73,500 results match your criteria Fatty Liver


Unsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed oil and exercise modulate GPR120 but not GPR40 in the liver of obese mice: a new anti-inflammatory approach.

J Nutr Biochem 2018 Dec 12;66:52-62. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Nutritional Genomics Laboratory, LabGeN, School of Applied Sciences, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil; Nutrigenomics and Lipids Research Center, CELN, School of Applied Sciences, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018

PGC1A regulates the IRS1:IRS2 ratio during fasting to influence hepatic metabolism downstream of insulin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montreal, QC, Canada H2W 1R7;

Precise modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism is crucial during the fasting and feeding cycle and is controlled by the actions of circulating insulin and glucagon. The insulin-signaling pathway requires insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2, which are found to be dysregulated in diabetes and obesity. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A) is a fasting-induced transcriptional coactivator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1815150116DOI Listing
February 2019

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes dissociated changes in metabolic liver functions.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern affecting 25% of the world's population. It is generally held that a fatty liver does not influence liver function, but quantitative measurements of metabolic liver functions have not been systematically performed. We aimed to study selected hepatocellular metabolic functions in patients with different stages of NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2019.01.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic deletion of β adrenergic receptors exacerbates hepatocellular lipid accumulation in high-fat diet mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; The Key Laboratory for Drug Target Research and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hubei Province, Wuhan, 430030, China. Electronic address:

β Adrenergic receptors (βARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in major insulin target tissues. βARs play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism during aging; however, little is known about the significance of βARs in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. This study aims to examine the role of βAR in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by HFD and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.02.037DOI Listing
February 2019

Mesenteric lymph node CD4 T lymphocytes migrate to liver and contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Cell Immunol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University People's Hospital, 100044 Beijing, PR China; Clinical Center of Immune-Mediated Digestive Diseases, Peking University People's Hospital, 100044 Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4 T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2019.01.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Insulin resistance and insulin hypersecretion in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: Time for a conceptual framework shift.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 Feb 15:1479164119827611. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

3 CRCHUM and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164119827611DOI Listing
February 2019

Hepatitis C and metabolic syndrome.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2010 Mar;5(2):209-215

b Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Claude Moore Health Education and Research Building, Third Floor, 3300 Gallows Road, Falls Church, VA 22042, USA.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, are the two major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Liver histology of both diseases can be associated with steatosis, oxidative stress and fibrogenesis. Although better defined for HCV, approximately 20% of patients with these diseases can also develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eem.10.7DOI Listing

What Ultrasound Operators Must Be Well Aware of in a World With Raising Burden of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

Ultraschall Med 2019 Feb 15;40(1):7-10. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Unit of Radiology, University La Sapienza Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0808-8062DOI Listing
February 2019

Electrophilic nitro-oleic acid reverses obesity-induced hepatic steatosis.

Redox Biol 2019 Feb 1;22:101132. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States; Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, United States. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. During the development of obesity and NAFLD, mitochondria adapt to the increased lipid load in hepatocytes by increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In concert with this, reactive species (RS) generation is increased, damaging hepatocytes and inducing inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101132DOI Listing
February 2019

[The person in philogenesis is not (omnivores), but the herbivores with the carnivores past and the fuzzy future. Biological function of trophology (nutrition) in ontogenesis.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(10):596-604

«Northern (Arctic) Federal University. M.V. Lomonosov», Arkhangelsk.

According to the phylogenetic theory of general pathology, seven biological functions have been formed over billions of years. 1. biological function of trophology, nutrition; 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-10-596-604DOI Listing
January 2018

Human immunodeficiency virus, elevated transaminases, fatty liver: the perfect storm?

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001984DOI Listing
February 2019

Paternal high-fat diet transgenerationally impacts hepatic immunometabolism.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 15:fj201801879RR. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Paternal preconceptional high-fat diet (HFD) alters whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis over several generations, which may be mediated by altered transcriptomic profiles of metabolic organs. We investigated the effect of paternal HFD on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic signatures of female grand-offspring. Paternal HFD strongly impacted the liver transcriptome of the second-generation offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801879RRDOI Listing
February 2019

Inflammatory markers response to citrulline supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Feb 15;12(1):89. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, #7, West Arghavan, Farahzadi Blv, Shahrake Gharb, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citrulline (Cit) supplementation on inflammatory markers and liver histopathology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this clinical trial, fifty NAFLD patients were assigned to receive 2 g/day Cit or placebo for 3 months.

