissues, including ligaments. Though progress has been made in recent years in unraveling the underlying mechanism, patient-derived cell models are necessary to test potential treatment options. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PLF) from extracted teeth can be used to study deviant bone modeling processes in vitro since these cells are derived from genuine ligaments. Read More

    Prevalence of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in France: an estimate based on a record linkage of two national databases.
    Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Jun 30;12(1):123. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Institut Imagine, Centre de Référence Maladies Osseuses Constitutionnelles, Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Necker-Enfants malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, 75015, Paris, France.
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, severely disabling, and life-shortening genetic disorder that causes the formation of heterotopic bone within soft connective tissue. Previous studies found that the FOP prevalence was about one in every two million lives. The aim of this study is to estimate the FOP prevalence in France by probabilistic record-linkage of 2 national databases: 1) the PMSI (Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information), an administrative database that records all hospitalization activities in France and 2) CEMARA, a registry database developed by the French Centres of Reference for Rare Diseases. Read More

    The obligatory role of Activin A in the formation of heterotopic bone in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.
    Bone 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA; Regeneron Genetics Center, 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA. Electronic address:
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder that presents at birth with only minor patterning defects, but manifests its debilitating pathology early in life with episodic, yet progressive and cumulative, heterotopic ossification (HO) of ligaments, tendons, and a subset of major skeletal muscles. The resulting HO lesions are endochondral in nature, and appear to be linked to inflammatory stimuli arising in association with known injuries, or from inflammation linked to normal tissue repair. FOP is caused by gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1, which encodes a type I BMP receptor. Read More

    Joint-specific risk of impaired function in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).
    Bone 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; The Center for Research in FOP and Related Disorders, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) causes progressive disability due to heterotopic ossification from episodic flare-ups. Using data from 500 FOP patients (representing 63% of all known patients world-wide), age- and joint-specific risks of new joint involvement were estimated using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods.

    Results: Compared to data from a 1994 survey of 44 individuals with FOP, our current estimates of age- and joint-specific risks of new joint involvement are more accurate (narrower confidence limits), based on a wider range of ages, and have less bias due to its greater comprehensiveness (captures over three-fifths of the known FOP patients worldwide). Read More

    International physician survey on management of FOP: a modified Delphi study.
    Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Jun 12;12(1):110. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, The Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, 3737 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a disabling disorder of progressive heterotopic ossification (HEO), is caused by heterozygous gain-of- function mutations in Activin receptor A, type I (ACVR1, also known as ALK2), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. Presently, symptomatic management is possible, but no definitive treatments are available. Although extensive guidelines for symptomatic management are widely used, regional preferences exist. Read More

    Longitudinal patient-reported mobility assessment in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).
    Bone 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, disabling genetic disorder characterized by episodic soft tissue swelling (flare-ups) that leads to progressive heterotopic ossification and restricted joint mobility.

    Methods: Here we present the first longitudinal patient-reported mobility assessment (PRMA) in FOP based on a simple evaluation tool. At initial presentation and follow-up (1-11year span; median: 6 year span), 64 patients (36 females; 28 males) with classic FOP completed a questionnaire designed to rapidly assess mobility at 15 sites (three axial; six upper limb, and six lower limb). Read More

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a case report.
    Ghana Med J 2016 Dec;50(4):248-250
    Department of Surgery, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Cape Coast, Ghana.
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva is a rare debilitating disorder of the musculoskeletal system affecting one in two million individuals. It is characterized by progressive extraskeletal ossification of soft tissues resulting in the original skeleton being encased in unyielding new bone leading to disability and ultimately death from cardiorespiratory failure. The present case brings to light the delays and potential pitfalls in diagnosis as a result of the rarity of the condition. Read More

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: The patient voice.
    Bone 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    The following essays are the personal statements of two remarkable young individuals, Ian Cali and Laura Rossano, who candidly share their perspectives on living life with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). These essays are excerpts from the opening comments that Ian and Laura delivered at The First and The Second International FOP Association Drug Development Forums in 2014 and 2016, respectively. We present these unedited essays in this special issue of BONE so that physicians, scientists, and researchers everywhere can glimpse the valiant challenges that envelop the lives of all individuals with FOP and can appreciate that diseases are not just biological processes but indelible human experiences. Read More

