785 results match your criteria Fibrodysplasia Ossificans


Therapeutic Advances for Blocking Heterotopic Ossification in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disease in which heterotopic bone forms in muscle and soft tissue, leading to joint dysfunction and significant disability. FOP is progressive and many patients are wheelchair-bound by the third decade of life. FOP is caused by an activating mutation in the ACVR1 gene, which encodes the activin A Type 1 receptor. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Bullough's lesion: an unexpected diagnosis after the resection of a slowly growing osseous-like retroauricular bump. Case report and review of the literature.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Neurosurgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

We describe the case of a 33 years old woman with a history of over 15 years of a slow growing firm osseous-like right retroauricular mass. Surgical resection was easily performed using a sharp technique, due to a clear cleavage plane. The histological diagnosis was a rare, unexpected, protuberant fibro-osseous lesion named "Bullough lesion". Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

NF-κB/MAPK activation underlies ACVR1-mediated inflammation in human heterotopic ossification.

JCI Insight 2018 Nov 15;3(22). Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and the Institute for Human Genetics, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Inflammation helps regulate normal growth and tissue repair. Although bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and inflammation are known contributors to abnormal bone formation, how these pathways interact in ossification remains unclear.

Methods: We examined this potential link in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a genetic condition of progressive heterotopic ossification caused by activating mutations in the Activin A type I receptor (ACVR1/ALK2). Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Discovery of Heterotopic Bone-Inducing Activity in Hard Tissues and the TGF-β Superfamily.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 13;19(11). Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241, Japan.

Bone is a unique organ because it can be experimentally induced in soft tissues by implanting a single growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Heterotopic bone-inducing activity was found in demineralized bone matrix in 1965. The characterization of this activity in bone enabled the purification and molecular cloning of BMPs and showed that they are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

The effect of Activin-A on periodontal ligament fibroblasts-mediated osteoclast formation in healthy donors and in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a genetic disease characterized by heterotopic ossification (HO). The disease is caused by a mutation in the activin receptor type 1 (ACVR1) gene that enhances this receptor's responsiveness to Activin-A. Binding of Activin-A to the mutated ACVR1 receptor induces osteogenic differentiation. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Heterotopic Ossification in Mouse Models of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1891:247-255

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare genetic disorder of progressive extra-skeletal ossification, is the most disabling form of heterotopic ossification (HO) in humans. Most people with FOP carry an activating mutation in a BMP type I receptor gene, ACVR1 , that promotes ectopic chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and in turn HO. Advances in elucidating the cellular and molecular events and mechanisms that lead to the ectopic bone formation are being made through the use of genetically engineered mouse models that recapitulate the human disease. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

An Adult Zebrafish Model of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1891:155-163

Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare human skeletal disease caused by constitutively activating mutations in the gene ACVR1, which encodes a type I BMP/TGFβ family member receptor. FOP is characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) of fibrous tissues, including skeletal muscle, tendons, and ligaments, as well as malformation of the big toes, vertebral fusions, and osteochondromas. Surgical interventions in patients often result in enhanced HO, which can exacerbate rather than improve diagnostic outcomes. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

An mTOR Signaling Modulator Suppressed Heterotopic Ossification of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Nov 1;11(5):1106-1119. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Clinical Application, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Electronic address:

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and intractable disorder characterized by extraskeletal bone formation through endochondral ossification. FOP patients harbor gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1 (FOP-ACVR1), a type I receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins. Despite numerous studies, no drugs have been approved for FOP. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

ACVR1 FOP mutation alters mechanosensing and tissue stiffness during heterotopic ossification.

Mol Biol Cell 2018 Oct 31:mbcE18050311. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

An activating BMP type I receptor ACVR1 (ACVR1) mutation enhances BMP pathway signaling and causes the rare genetic disorder of heterotopic (extra-skeletal) bone formation fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). Heterotopic ossification frequently occurs following injury as cells aberrantly differentiate during tissue repair. Biomechanical signals from the tissue microenvironment and cellular responses to these physical cues, such as stiffness/rigidity, are important determinants of cell differentiation and are modulated by BMP signaling. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Challenges in the treatment of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Marmara University School of Medicine, 34899 Pendik Ust Kaynarca, Istanbul, Turkey.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), is a rare autosomal dominant connective tissue disease with a prevalence of 1 in 2 million. It is characterized by congenital foot deformities and multiple heterotopic ossifications in fibrous tissue. It usually starts with painful soft tissue swellings occurring with attacks at the ages of three or four. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Special considerations for clinical trials in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Internal Medicine section Endocrinology, Amsterdam Bone Center, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location VUmc, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Clinical trials for orphan diseases are critical for developing effective therapies. One such condition, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP; MIM#135100), is characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) that leads to severe disability. Individuals with FOP are extremely sensitive to even minor traumatic events. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Bone morphogenetic protein receptor signal transduction in human diseases.

