394 results match your criteria Female Athlete Triad


Relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S): elucidation of endocrine changes affecting the health of males and females.

Hormones (Athens) 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Exercise & Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The purpose of this review is to present a different perspective of the relative energy deficiency syndrome, to improve understanding of associated endocrine alterations, and to highlight the need for further research in this area. The term "female athlete triad" was coined over 25 years ago to describe three interrelated components: disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mass. The syndrome's etiology is attributed to energy intake deficiency relative to energy expenditure required for health, function, and daily living. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42000-020-00214-wDOI Listing

Female Athlete Triad Coalition Cumulative Risk Assessment Tool: Proposed alternative scoring strategies.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Pennsylvania State University, 8082, Kinesiology, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States ;

We identified alternative scoring strategies for the Female Athlete Triad Coalition cumulative risk assessment (CRA) tool to be utilized when particular risk factors (bone mineral density (BMD), oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea) cannot be determined, objectively defined dietary restriction, and explored proxy measures of energy deficiency. This cross-sectional investigation of exercising women (n=166) utilized an existing database derived from multiple studies designed to assess health, exercise, and menstrual function. Data from the screening/baseline period of each study included: anthropometrics, DXA, disordered eating questionnaires, descriptive data, and proxy measures of energy deficiency (total triiodothyronine (TT3) and ratio of measured-to-predicted resting metabolic rate (mRMR/pRMR)). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0131DOI Listing

Spontaneous sternal fracture during labor in a healthy primigravida with female athlete triad: A case report.

Case Rep Womens Health 2020 Jul 5;27:e00213. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA.

Introduction: This case raises awareness of the diagnosis of sternal fracture during labor and obviates the need for lengthy, expense-consuming workup. This report identifies a subset of women who may be at higher risk for this pathology.

Methods: Upon diagnosing and treating a patient who spontaneously fractured her sternum during labor, we reviewed previously reported cases and highlight key points of this entity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2020.e00213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229480PMC

Exploring Health Demographics of Female Collegiate Rowers.

J Athl Train 2020 Jun;55(6):636-643

Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Context: Limited information exists about health patterns among female rowers at the collegiate level. Furthermore, the element of weight class (lightweights classified as <130 lb [59 kg]) as a factor in the physical and mental health of female collegiate athletes has not been investigated, despite weight requirements in sport being a risk factor for the female athlete triad.

Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) components of the female athlete triad were more prevalent in lightweight than in openweight rowers; (2) perceived stress levels were greater in lightweight than in openweight rowers; and (3) rowers who were unable to row due to injury had greater perceived stress levels than uninjured athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-132-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319733PMC

Characterizing the resting metabolic rate ratio in ovulatory exercising women over 12 months.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: A reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR) ratio and suppressed total triiodothyronine (TT ) have been demonstrated to reflect metabolic compensation to chronic energy deficiency. However, it is unknown whether the relationship between RMR ratio and TT remains constant over time.

Objective: To examine the relationship between RMR ratio and TT in free-living exercising, ovulatory, weight-stable women (n = 14) for a 12-month observational period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13688DOI Listing

Low Energy Availability in Athletes 2020: An Updated Narrative Review of Prevalence, Risk, Within-Day Energy Balance, Knowledge, and Impact on Sports Performance.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 20;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Associate Professor Clare Corish, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, V04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland.

Low energy availability (EA) underpins the female and male athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). The condition arises when insufficient calories are consumed to support exercise energy expenditure, resulting in compromised physiological processes, such as menstrual irregularities in active females. The health concerns associated with longstanding low EA include menstrual/libido, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular dysfunction and compromised bone health, all of which can contribute to impaired sporting performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146210PMC

Low energy availability in group of Polish female soccer players

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2020 ;71(1):89-96

Department of Dietetics, Institute of Human Nutrition Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Warsaw, Poland

Background: The most important element of a well-balanced diet is a proper energetic value. Energy deficiencies are often observed in athletes, especially women. Energy deficiencies can lead to low energy availability which can cause serious health problems and affect exercise capacities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32394/rpzh.2020.0106DOI Listing
January 2020

Comment on: "Comparison of Female Athlete Triad Coalition and RED-S risk assessment tools".