Results: At the end of study, serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were reduced in Cit group significantly more than placebo group (P-value = 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4130-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota in liver disease: Too much is harmful, nothing at all is not helpful either.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Medicine, UCSD, United States.

The intestinal microbiome plays an major role in the pathogenesis of liver disease, with a hallmark event being dysbiosis, or an imbalance of pathobionts and beneficial bacteria with the associated deleterious effects on its host. Reducing the number of intestinal bacteria with antibiotic treatment is generally advantageous in experimental liver diseases. Complete absence of intestinal microbiota as in germ-free rodents can be protective in autoimmune hepatitis, and hepatic tumors induced by chemicals; or it can exacerbate disease as in acute toxic liver injury and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00370.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

The Role of Ketone Signaling in the Hepatic Response to Fasting.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Scieces, U. Arizona, United States.

Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to fasting, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and prolonged exercise. β-OH butyrate acts as a transcriptional regulator and at G-protein coupled receptors to modulate cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00415.2017DOI Listing
February 2019

The Association between Pancreas Steatosis and Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2019 Feb 14:e3142. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objectives: Pancreas steatosis is the description of fat accumulation in the pancreatic gland. The prevalence and development mechanisms of pancreatic steatosis in patients with metabolic disorders still remain unclear. The aim of this study is to systematically review the association between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic co-morbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.3142DOI Listing
February 2019

Safety and Effectiveness of Ipragliflozin for Type 2 Diabetes in Japan: 12-Month Interim Results of the STELLA-LONG TERM Post-Marketing Surveillance Study.

Adv Ther 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Astellas Pharma Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: The present interim report of the STELLA-LONG TERM study aimed to examine the safety and effectiveness of ipragliflozin in real-word clinical practice in Japan using data up to 12 months. We also evaluated the effect of ipragliflozin on aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in patients with normal vs. abnormal liver function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-0895-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Intestine-Specific Overexpression of Carboxylesterase 2c Protects Mice From Diet-Induced Liver Steatosis and Obesity.

Hepatol Commun 2019 Feb 17;3(2):227-245. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences University of Graz Graz Austria.

Murine hepatic carboxylesterase 2c () and the presumed human ortholog carboxylesterase 2 () have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and obese humans. These studies demonstrated that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. Interestingly, / is most abundantly expressed in the intestine, indicating a role of / in intestinal TG metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357831PMC
February 2019

Development of Hepatic Steatosis After Chemotherapy for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Hepatol Commun 2019 Feb 28;3(2):220-226. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Liver and Energy Metabolism Unit, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda MD.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disorder in the developed world. Although typically reflecting caloric overload, it can also be secondary to drug toxicity. We aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors for steatosis during chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357828PMC
February 2019

Intestinal Lipolysis Mitigates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: New Roles for Carboxylesterase 2c in the Intestine.

Hepatol Commun 2019 Feb 1;3(2):177-179. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine Cedars-Sinai Medicine Center Los Angeles CA.

The most important argument of this study is that modulation of intestinal lipid metabolism by enhancing intestinal expression has the potential to affect hepatic and systemic lipid metabolism, regulating the development of NAFLD and systemic insulin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357825PMC
February 2019

Evaluation of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Obese vs Non-obese Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov-Dec;22(6):751-756

Department of Endocrinology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Background: Obesity is one of the most common yet neglected public health problems in both the developed and developing countries. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multiplex of risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it reflects the clustering of multiple risk factors resulting from obesity and insulin resistance. Despite its predominance in obese individuals, MS does occur in non-obese individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijem.IJEM_206_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330875PMC
February 2019

Identifying and Treating Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Fed Pract 2019 Jan;36(1):20-29

is a Physician Affiliate, is a Research Health Science Specialist at the Cooperative Studies Program Epidemiology Center, and is a Hepatology Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, all at Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System in North Carolina. is an Assistant Research Professor at the Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University in Durham. is a Professor of Medicine at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare Systems in Michigan and at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Christine Hunt also is an Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina.

NAFLD improves with 7% or greater weight loss. Read More

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January 2019

Health and Economic Burden of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the United States and Its Impact on Veterans.