J Pathol 2018 Sep 23. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology and Oncode Institute, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted cytokines that were initially discovered on the basis of their ability to induce bone. Several decades of research have now established that these proteins function in a large variety of physiopathological processes. There are about 15 BMP family members, which signal via three transmembrane type II receptors and four transmembrane type I receptors. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

Recent Topics in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2018 Sep;33(3):331-338

Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disease that is characterized by the formation of heterotopic bone tissues in soft tissues, such as skeletal muscle, ligament, and tendon. It is difficult to remove such heterotopic bones via internal medicine or invasive procedures. The identification of activin A receptor, type I gene mutations associated with FOP has allowed the genetic diagnosis of FOP. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Palovarotene reduces heterotopic ossification in juvenile FOP mice but exhibits pronounced skeletal toxicity.

Elife 2018 09 18;7. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, United States.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by debilitating heterotopic ossification (HO). The retinoic acid receptor gamma agonist, palovarotene, and antibody-mediated activin A blockade have entered human clinical trials, but how these therapeutic modalities affect the behavior of pathogenic fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) is unclear. Using live-animal luminescence imaging, we show that transplanted pathogenic FAPs undergo rapid initial expansion, with peak number strongly correlating with HO severity. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Atypical Presentation of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Cureus 2018 Jul 10;10(7):e2955. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, IND.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disease characterized by widespread areas of abnormal bone formation in muscles, ligaments, tendons and joint capsules. Typically, the symptoms begin in the first decade of life with episodes of painful inflammatory soft tissue swellings. Gradually, there occurs restriction of motion at various joints, severely limiting the activities of daily living and the quality of life of such patients by the third decade of life. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Injury of Adult Zebrafish Expressing Acvr1l Does Not Result in Heterotopic Ossification.

Zebrafish 2018 Dec 5;15(6):536-545. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

1 Program in Cell, Molecular, and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Medicine , Boston, Massachusetts.

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disorder in humans characterized by the gradual ossification of fibrous tissues, including skeletal muscle, tendons, and ligaments. In humans, mutations in the Type I BMP/TGFβ family member receptor gene, ACVR1, are associated with FOP. Zebrafish acvr1l, previously known as alk8, is the functional ortholog of human ACVR1. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Morpholino-Mediated Exon Skipping Targeting Human ACVR1/ALK2 for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1828:497-502

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. More than 95% of cases are caused by a recurrent mutation (617G>A; R206H) of ACVR1/ALK2, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. Recent studies revealed that ACVR1 induces heterotopic ossification by aberrant activation in response to activin A. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

An Overview of Recent Advances and Clinical Applications of Exon Skipping and Splice Modulation for Muscular Dystrophy and Various Genetic Diseases.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1828:31-55

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Exon skipping is a therapeutic approach that is feasible for various genetic diseases and has been studied and developed for over two decades. This approach uses antisense oligonucleotides (AON) to modify the splicing of pre-mRNA to correct the mutation responsible for a disease, or to suppress a particular gene expression, as in allergic diseases. Antisense-mediated exon skipping is most extensively studied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and has developed from in vitro proof-of-concept studies to clinical trials targeting various single exons such as exon 45 (casimersen), exon 53 (NS-065/NCNP-01, golodirsen), and exon 51 (eteplirsen). Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Identification of small molecule inhibitors of ALK2: a virtual screening, density functional theory, and molecular dynamics simulations study.

J Mol Model 2018 Aug 29;24(9):262. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., 202002, India.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of more than 30 ligands and several receptors, such as activin like kinases (ALKs) and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR). Physiological significance of these proteins lies in their prominent role during homeostasis, apoptosis, tissue remodeling, embryonic patterning, and normal development. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP) is one among several other diseases caused by impaired BMP signaling. Read More

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Modeling human somite development and fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva with induced pluripotent stem cells.