J Sports Sci 2020 05 9;38(9):994-995. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1738119DOI Listing

Female Athlete Triad Coalition risk assessment tool is an evidenced-based tool that is reliable and well-described.

J Sports Sci 2020 May 4;38(9):996-999. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Women's Health and Exercise Lab, Department of Kinesiology and Physiology, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1738120DOI Listing

Case Study: Resumption of Eumenorrhea in Parallel With High Training Load After 4 Years of Menstrual Dysfunction: A 5-Year Follow-Up of an Elite Female Cyclist.

Authors:
José L Areta

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2020 Feb 27:1-6. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Liverpool John Moores University.

The female athlete triad is a condition where low energy availability is typically observed together with menstrual dysfunction and/or low bone mineral density. How this condition affects maximal work capacity in endurance athletes is not clear, and the recovery time course of menses with increased energy availability with concomitant high training load is unknown. This case study of an amenorrheic elite road cyclist reports resumption of normal menstrual function after weight gain during a 5-year period (2014-2019), while engaged in high training load and competition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0284DOI Listing
February 2020

Hypogonadism in Exercising Males: Dysfunction or Adaptive-Regulatory Adjustment?

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 31;11:11. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Department of Nutrition, Gilling's School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

For decades researchers have reported men who engaged in intensive exercise training can develop low resting testosterone levels, alterations in their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and display hypogonadism. Recently there is renewed interest in this topic since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission coined the term "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports" (RED-S) as clinical terminology to address both the female-male occurrences of reproductive system health disruptions associated with exercise. This IOC Commission action attempted to move beyond the sex-specific terminology of the "Female Athlete Triad" (Triad) and heighten awareness/realization that some athletic men do have reproductive related physiologic disturbances such as lowered sex hormone levels, HPG regulatory axis alterations, and low bone mineral density similar to Triad women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005256PMC
January 2020

Common Medical Concerns of the Female Athlete.

Prim Care 2020 Mar 9;47(1):65-85. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty Development Fellowship, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0729, USA.

Women are increasingly participating in more and more sporting activities. For years, women athletes have been treated as the "female" equivalent of male athletes, with similar medical approaches but this is changing. The concept that women are unique in their "athletic arena" is further underscored with emerging scientific evidence--from the physiologic details not visible to the eye, to the more overt biomechanical and anatomic differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2019.11.002DOI Listing

Investigation of the Female Athlete Triad in Japanese Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Dec 27;56(1). Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Miho Clinic, Miho 300-0415, Japan.

Para-sports have become increasingly competitive, necessitating greater physical activity; secondary disorder prevention is therefore crucial. Among secondary disorders, the female athlete triad (FAT) is defined as low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD); although studied in able-bodied athletes, reports on female para-athletes are scarce. We retrospectively investigated the FAT in wheelchair basketball players in the Japanese national team. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022735PMC
December 2019

Indices of Resting Metabolic Rate Accurately Reflect Energy Deficiency in Exercising Women.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2020 Dec 29:1-11. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Penn State University.

Energy deficiency in exercising women can lead to physiological consequences. No gold standard exists to accurately estimate energy deficiency, but measured-to-predicted resting metabolic rate (RMR) ratio has been used to categorize women as energy deficient. The purpose of the study was to (a) evaluate the accuracy of RMR prediction methods, (b) determine the relationships with physiological consequences of energy deficiency, and (c) evaluate ratio thresholds in a cross-sectional comparison of ovulatory, amenorrheic, or subclinical menstrual disturbances in exercising women (n = 217). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0199DOI Listing
December 2020

Unexpected Hurdle in the Race: Hypophosphatasia Unmasked by the Female Athlete Triad.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2019 Dec;18(12):434-436

Division of Sports Medicine, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Hypophosphatasia should be considered for any patient who presents with multiple metatarsal stress fractures and a low alkaline phosphatase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JSR.0000000000000664DOI Listing
December 2019

Discriminating hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea from hyperandrogenic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea in exercising women.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 Jul 9;45(7):707-714. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Women's Health and Exercise Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

The mechanism underlying oligo/amenorrhea in exercising women is often presumed as hypothalamic inhibition secondary to energy deficiency; however, hyperandrogenism may provide an alternative mechanism in some exercising women. Our purpose was to compare reproductive, metabolic, and androgen profiles of exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles ( = 91), oligo/amenorrhea without evidence of hyperandrogenism (Oligo/Amen; = 83), and oligo/amenorrhea with evidence of hyperandrogenism (Oligo/Amen-HA; = 17), and determine the prevalence of oligo/amenorrhea with evidence of hyperandrogenism in exercising women. Self-reported menstrual history and quantification of daily estrogen and progesterone urinary metabolites determined reproductive status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0640DOI Listing

The Role of Energy Availability in Reproductive Function in the Female Athlete Triad and Extension of its Effects to Men: An Initial Working Model of a Similar Syndrome in Male Athletes.