Fed Pract 2019 Jan;36(1):14-19

was a Fellow, and is an Attending Physician at the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. Wing-Kin Syn also is the Acting Chief in the section of gastroenterology at Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Charleston. Akshay Shetty is currently a Transplant Hepatology Fellow in the division of digestive diseases at David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles.

NAFLD is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the US and is associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Read More

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January 2019

Managing the Silent Epidemic of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Authors:
Michael Fuchs

Fed Pract 2019 Jan;36(1):12-13

is Chief of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation at Hunter Holmes McGuire VAMC in Richmond, Virginia. He also is a Professor of Medicine at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond.

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January 2019

Evaluation of Plasma Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (UPAR) in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B, C and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) as Serological Fibrosis Marker.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2019 Jan-Feb;9(1):29-33. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background/aims: Progressive hepatic fibrosis is the main predictor of outcome and prognosis in chronic liver diseases. The importance of the coagulation cascade has been defined in liver fibrosis; however, the role of the fibrinolytic pathway has not been clear yet. We aimed to evaluate the association between the plasma levels of soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and the severity of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B, C and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2018.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363952PMC
February 2018

Renal Dysfunction in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is Related to the Presence of Diabetes Mellitus and Severity of Liver Disease.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2019 Jan-Feb;9(1):22-28. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Department of Hepatology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India.

Background And Aims: There is sparse data on the prevalence of renal dysfunction in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of renal dysfunction in patients with NAFLD and correlate it with the severity of liver disease.

Methods: One hundred nonalcoholic patients with ultrasound showing hepatic steatosis were enrolled into the study after exclusion of other causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2017.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363960PMC
December 2017

Controlled Attenuation Parameter for Assessment of Hepatic Steatosis in Indian Patients.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2019 Jan-Feb;9(1):13-21. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background/aims: The gold standard method for measurement of hepatic steatosis is liver histology. Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) can measure hepatic steatosis non-invasively. We aimed to assess the accuracy of CAP for detection of hepatic steatosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jceh.2018.02.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363949PMC

Impact of dietary lipoic acid supplementation on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status on normally fed Wistar rats.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019 Feb 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

c Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology , University of Navarra , Pamplona , Spain.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status for 8 weeks in normal-healthy animals. A pair-fed group was included to differentiate between α-LA direct effects and those changes due to reduced food intake. α-LA decreased body weight gain, liver weight and insulin levels with no differences compared to its pair-fed group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2019.1572716DOI Listing
February 2019

Liver Fibrosis, Not Steatosis, Associates with Long-Term Outcomes in Ischaemic Stroke Patients.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Feb 14;47(1-2):32-39. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of

Background: To investigate whether there are differences in long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality according to the burden of liver fibrosis or steatosis in patients with ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). -Methods: Consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke or TIA who underwent transient elastography (TE) from January 2014 to December 2014 were considered eligible. The influence of liver fibrosis or steatosis, assessed via TE, on long-term outcomes was investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497069DOI Listing
February 2019

Macronutrients and the adipose-liver axis in obesity and fatty liver.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Medicine and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco.

Macronutrient metabolism is a highly orchestrated process, with adipose tissue and liver each playing central roles in nutrient uptake, processing, transport and storage. These two tissues form an important metabolic circuit -- particularly as it relates to lipids as the primary storage form of excess energy. The function of the circuit is influenced by many factors, including the quantity and type of nutrients consumed and their impact on the overall health of the tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Association betweenPNPLA3rs738409, polymorphism, decreased kidney function in postmenopausal type 2, diabetic women with or without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Diabetes Metab 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Aim: - Evidence is emerging that PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism (the major genetic variant associated with susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in non-diabetic individuals. Currently, little is known about this association in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with and without NAFLD.

Methods: - We studied 101 Caucasian post-menopausal women with T2DM, consecutively attending our diabetes outpatient service during a 3-month period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2019.01.011DOI Listing
February 2019

[Effect of quercetin on morphological changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high fructose-fed rats].

Vopr Pitan 2018 13;87(6):16-21. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of polyphenol quercetin on morphological changes in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats fed high-fructose diet. For 20 weeks animals (n=8 in each group) of the 1st group were given standard diet and water; the 2nd group - standard diet and 20% fructose solution; the 3rd group - standard diet with quercetin supplementation (0.1%) and 20% fructose solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10062DOI Listing
November 2018

Notch and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver and Fibrosis.