Development 2018 08 23;145(16). Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Clinical Application, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan

Somites (SMs) comprise a transient stem cell population that gives rise to multiple cell types, including dermatome (D), myotome (MYO), sclerotome (SCL) and syndetome (SYN) cells. Although several groups have reported induction protocols for MYO and SCL from pluripotent stem cells, no studies have demonstrated the induction of SYN and D from SMs. Here, we report systematic induction of these cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under chemically defined conditions. Read More

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August 2018
14 Reads

My Phenotype speaks: please do not harm me with biopsy needle.

Acta Reumatol Port 2018 Apr-Jun;43(2):156-158

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is characterized by congenital skeletal anomalies and progressive heterotopic ossification. We present a 4 year old male patient who underwent unnecessary harmful multiple biopsies before the diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is made. Though rare, diagnosis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva should be considered whenever characteristic radiographic features of multifocal heterotopic bone formation is seen along with the valgus deformities of the big toes. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Difficult airway management in a child with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in status asthmaticus.

J Clin Anesth 2018 Dec 21;51:8-9. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, United States of America. Electronic address:

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December 2018
2 Reads

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Case Report.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2018 Jul 4;16(2):245-247. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Oral Pathology, KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Imadole, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue differentiation characterized by congenital malformation of the big toes and progressive heterotopic ossification in the extra skeletal tissues like tendons, ligaments, fascia and skeletal muscles leading to permanent disability. The prevalence is one in two million people. During childhood, it may be asymptomatic but in later life, progressive stiffness of major joints renders movement of the individual impossible. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Bone Resection Osteotomy in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

J Orthop Case Rep 2018 Jan-Feb;8(1):39-43

Fellow in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery Course, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajio, Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico.

Introduction: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is the severest disease of ossification in the human. It forms an exoskeleton gradually. This process is started for a nodule that ossifies as days goes by. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Severe trismus and contraindicated exodontia in a patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: case report.

Authors:
A Geddis-Regan

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Jun 3;56(5):427-429. Epub 2018 May 3.

Newcastle University, School of Dental Sciences, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4BW; Carlisle Dental Centre, Cumbria Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Infirmary Street, Carlisle, CA2 7AN. Electronic address:

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare genetic disease of connective tissue in which muscles, ligaments, and tendons ossify either spontaneously or after trauma. Patients can develop physical disabilities and restriction of respiratory function. A patient attended a maxillofacial surgery outpatient clinic with severe trismus and mouth opening limited to 2mm. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

A Bizarre Bone Scan of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Clin Nucl Med 2018 Jun;43(6):433-435

A 27-year-old woman had progressive bony ankylosis over both hands since she was 5 years old. Bony ankylosing over the peripheral joints and spine slowly progressed, and scoliosis surgery was performed at age 14. Recently, she developed difficulty walking, changing position, and opening her mouth. Read More

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June 2018
11 Reads

Hypoxia-selective allosteric destabilization of activin receptor-like kinases: A potential therapeutic avenue for prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification.

Bone 2018 Jul 5;112:71-89. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246, United States. Electronic address:

Heterotopic ossification (HO), the pathological extraskeletal formation of bone, can arise from blast injuries, severe burns, orthopedic procedures and gain-of-function mutations in a component of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, the ACVR1/ALK2 receptor serine-threonine (protein) kinase, causative of Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP). All three ALKs (-2, -3, -6) that play roles in bone morphogenesis contribute to trauma-induced HO, hence are well-validated pharmacological targets. That said, development of inhibitors, typically competitors of ATP binding, is inherently difficult due to the conserved nature of the active site of the 500+ human protein kinases. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Acquired and congenital forms of heterotopic ossification: new pathogenic insights and therapeutic opportunities.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 06 31;40:51-58. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Translational Research Program in Pediatric Orthopaedics, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Heterotopic ossification (HO) involves the formation and accumulation of extraskeletal bone tissue at the expense of local tissues including muscles and connective tissues. There are common forms of HO that are triggered by extensive trauma, burns and other bodily insults, and there are also rare congenital severe forms of HO that occur in children with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva or Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia. Given that HO is often preceded by inflammation, current treatments usually involve anti-inflammatory drugs alone or in combination with local irradiation, but are not very effective. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Genetic defects in SAPK signalling, chromatin regulation, vesicle transport and CoA-related lipid metabolism are rescued by rapamycin in fission yeast.