Sports Med 2019 Dec;49(Suppl 2):125-137

Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

The Female Athlete Triad represents three interrelated conditions of (i) low energy availability (energy deficiency), presenting with or without disordered eating, (ii) menstrual dysfunction, and (iii) poor bone health, each of which can exist along a continuum of severity ranging from mild and moderate subclinical health concerns to severe clinical outcomes, including eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This review provides a brief overview of the Female Athlete Triad, including updating the current thinking regarding energy availability and how it relates to reproductive function, and sets the stage for an initial working model of a similar syndrome in males that will be based on currently available evidence and will later be defined and referred to as a Male Athlete Triad by the newly re-named Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition. A primary focus of this paper will be on the physiology of each Triad model with an emphasis on low energy availability and its role in reproductive function, with a brief introduction on its effects on bone health in men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01217-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901401PMC
December 2019
1 Read

Sports Nutrition for Optimal Athletic Performance and Health: Old, New and Future Perspectives.

Sports Med 2019 12;49(Suppl 2):99-101

Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01224-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901404PMC
December 2019

Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport: A Focus on Scientific Rigor.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 10;47(4):197-205

Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.

We examine the scientific evidence supporting The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndromes. More research is necessary to advance the understanding of both syndromes; however, it is premature to consider RED-S as an evidence-based syndrome. Future research should specifically define RED-S components, determine its clinical relevance, and establish the causality of relative energy deficiency on RED-S outcomes. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00003677-900000000-9974
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000200DOI Listing
October 2019
4 Reads

High level rhythmic gymnasts and urinary incontinence: Prevalence, risk factors, and influence on performance.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Jan 30;30(1):159-165. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is common among exercising women, but no studies have been found in rhythmic gymnasts. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for UI in rhythmic gymnasts and the impact of UI on performance. This was a cross-sectional study including all rhythmic gymnasts competing at the highest national and international level in Norway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916160PMC
January 2020
3 Reads

Anti-Osteoporotic Effect of Soy Isoflavones Intake on Low Bone Mineral Density Caused by Voluntary Exercise and Food Restriction in Mature Female Rats.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2019 ;65(4):335-342

National Institutes of Biochemical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Female athlete triad (FAT) is an interrelationship between menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability with or without eating disorder, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether isoflavone intake can prevent bone loss caused by voluntary wheel running under energy-restricted condition. We used a female rat model of osteoporosis for female athletes established previously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.65.335DOI Listing
February 2020
1 Read

Jump Exercise and Food Restriction on Bone Parameters in Young Female Rats.

Calcif Tissue Int 2019 11 29;105(5):557-566. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, 1001-1 Kishioka, Suzuka, Mie, 510-0293, Japan.

We examined the effect of jump exercise on bone parameters in young female rats under food restriction. Seven-week-old female rats were divided into four groups: a sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (n = 10), a jump exercise and ad libitum feeding group (n = 9), a sedentary and 30% food restriction group (n = 9), and a jump exercise and 30% food restriction group (n = 10). The jump groups jumped 20 times/day, 5 times/week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-019-00601-5DOI Listing
November 2019
3 Reads

Prevalence and Anatomical Distribution of Bone Stress Injuries in the Elite Para Athlete.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2019 11;98(11):1036-1040

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School/Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (AST, PWB, CAB); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (EMB, EGM, CAB); U.S. Paralympics, U.S. Olympic Committee, Chula Vista, California (EB); Orthopedic and Arthritis Center for Outcomes Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (HYY, JEC); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (JEC); and Kelley Adaptive Sports Research Institute, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (PWB, CAB).