    Evaluation of Salivary Cytokines for Diagnosis of both Trauma-Induced and Genetic Heterotopic Ossification.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 24;8:74. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Burn/Wound and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs in the setting of persistent systemic inflammation. The identification of reliable biomarkers can serve as an early diagnostic tool for HO, especially given the current lack of effective treatment strategies. Although serum biomarkers have great utility, they can be inappropriate or ineffective in traumatic acute injuries and in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Read More

    The congenital great toe malformation of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva? - A close call.
    Eur J Med Genet 2017 Jul 1;60(7):399-402. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Medicine, The Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; The Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, The Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Congenital bilateral hallux valgus with associated absence or fusion of the interphalangeal joint is a classic diagnostic feature of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a human genetic disease of extra-skeletal bone formation caused in nearly all cases by a gain-of-function mutation in Activin A Receptor I/Activin-like Kinase 2 (ACVR1/ALK2), which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) Type 1 receptor. This toe malformation prompts the suspicion of FOP even before the appearance of extra-skeletal bone. Here we report the case of a four-month-old child who was suspected of having FOP on the basis of a great toe malformation identical to that seen in children with the disease. Read More

    A cumulative analogue joint involvement scale (CAJIS) for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).
    Bone 2017 Aug 29;101:123-128. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a catastrophic genetic disorder of progressive heterotopic ossification (HO). Assessment of functional mobility in FOP will be essential to support clinical trials of investigational agents.

    Results: Of necessity, we developed a simple, rapidly-administered, cumulative analogue joint involvement scale (CAJIS) for FOP based on assessments in 144 individuals worldwide with classic FOP. Read More

    Conserved signaling pathways underlying heterotopic ossification.
    Bone 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233030, China; Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:
    Heterotopic ossification (HO), a serious disorder of extra-skeletal bone formation, occurs as a common complication of trauma or in rare genetic disorders. Many conserved signaling pathways have been implicated in HO; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms for many forms of HO are still unclear. The emerging picture is that dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays a central role in the process, but that other conserved signaling pathways, such as Hedgehog (HH), Wnt/β-catenin and Fibroblast growth factors (FGF), are also involved, either through cross-talk with BMP signaling or through other independent mechanisms. Read More

    [Transverse reductional anomaly and atypical fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: A case diagnosed late].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Jun 14;24(6):547-551. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Service de pédiatrie générale multidisciplinaire, hôpital Estaing, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 1, place Lucie-Aubrac, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare disease characterized by the association of congenital bone abnormalities and extraskeletal ossification flare-ups occurring in muscles and fasciae. Early diagnosis is important to prevent ossification flare-ups, but some atypical presentations can lead to errors in diagnosis and therefore delay. Here, we report on a case of an atypical presentation of FOP in a girl, in whom prominent transverse reductional abnormalities delayed diagnosis. Read More

    Anaesthetic management of a child with stone man syndrome: Look before you leap!
    Indian J Anaesth 2017 Mar;61(3):266-268
    Department of Onco.Anaesthesia and Palliative Medicine, Dr. BRAIRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.
    Stone Man syndrome or fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare (1 in 2 million) genetic disorder characterised by ectopic ossification of the skeletal and connective tissues leading to progressive fusion of axial and appendicular skeleton. Surgery and anaesthesia-induced trauma can lead to disease flare-up if due precautions are not taken and disable the patient further. However, rarity of the disease may lead to its common misdiagnosis and anaesthesiologist may be caught unaware. Read More

    A Zebrafish Model of Human Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.
    Zebrafish 2017 Aug 10;14(4):293-304. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    1 Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine , Boston, Massachusetts.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disorder in humans characterized by explosive inflammatory response to injury leading to gradual ossification within fibrous tissues, including skeletal muscle, tendons, and ligaments. A variety of animal models are needed to study and understand the etiology of human FOP. To address this need, here we present characterizations of the first adult zebrafish model for FOP. Read More

    Restricted Mandibular Movement Attributed to Ossification of Mandibular Depressors and Medial Pterygoid Muscles in Patients With Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Report of 3 Cases.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Mar 16. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Professor, Dental and Oral Medical Center, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) caused by a recurrent single nucleotide substitution at position 617 in the ACVR1 gene. As the condition progresses, HO leads to joint ankylosis, breathing difficulties, and mouth-opening restriction, and it can shorten the patient's lifespan. This report describes 3 cases of FOP confirmed by genetic testing in patients with restricted mouth opening. Read More