Open Biol 2018 Mar;8(3)

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan

Rapamycin inhibits TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase, and is being used clinically to treat various diseases ranging from cancers to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. To understand rapamycin mechanisms of action more comprehensively, 1014 temperature-sensitive (ts) fission yeast () mutants were screened in order to isolate strains in which the ts phenotype was rescued by rapamycin. Rapamycin-rescued 45 strains, among which 12 genes responsible for temperature sensitivity were identified. Read More

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March 2018
7 Reads

The Horizon of a Therapy for Rare Genetic Diseases: A "Druggable" Future for Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Mar 26;19(4). Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic condition characterized by progressive extra-skeletal ossification leading to cumulative and severe disability. FOP has an extremely variable and episodic course and can be induced by trauma, infections, iatrogenic harms, immunization or can occur in an unpredictable way, without any recognizable trigger. The causative gene is , encoding the Alk-2 type I receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Heterotopic Ossification: The Keys to the Kingdom.

Bone 2018 04;109:1-2

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; Department of Genetics, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; Department of The Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Electronic address:

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April 2018
4 Reads

Effects of FKBP12 and type II BMP receptors on signal transduction by ALK2 activating mutations associated with genetic disorders.

Bone 2018 06 15;111:101-108. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Division of Pathophysiology, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan; Project of Clinical and Basic Research for FOP, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Various substitution mutations in ALK2, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), have been identified in patients with genetic disorders such as fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and heart defects. In this study, we characterized the ALK2 mutants R258G, G328V and F246Y, which were identified in patients with severe FOP, DIPG and unusual hereditary skeletal dysplasia, respectively. Both R258G and G328V were gain-of-function mutations, but F246Y was equivalent to wild-type ALK2. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Difficult diagnosis and genetic analysis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a case report.

BMC Med Genet 2018 02 27;19(1):30. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Emergency Traumatic Surgery, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), an ultra-rare and disabling genetic disorder of skeletal malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification, is caused by heterozygous activating mutations in activin A receptor, type I/activin-like kinase 2 (ACVR1/ALK2). The rarity of the disease makes it common to make a misdiagnosis and cause mismanagement.

Case Presentation: We reported a case of a sixteen-year-old male patient who had suffered from pain and swelling in the biopsy site for two months. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

[Spontaneous coronary dissection, an unusual suspect].

Presse Med 2018 Mar 23;47(3):211-214. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

CHU de Poitiers, bâtiment Beauchant, 86000 Poitiers, France.

Under-diagnosed pathology. Especially in women under 60 without cardiovascular risk factor. Conventional coronary angiography without lesion. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: a current review of imaging findings.

Skeletal Radiol 2018 Aug 14;47(8):1043-1050. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objective: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare genetic disorder characterized by congenital skeletal deformities and soft tissue masses that progress to heterotopic ossification. Deformities of the great toes are distinctive, and heterotopic ossification in the soft tissues follows an expected anatomic and temporal pattern. In addition to heterotopic ossification, osteochondromata, middle ear ossification, demyelination, lymphedema, and venous thrombosis are characteristic. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Inhibition of overactive TGF-β attenuates progression of heterotopic ossification in mice.

Nat Commun 2018 02 7;9(1):551. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Acquired heterotopic ossification (HO) is a painful and debilitating disease characterized by extraskeletal bone formation after injury. The exact pathogenesis of HO remains unknown. Here we show that TGF-β initiates and promotes HO in mice. Read More

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February 2018
5 Reads

Stem cells and heterotopic ossification: Lessons from animal models.

Bone 2018 04 31;109:178-186. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. Electronic address:

Put most simply, heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone at extraskeletal sites. HO can be classified into two main subtypes, genetic and acquired. Acquired HO is a common complication of major connective tissue injury, traumatic central nervous system injury, and surgical interventions, where it can cause significant pain and postoperative disability. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Activin-dependent signaling in fibro/adipogenic progenitors causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

Nat Commun 2018 02 2;9(1):471. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by progressive and profoundly disabling heterotopic ossification (HO). Here we show that fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) are a major cell-of-origin of HO in an accurate genetic mouse model of FOP (Acvr1 ). Targeted expression of the disease-causing type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor, ACVR1(R206H), to FAPs recapitulates the full spectrum of HO observed in FOP patients. Read More

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February 2018
8 Reads

Principles for interactions with biopharmaceutical companies: the development of guidelines for patient advocacy organizations in the field of rare diseases.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 Jan 22;13(1):18. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Niemann-Pick UK, Suite 2, Vermont House, Concord, Washington, Tyne and Wear, NE37 2SQ, UK.

Background: Rare diseases are a global public health concern, affecting an estimated 350 million individuals. Only 5% of approximately 7000 known rare diseases have a treatment, and only about half have a patient advocacy organization. Biopharmaceutical companies face complex challenges in developing treatments for rare diseases. Read More

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January 2018
12 Reads

A case report of mesenteric heterotopic ossification: Histopathologic and genetic findings.