Bone stress injury is a common overuse injury in athletes. Risk factors for bone stress injury in athletes include the female athlete triad (triad); this has not been evaluated in para athletes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, prevalence, and anatomical distribution of bone stress injury in para athletes. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00002060-900000000-9817
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000001287DOI Listing
November 2019
4 Reads

The Female Athlete Body project study: 18-month outcomes in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 11 27;52(11):1291-1300. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the Female Athlete Body project (FAB) in reducing eating disorder (ED) symptoms and risk factors.

Method: This study was a community participatory three-site, two-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT). Female collegiate athletes (N = 481) were randomly assigned by team to the FAB intervention, a behavioral ED risk factor reduction program, or a waitlist control condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7089677PMC
November 2019
4 Reads

Comparison of Female Athlete Triad Coalition and RED-S risk assessment tools.

J Sports Sci 2019 Nov 11;37(21):2433-2442. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Women's Health and Exercise Lab, Department of Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park , PA , USA.

The Female Athlete Triad Coalition (Triad Coalition) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) consensus statements each include risk assessment tools to guide athlete eligibility decisions. This study examined how these tools categorized the same set of individuals to an overall risk factor score and qualitatively compared athlete eligibility decisions resulting from each tool. Exercising women (n = 166) with complete screening/baseline datasets from multiple previously conducted studies were assessed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1640551DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads

Part II: presentation, diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prevention of stress fractures in female athletes.

Phys Sportsmed 2020 02 11;48(1):25-32. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

: Stress fractures (SFx) occur as the result of repetitive loads over short periods of time, which leads to micro-damage of the bone through cortical resorption, ultimately leading to fracture. They are a common injury in female athletes and often cause significant morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the presentation, diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prevention of SFx in female athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2019.1636546DOI Listing
February 2020
4 Reads

Increased Female Athlete Triad Knowledge Following a Brief Video Educational Intervention.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2019 10 2;51(9):1126-1129. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Margaret Ritchie School of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID; Department of Nutrition, Dietetics & Food Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2019.05.600DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

Sacral Stress Fractures: A Rare but Curable Cause of Back Pain in Athletes.

Sports Health 2019 Sep/Oct;11(5):446-452. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

The Ohio State University Sports Medicine Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Stress fractures of the sacrum are an uncommon cause of low back and buttock pain in athletes. They have been described in a few case reports, with the injury occurring most often in female distance runners. Given the rarity of this condition, there is a general lack of awareness of this injury, which may lead to a missed or delayed diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941738119854763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745814PMC
November 2019
5 Reads

Part I: epidemiology and risk factors for stress fractures in female athletes.

Phys Sportsmed 2020 02 11;48(1):17-24. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

: Stress fractures (SFx) are a common athletic injury, occurring in up to 40% of athletes at some point in their career. These injuries can cause pain, permanent disability, financial burden, and loss of playing time. This review presents updated epidemiology and comprehensive analysis of risk factors for stress fractures, especially as it pertains to female athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2019.1632158DOI Listing
February 2020
25 Reads

Risk factors of stress fractures due to the female athlete triad: Differences in teens and twenties.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 Oct 9;29(10):1501-1510. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Background: The female athlete triad (Triad), defined by the American College of Sports Medicine as low energy availability (LEA) with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD), is associated with stress fractures and athletes aged 16-17 years are most susceptible.

Purpose: To examine whether the Triad increases the risk of stress fractures, athletes were assigned to a "teenage" group and a "20s" group.

Methods: This prospective study enrolled 390 elite female athletes and was conducted from 2012 to 2016 at Japan Institute of Sports Sciences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13464DOI Listing
October 2019
12 Reads

Longitudinal interprofessional education in a graduate physiology course.

Adv Physiol Educ 2019 Jun;43(2):241-245

Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans School of Medicine , New Orleans, Louisiana.

The primary purpose of conducting two interprofessional education (IPE) experiences during a multidisciplinary physiology graduate-level course was to provide basic science, physical therapy, and physician assistant graduate students opportunities to work as a team in the diagnosis, treatment, and collaborative care when presented with a patient case focused on acute kidney injury (first case) and female athlete triad (second case). The secondary purpose was to apply basic physiology principles to patient case presentations of pathophysiology. The overall purpose was to assess the longitudinal effects and the value of IPE integrated within a basic science course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00007.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747629PMC
June 2019
5 Reads

Evaluating gender bias in an eating disorder risk assessment questionnaire for athletes.