    Myositis ossificans in children: a review.
    Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2017 May 9;27(4):491-502. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Emeritus Professor of Pediatric Surgery, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "G. Gennimatas" Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    The formation of lamellar bone in the soft tissues, where bone normally does not exist, is called myositis ossificans. However, it would be more accurate to describe as myositis ossificans the involvement of skeletal muscles and as ectopic or heterotopic ossification the involvement of soft tissues in general. The lesion is subdivided in genetic and non-genetic or acquired types. Read More

    The Rare Bone Disease Working Group: report from the 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Annual Meeting.
    Bone 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism and the Institute for Human Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States.
    A working group on rare bone diseases was held in Atlanta, Georgia as part of the 2016 annual meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The meeting was organized by Matthew Drake. Given recent advances in our understanding of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), the initial portion of the program was devoted to basic, translational, and clinical aspects of FOP. Read More

    Integrating Gene Correction in the Reprogramming and Transdifferentiation Processes: A One-Step Strategy to Overcome Stem Cell-Based Gene Therapy Limitations.
    Stem Cells Int 2016 15;2016:2725670. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 1672 Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Republic of Korea.
    The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and gene therapy tools has raised the possibility of autologous cell therapy for rare genetic diseases. However, cellular reprogramming is inefficient in certain diseases such as ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, LIG4 syndrome, and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva syndrome, owing to interference of the disease-related genes. To overcome these therapeutic limitations, it is necessary to fundamentally correct the abnormal gene during or prior to the reprogramming process. Read More

    Analog Method for Radiographic Assessment of Heterotopic Bone in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.
    Acad Radiol 2017 Mar 15;24(3):321-327. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Division of Geriatric Medicine & Gerontology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.
    Rationale And Objectives: Severe progressive multifocal heterotopic ossification (HO) is a rare occurrence seen predominantly in patients who have fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and is difficult to quantitate owing to patient-, disease-, logistical-, and radiation-related issues. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system based on plain radiographs for quantitative assessment of HO lesions in patients with FOP.

    Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained from the University of Pennsylvania, and all data comply with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. Read More

    mTOR inhibition and BMP signaling act synergistically to reduce muscle fibrosis and improve myofiber regeneration.
    JCI Insight 2016 Dec 8;1(20):e89805. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
    Muscle trauma is highly morbid due to intramuscular scarring, or fibrosis, and muscle atrophy. Studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) reduce muscle atrophy. However, increased BMP signaling at muscle injury sites causes heterotopic ossification, as seen in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), or patients with surgically placed BMP implants for bone healing. Read More

    Early Recognition of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva-Important For the Clinician.
    JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2016 Apr-Jun;54(202):91-93
    Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare disorder of heterotopic ossification. Procedures like biopsy and surgery are known to be aggravating factors in promoting heterotopic ossification Clues to clinical diagnosis may therefore be a great advantage to treating orthopedician. Valgus deformity of great toe is an important diagnostic clue for treating physicians and thus aids in preventing the clinicians from subjecting the patients to unnecessary invasive and traumatic procedures. Read More

    Trace element and cytokine concentrations in patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP): A case control study.
    J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Jan 4;39:186-192. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare inherited disease characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. Disease onset, severity and symptoms vary between FOP patients, as does the frequency and activity of so-called flare-ups, during which tendons, ligaments, muscle and soft tissue are replaced by bone. Traumata, infections or other stressors are known inducers of flare-ups, and the hormone Activin A may be involved in disease activity; however, reliable biomarkers for FOP activity are missing, and the basal trace element and inflammatory state of patients are unknown. Read More

    Two tissue-resident progenitor lineages drive distinct phenotypes of heterotopic ossification.
    Sci Transl Med 2016 Nov;8(366):366ra163
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a congenital heterotopic ossification (HO) syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor ACVR1, manifests with progressive ossification of skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. In this disease, HO can occur in discrete flares, often triggered by injury or inflammation, or may progress incrementally without identified triggers. Mice harboring an Acvr1(R206H) knock-in allele recapitulate the phenotypic spectrum of FOP, including injury-responsive intramuscular HO and spontaneous articular, tendon, and ligament ossification. Read More

