Bone 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China; Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233030, China; Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:
Heterotopic ossification (HO), a serious disorder of extra-skeletal bone formation, occurs as a common complication of trauma or in rare genetic disorders. Many conserved signaling pathways have been implicated in HO; however, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms for many forms of HO are still unclear. The emerging picture is that dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays a central role in the process, but that other conserved signaling pathways, such as Hedgehog (HH), Wnt/β-catenin and Fibroblast growth factors (FGF), are also involved, either through cross-talk with BMP signaling or through other independent mechanisms. Read More