Eat Disord 2019 May 11:1-13. Epub 2019 May 11.

a School of Public Health , University of Michigan , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.

Due to stigma, eating disorders are under-researched, underdiagnosed and undertreated among men. This is particularly pertinent among athletes, as athletic goals are a major risk factor for disordered eating in men. This gender stereotype may be reinforced by eating disorder risk assessment tools that better reflect female symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2019.1613846DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads

Bone Health in Adaptive Sports Athletes.

Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2019 Jun;27(2):60-66

Kelley Adaptive Sports Research Institute.

Adaptive sports athletes represent a growing population within the athletic community worldwide. Given potential cardiometabolic and psychosocial benefits of adaptive sports participation, the impact on bone health and injury risk in adaptive athletes is of increasing clinical interest. Impaired bone health as a result of low energy availability has been well described in able-bodied athletic women and, more recently, men as part of the female athlete triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00132585-201906000-0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSA.0000000000000235DOI Listing
June 2019
20 Reads

Characterization of Risk Quantification Differences Using Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport Clinical Assessment Tool.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2019 Jun 12:1-7. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

1 Boston Children's Hospital.

This study's objective was to identify differences in risk for low energy availability and athletic clearance level by comparing scores on Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment (Triad CRA) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport Clinical Assessment Tool (RED-S CAT). A total of 1,000 female athletes aged 15-30 years participating in ≥4 hr of physical activity/week for the previous ≥6 months completed an extensive survey assessing health, athletic history, family disease history, and specific Triad/RED-S risk factors. Retrospective chart review ascertained laboratory and bone mineral density measures. Read More

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https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0002DOI Listing
June 2019
33 Reads

Serum Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Mirror Bone Mineral Density in Amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2019 Apr 21;40(4):276-282. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Amenorrhea and osteoporosis are strongly associated in female athletes. Amenorrheic women show lower serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) than eumenorrheic women. BDNF is known to regulate bone tissue development and remodeling; thus, athletes with low serum BDNF levels may show low bone mass. Read More

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http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0835-6119
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0835-6119DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Skeletal responses to an all-female unassisted Antarctic traverse.

Bone 2019 04 5;121:267-276. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Army Personnel Research Capability, Army Headquarters, Andover, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the skeletal effects of the first all-female trans-Antarctic traverse.

Methods: Six women (mean ± SD, age 32 ± 3 years, height 1.72 ± 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Rationale and study design of an intervention of increased energy intake in women with exercise-associated menstrual disturbances to improve menstrual function and bone health: The REFUEL study.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2019 Jun 18;14:100325. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Pennsylvania State University, Department of Kinesiology, Noll Laboratory, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Purpose: Exercising women who consume inadequate energy relative to expenditure are at risk for downstream health consequences, such as menstrual cycle disturbances and poor bone health. Collectively, these conditions are known as the Female Athlete Triad (Triad). Clinicians often prescribe hormonal contraceptives to address this issue; however, the recommended treatment is reversal of the energy deficit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2019.100325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353734PMC
June 2019
12 Reads

Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and impaired bone health: A survey of elite para athletes.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2019 May 6;29(5):678-685. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome describing three interrelated conditions: low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD). Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) expands the Triad to include multiple physiologic consequences of LEA in both sexes. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of factors associated with the Triad/RED-S in an elite para athlete population. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/sms.13385
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13385DOI Listing
May 2019
40 Reads

Broadening the Female Athlete Triad: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport.

Am Fam Physician 2019 01;99(2):76-77

Fort Belvoir, VA, USA.

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January 2019
8 Reads

Address risk factors to prevent bone stress injuries in male and female athletes.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Feb 3;53(4):205-206. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100329DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Bone stress injuries in male distance runners: higher modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment scores predict increased rates of injury.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Feb 22;53(4):237-242. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Objectives: Bone stress injuries (BSI) are common in runners of both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment tool would predict BSI in male distance runners.