Authors:
Stefano Romeo

N Engl J Med 2019 Feb;380(7):681-683

From the Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, and the Cardiology Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; and the Clinical Nutrition Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcibr1815636DOI Listing
February 2019

Metformin for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Am Fam Physician 2019 Feb;99(4):262-263

University of Washington Health Sciences Library, Seattle, WA, USA.

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February 2019

Multifocal fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis: exploring the interrelated relationship.

J Ultrason 2018 ;18(75):302-309

Diagnostic Radiology Department, Tanta University , Tanta , Egypt.

Multifocal fatty liver infiltrations are not uncommon ultrasonographic finding; they are explained by the presence of aberrant vascular supply independent of the portal circulation or insulin resistance. To study the significance of this ultrasonographic finding. A study group ( = 96) with multifocal fatty liver and two control groups: healthy subjects ( = 100) and patients with diffuse fatty liver disease ( = 100) were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2018.0044DOI Listing
January 2018

Jamun (Eugenia jambolana Lam.) Fruit Extract Prevents Obesity by Modulating the Gut Microbiome in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 Feb 14:e1801307. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

J. Xu, T. Liu, Y. Li, W. Liu, Z. Ding, Y. Mu1, X. Huang, and L. Li, Institute of Microbial Pharmaceuticals, College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110169, P. R. China.

Scope: Published data support that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathological process of obesity and related metabolic disorders. In the current study, we investigated whether a standardized extract from Jamun (Eugenia jambolana), a widely consumed tropical fruit, could alleviate obesity and alter gut microbial community in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.

Methods And Results: C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet (SD) or HFD with or without Jamun fruit extract (JFE; 100 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801307DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota signatures and lipids metabolism profiles by exposure to polyene phosphatidylcholine.

Biofactors 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The aim of the study was to address the causality links and identify specific features of the gut microbiota signatures contributing to host lipids metabolism in the presence or absence of polyene phosphatidylcholine (PPC) administration, and evaluate potential risk of PPC consumption. About 20 C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated into two groups, normal diet group (CK) and PPC administration group (205.2 mg/kg). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/biof.1495
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1495DOI Listing
February 2019
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Soluble fibers improve metabolic syndrome but may cause liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatology 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Nearly 25% of the world's population is suffering from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD may progress to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With efficient medical therapies lacking, modifications of life style and diet are considered the best options for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30565DOI Listing
February 2019

Association between PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) susceptibility and severity: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(7):e14324

Department of Gastroenterology, Xi'an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objective: This meta-analysis is to investigate the relationship between the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism and the susceptibility and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, and PubMed Database were subjected to case-control study retrieving, from January 2008 to December 2014. Following key words were used: fatty liver, PNPLA3, and rs738409 gene or variants or polymorphism or alleles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014324DOI Listing
February 2019

Drug-Induced Steatosis and Steatohepatitis: The Search for Novel Serum Biomarkers Among Potential Biomarkers for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Drug Saf 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Drug-induced steatosis (DIS) and drug-induced steatohepatitis (DISH) are two of several types of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). They can be caused by various drugs and may present as acute, potentially lethal disorders or as chronic slowly progressive liver injury. Despite the fact that they are distinct disorders, the slow progressive forms of DIS and DISH are often confused with or misdiagnosed as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which are much more common and, by definition, not caused by drugs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-018-00790-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Review article: consensus guidelines: best practices for detection, assessment and management of suspected acute drug-induced liver injury during clinical trials in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Indianapolis, Indiana.

Background: The last decade has seen a rapid growth in the number of clinical trials enrolling patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Due to the underlying chronic liver disease, patients with NASH often require different approaches to the assessment and management of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) compared to patients with healthy livers. However, currently no regulatory guidelines or position papers systematically address best practices pertaining to DILI in NASH clinical trials. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/apt.15153
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15153DOI Listing
February 2019
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Review article: iron disturbances in chronic liver diseases other than haemochromatosis - pathogenic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.

Authors:
Albert J Czaja

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Disturbances in iron regulation have been described in diverse chronic liver diseases other than hereditary haemochromatosis, and iron toxicity may worsen liver injury and outcome.