    Scleraxis-Lineage Cells Contribute to Ectopic Bone Formation in Muscle and Tendon.
    Stem Cells 2017 Mar 8;35(3):705-710. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Surgery, Section of Plastic Surgery, Burn/Wound and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA.
    The pathologic development of heterotopic ossification (HO) is well described in patients with extensive trauma or with hyperactivating mutations of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor ACVR1. However, identification of progenitor cells contributing to this process remains elusive. Here we show that connective tissue cells contribute to a substantial amount of HO anlagen caused by trauma using postnatal, tamoxifen-inducible, scleraxis-lineage restricted reporter mice (Scx-creERT2/tdTomato(fl/fl) ). Read More

    The Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) mutation p.R206H in ACVR1 confers an altered ligand response.
    Cell Signal 2017 Jan 4;29:23-30. Epub 2016 Oct 4.
    Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Charité Virchow Campus, Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies (BSRT), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
    Patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) suffer from ectopic bone formation, which progresses during life and results in dramatic movement restrictions. Cause of the disease are point mutations in the Activin A receptor type 1 (ACVR1), with p.R206H being most common. Read More

    BMP-SMAD-ID promotes reprogramming to pluripotency by inhibiting p16/INK4A-dependent senescence.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Nov 28;113(46):13057-13062. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158;
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) patients carry a missense mutation in ACVR1 [617G > A (R206H)] that leads to hyperactivation of BMP-SMAD signaling. Contrary to a previous study, here we show that FOP fibroblasts showed an increased efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. This positive effect was attenuated by inhibitors of BMP-SMAD signaling (Dorsomorphin or LDN1931890) or transducing inhibitory SMADs (SMAD6 or SMAD7). Read More

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. A case report and focus on the BMP signaling pathway.
    Morphologie 2016 Dec 23;100(331):250-255. Epub 2016 May 23.
    Service de rhumatologie, CHU d'Angers, 49933 Angers cedex, France; GEROM groupe d'études remodelage osseux et biomatériaux, IRIS-IBS institut de biologie en santé, CHU d'Angers, université d'Angers, 49933 Angers cedex, France. Electronic address:
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a very rare heritable disease characterized by a progressive heterotopic endochondal ossification, occurring in the first decade of life, and leading thereafter to a severe ankylosis of the spine, limbs and jaw, with a progressive and severe functional disability. To date the cause of the disease remains unknown and no medical treatment has been proved efficient. It has recently been shown that a recurrent mutation in activation domain of the activin-receptor IA (ACVR1), a BMP receptor, could lead to an abnormal signalling pathway of BMP-4 and contribute to the occurrence of the devastating lesions characteristic of the disease. Read More

    Primum non nocere: a case of a humeral fracture in a patient with fibrodysplasia progressiva ossificans.
    Shoulder Elbow 2016 Jan 10;8(1):37-40. Epub 2015 Aug 10.
    The Shoulder Unit, Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Centre, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK.
    Fibrodysplasia progressiva ossificans (FPO) is an extremely rare condition characterized by abnormal heterotopic bone formation. The condition is eponymously known as 'stoneman' disease because patients can become effectively entombed within abnormal heterotopic bone. We present the first known case of a diaphyseal humeral fracture managed conservatively in an adult patient with this condition. Read More

    Novel asymptomatic CNS findings in patients with ACVR1/ALK2 mutations causing fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    J Med Genet 2016 Dec 26;53(12):859-864. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Rare Disease Unit, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.
    Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is an autosomal dominant disorder due to germline mutations of ACVR1/ALK2 causing progressive heterotopic endochondral ossifications. Evidence of central nervous system involvement has emerged only recently.