Bone 2018 04 7;109:56-60. Epub 2018 Jan 7.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Mesenteric heterotopic ossification (MHO) is very rare and occurs in mid- to late-adulthood, usually in the context of prior abdominal surgery. The mechanisms of MHO are unknown. Here we describe the case of a 72-year-old man with MHO. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Variant BMP receptor mutations causing fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in humans show BMP ligand-independent receptor activation in zebrafish.

Bone 2018 04 4;109:225-231. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The large majority of cases of the autosomal dominant human disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) are caused by gain-of-function Arg206His mutations in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 (ALK2). The Arg206His mutation is located in the GS domain of the type I receptor. This region is normally phosphorylated by the BMP type II receptor, which activates the type I receptor to phosphorylate its substrate, the signal transducer Smad1/5/8. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

ECSIT links TLR and BMP signaling in FOP connective tissue progenitor cells.

Bone 2018 04 27;109:201-209. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Medicine, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; The Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, The Perelman School of Medicine of The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Clinical and laboratory observations strongly suggest that the innate immune system induces flare-ups in the setting of dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). In order to investigate the signaling substrates of this hypothesis, we examined toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPCs) from FOP patients and unaffected individuals. We found that inflammatory stimuli broadly activate TLR expression in FOP CTPCs and that TLR3/TLR4 signaling amplifies BMP pathway signaling through both ligand dependent and independent mechanisms. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: Basic understanding and experimental models.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2017 Nov;6(4):242-248

Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, China.

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP) is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification that can induce a disabling second skeleton. Spontaneously occurring flare-ups can cause inflammatory soft tissue to swell, followed by progressive and disabling heterotopic endochondral ossification. FOP is very rare, with an estimated incidence of one case per two million individuals. Read More

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November 2017
2 Reads

Acute and chronic rapamycin use in patients with Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A report of two cases.

Bone 2018 04 11;109:281-284. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States. Electronic address:

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is an ultrarare genetic disorder of progressive, disabling heterotopic ossification for which there is presently no definitive treatment. Several recent studies in genetic mouse models of FOP support involvement of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathophysiology of FOP and propose the repurposed use of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling in clinical trials for the management of FOP. Here we report two patients with the classic FOP mutation who received rapamycin-one for four months on a compassionate basis for treatment of acute flare-ups of the neck and back that were refractory to corticosteroid therapy-and the other for 18years for chronic immunosuppression following liver transplantation for intercurrent cytomegalovirus infection. Read More

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April 2018
54 Reads

Prevalence and risk factors for kidney stones in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

Bone 2018 04 11;109:120-123. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States; Department of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States; The Center for Research in FOP & Related Disorders, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address:

The worldwide prevalence and risk factors for kidney stones in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) are unknown. We conducted a survey of 383 patient-members of the International Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva Association, comprising the entire global membership of the international FOP community. Two hundred seven patients from 31 nations and 6 continents (54%) responded. Read More

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April 2018
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Hard targets for a second skeleton: therapeutic horizons for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

Expert Opin Orphan Drugs 2017 17;5(4):291-294. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Cali-Weldon Professor of FOP Research; Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Genetics, Co-Director, Center for Research in FOP and Related Disorders, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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March 2017
5 Reads

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in China.

Bone 2018 04 22;109:101-103. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare and devastating disorder characterized by cumulative episodes of progressive heterotopic ossification. It is estimated that there exist 600-700 patients in Mainland China. Nevertheless, due to the rarity, many FOP patients were initially misdiagnosed. Read More

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April 2018
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Activin A amplifies dysregulated BMP signaling and induces chondro-osseous differentiation of primary connective tissue progenitor cells in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP).

Bone 2018 04 21;109:218-224. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; The Center for Research in FOP and Related Disorders, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), is caused by mutations in the type I BMP receptor ACVR1 that lead to increased activation of the BMP-pSmad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Recent findings suggest that Activin A (Act A) promiscuously stimulates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in vitro and mediates heterotopic ossification (HO) in mouse models of FOP, but primary data from FOP patient cells are lacking.

Objective: To examine BMP-pSmad1/5/8 pathway signaling and chondro-osseous differentiation in response to endogenous and exogenous Act A in primary connective tissue progenitor cells [CTPCs; also known as stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cells] from patients with FOP. Read More

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April 2018
8 Reads