Methods: 156 male runners at two collegiate programmes were studied using mixed retrospective and prospective design for a total of 7 years. Read More

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http://bjsm.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099861DOI Listing
February 2019
31 Reads

Iron status at opposite ends of the menstrual function spectrum.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Jan 19;51:169-175. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

The Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Noll Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Although exercising women are at high risk of poor iron status, it is unknown how non-pathological, physiological menstrual function affects iron status. As such, this study investigates the association between menstrual function and iron status in exercising women with amenorrhea and exercising women with ovulatory, eumenorrheic menstrual cycles.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of iron depletion prevalence, iron status indices, exercise parameters, and diet composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.10.016DOI Listing
January 2019
27 Reads

Risk of female athlete triad development in Japanese collegiate athletes is related to sport type and competitive level.

Int J Womens Health 2018 30;10:671-687. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan,

Introduction: Menstrual dysfunction, musculoskeletal injury, and poor nutrition combine to form the female athlete triad (FAT), which results in serious health consequences for affected athletes. To this point, the risk factors of this phenomenon have not been fully explored in Japanese female college athletes. Additionally, the effect of competitive level on FAT risk factors has also not been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S175446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214308PMC
October 2018
41 Reads

Female Athlete Triad.

Prim Care 2018 Dec 4;45(4):615-624. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

KentuckyOne Health, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA; Department of Family and Geriatric Medicine, Centers for Primary Care, University of Louisville, 215 Central Avenue, Suite 205, Louisville, KY 40208, USA.

The female athlete triad is a condition seen in physically active female athletes, consisting of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. The condition should be viewed as a metabolic injury. It can have an impact on female athletes at any age or level. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00954543183006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pop.2018.07.004DOI Listing
December 2018
44 Reads

The Female Athlete Triad: A Comparison of Knowledge and Risk in Adolescent and Young Adult Figure Skaters, Dancers, and Runners.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2019 Apr 2;32(2):165-169. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, New York. Electronic address:

Study Objective: The female athlete triad is often found in sports that value leanness and aesthetics and can lead to adverse health effects. We aimed to compare knowledge and risk of the triad among adolescent figure skaters, dancers, and runners.

Design, Setting, Participants, And Main Outcome Measures: We advertised our survey on social media platforms: sports-specific forums; Facebook; and Instagram. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10833188183034
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2018.10.007DOI Listing
April 2019
21 Reads

Oestrogen replacement improves bone mineral density in oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes: a randomised clinical trial.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Feb 9;53(4):229-236. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: Normal-weight oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes (OAA) are at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Data are lacking regarding the impact of oestrogen administration on bone outcomes in OAA. Our objective was to determine the effects of transdermal versus oral oestrogen administration on bone in OAA engaged in weight-bearing activity. Read More

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http://bjsm.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099723
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686188PMC
February 2019
56 Reads
5.025 Impact Factor

Female athletes: managing risk and maximizing benefit.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 12;30(6):874-882

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Cohen Children's Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary on the unique aspects of caring for female youth and adolescent athletes.

Recent Findings: Recent research on female athletes has led to a better understanding of injuries and conditions that are more likely to occur in female youth and adolescent athletes, including the frequency and severity of concussions, musculoskeletal injury such as involving the anterior cruciate ligament, and the female athlete triad. Social factors, such as the growing pressure to specialize in a sport particularly at an early age, also put young female athletes at risk for issues such as overuse injuries. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00008480-900000000-9893
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000700DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Structural and functional body components in athletic health and performance phenotypes.

Authors:
Analiza M Silva

Eur J Clin Nutr 2019 02 4;73(2):215-224. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal.

Advances in body composition assessment enable a detailed body composition analyses and the respective organization at different levels. Sports-related professionals are interested in understanding how and which body components are relevant for improving performance, prevent injury risk, and monitor athletic health. The aim of this review is to propose an integrative model that links performance, injury risk, and athletic health with body components, and to report their cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-018-0321-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0321-9DOI Listing
February 2019
67 Reads

Impact of a Professional Nutrition Program on a Female Cross Country Collegiate Athlete: A Case Report.

Sports (Basel) 2018 Aug 19;6(3). Epub 2018 Aug 19.

Departments of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA.

Low caloric intake or excessive energy expenditure can lead to a negative energy balance, which, in female athletes, may result in a condition called the female athlete triad. While several guidelines identified proper nutrition as a first line of treatment, little research has been reported to show the effect of a professional nutrition program (PNP) on the female athlete triad. The purpose of this case report was to measure the short- and long-term effects of a PNP on a female athlete presenting triad characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports6030082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6162367PMC
August 2018
9 Reads