    Methods: We performed an observational cross-sectional brain MRI study in 13 patients (8 females, mean age 20 years), examining the relationship of clinical and neuroradiological findings. Read More

    The ACVR1 R206H mutation found in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva increases human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cell formation and collagen production through BMP-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling.
    Stem Cell Res Ther 2016 Aug 17;7(1):115. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Institute for Human Genetics and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, 513 Parnassus Avenue, HSE901G, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0794, USA.
    Background: The Activin A and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are critical regulators of the immune system and of bone formation. Inappropriate activation of these pathways, as in conditions of congenital heterotopic ossification, are thought to activate an osteogenic program in endothelial cells. However, if and how this occurs in human endothelial cells remains unclear. Read More

    Total Ankylosis of the Upper Left Limb: A Case of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia.
    Arch Bone Jt Surg 2016 Jun;4(3):285-8
    Orthopedic Research Center, Shahid Kamyab Hospital, Nakhrisi Junc, Fadaeian Islam St, Mashhad, Iran.
    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton. Read More

    ACVR1-Fc suppresses BMP signaling and chondro-osseous differentiation in an in vitro model of Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    Bone 2016 Nov 2;92:29-36. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and devastating genetic disease of heterotopic endochondral ossification (HEO), and currently no effective therapies are available for this disease. A recurrent causative heterozygous mutation (c.617 G>A; R206H) for FOP was identified in activin receptor type IA (ACVR1), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. Read More

    Characteristic calcaneal ossification: an additional early radiographic finding in infants with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
    Pediatr Radiol 2016 Oct 4;46(11):1568-72. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8550, Japan.
    Background: We have clinically encountered children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva who had abnormal calcaneal ossification.

    Objective: To evaluate whether calcaneal ossification variants are significant radiographic findings in children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Materials And Methods: Lateral feet radiographs in nine children who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were reviewed. Read More

    Inhibitors of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway: a patent review (2008-2015).
    Expert Opin Ther Pat 2016 Aug 4:1-14. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    a Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy , University of Nebraska Medical Center , Omaha , NE , USA.
    Introduction: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a critical signaling pathway and plays a diverse role in embryonic pattern formation and is implicated in a variety of disease processes, including anemia, bone formation, atherosclerosis, skin diseases, and cancers, among others.

    Areas Covered: This review covers small molecule inhibitors/antagonists of BMP in patent applications between 2008 - 2015, along with brief synopses of the disclosed inhibitors in the primary literature.

    Expert Opinion: The development of potent and selective BMP inhibitors is ongoing with most of the work centered around improving the selectivity and pharmacokinetic profile. Read More

    Pediatric Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Tumors: A Pictorial Review.
    Radiographics 2016 Jul-Aug;36(4):1195-214
    From the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (K.M.S., E.F.S., G.K.) and Department of Pathology (A.S., J.A.C.), Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S Kingshighway Blvd, Campus Box 8131-MIR, St Louis, MO 63110.
    Pediatric fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors are a relatively common group of soft-tissue proliferations that are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical behavior. These tumors have been divided into the following categories on the basis of their biologic behavior: benign (eg, myositis ossificans, myofibroma, fibromatosis colli), intermediate-locally aggressive (eg, lipofibromatosis, desmoid fibroma), intermediate-rarely metastasizing (eg, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, infantile fibrosarcoma, low-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma), and malignant (eg, fibromyxoid sarcoma, adult fibrosarcoma). Imaging has a key role in the evaluation of lesion origin, extent, and involvement with adjacent structures, and in the treatment management and postresection surveillance of these tumors. Read More

    Generation of integration free induced pluripotent stem cells from fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) patients from urine samples.
    Stem Cell Res 2016 Jan 1;16(1):54-8. Epub 2015 Dec 1.
    Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany; Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies (BCRT), Föhrer Strasse 15, 13353 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health-Stem Cell Core Facility, Berlin, Germany.
    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare, autosomal dominant transmitted genetic disease. Patients experience progressive bone formation replacing tendons, ligaments, muscle and soft tissue. Cause of FOP are gain-of-function mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) receptor Activin A receptor type 1 (ACVR1) (Kaplan et al. Read More

    The stone women-Myositis ossificans Progressiva.
    J Orthop Case Rep 2015 Oct-Dec;5(4):10-3
    Department Of Orthopaedics, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Porur, Chennai - 600116. India.
    Introduction: Myositis ossificans progressiva is very rare with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 1 case in 2 million individuals. No ethnic, racial, or geographic predisposition has been described. Although familial forms inherited on a dominant autosomal basis have been described, most cases are sporadic. Read More

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