Aims: To describe manifestations and consequences of iron dysregulation in chronic liver diseases apart from hereditary haemochromatosis and to encourage investigations that clarify pathogenic mechanisms, define risk thresholds for iron toxicity, and direct management METHODS: English abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms. Full length articles were selected for review, and secondary and tertiary bibliographies were developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15173DOI Listing
February 2019

Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease and Eicosapentaenoic Acid/Arachidonic Acid Ratio.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi, Kami-Cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a fatal complication of short bowel syndrome managed with parenteral nutrition. A clinical cohort study reported the usefulness of parenteral administration of fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids in improving IFALD; however, no biomarker has been developed as yet. The authors report the case of a preterm infant with IFALD complicated by extensive short bowel syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-019-02895-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Chemical composition and bioactive properties of Sanguisorba minor Scop. under Mediterranean growing conditions.

Food Funct 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal.

Sanguisorba minor Scop. is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region which exhibits several medicinal activities. In the present study, plant growth, chemical composition, and antitumor and antimicrobial properties of S. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8FO02601G
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02601gDOI Listing
February 2019
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Effect of Oat and Tartary Buckwheat - Based Food on Cholesterol - Lowering and Gut Microbiota in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters.

J Oleo Sci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture.

The nutritional components in oat and tartary buckwheat had been assessed to have cholesterollowering effects. However, The effect of oat and tartary buckwheat based-food (OF) on cholesterol-lowering and gut microbiota in hypercholesterole hamsters was still limited studied because they are usually consumed in whole gran as well as after being processed. In this study, normal diets, high fat diet (HFD) with/without OF were fed to hamsters for 30 days respectively and growth parameters, metabolic parameters, and gut microbiota were investigated, respectively. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jos/advpub/0/advpub_ess
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess18221DOI Listing
February 2019
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Overdoses of acetaminophen disrupt the thyroid-liver axis in neonatal rats.

Authors:
R G Ahmed

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Sue. Egypt.

Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the impact of neonatal acetaminophen (APAP; paracetamol) administrations on the thyroid-liver axis in male Wistar rats.

Methods: APAP (100 or 350 mg/kg) was orally administered to neonates from postnatal day (PND) 20 to 40.

Results: Both APAP doses elicited a substantial increase in serum TSH, albumin, AST, ALT, and ALP values, and a profound decrease in serum FT4 and FT3 values at PND 40 relative to those in the control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666190212165603DOI Listing
February 2019
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R. verniciflua and E. ulmoides Extract (ILF-RE) Protects against Chronic CCl₄-Induced Liver Damage by Enhancing Antioxidation.

Nutrients 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Pharmacology and New Drug Development Institute, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-180, Korea.

This study aimed to characterize the protective effects of R. verniciflua extract (ILF-R) and E. ulmoides extract (ILF-E), the combination called ILF-RE, against chronic CCl₄-induced liver oxidative injury in rats, as well as to investigate the mechanism underlying hepatoprotection by ILF-RE against CCl₄-induced hepatic dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11020382DOI Listing
February 2019

Kinase-dependent pathways and the development of insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2007 Mar;2(2):195-203

a Hoffmann-La Roche, Department of Metabolic Diseases, 340 Kingsland Street Nutley, New Jersey 07110, USA.

Hepatic insulin resistance is considered to be a dominant component in the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in Type 2 diabetes. The role of nutrients, free fatty acids and secretory inflammatory factors released by visceral fat in the pathogenesis of liver insulin resistance requires clarification, but a number of signaling pathways and serine kinases have been implicated. These include the discovery of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, I κβ kinase, protein kinase C θ, δ and ε, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 as critical regulators of insulin action and steatosis in liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.2.2.195DOI Listing

How the hypothalamus controls glucose production: an update.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2006 Sep;1(5):601-608

b University of Cincinnati, Genome Research Institute, ML0506, 2140 East Galbraith Rd, Cincinnati, OH 45237, USA.

Recent evidence highlights a crucial role of the brain in the control of glucose homeostasis. The hypothalamus senses and integrates signals of fuel abundance, such as circulating macronutrients (glucose and fatty acids) and nutrient-induced hormones (insulin and leptin). This, in turn, results in the activation of neural pathways that return circulating nutrients to baseline by reducing hepatic glucose production and food intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17446651.1.5.601DOI Listing
September 2006