Sports Med 2022 Jan 19;52(1):13-23. Epub 2021 Oct 19.
Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.
Energy status plays a key role in the health of athletes and exercising individuals. Energy deficiency/low energy availability (EA), referring to a state in which insufficient energy intake and/or excessive exercise energy expenditure has resulted in compensatory metabolic adaptations to conserve fuel, can affect numerous physiological systems in women and men. The Female Athlete Triad, Male Athlete Triad, and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) models conceptualize the effects of energy deficiency in athletes, and each model has strengths and limitations. Read More