301,410 results match your criteria Fatty Liver


Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using transient elastography.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The recommendation in regards to screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients differs in major guidelines.

Aim: To study the prevalence of NALFD and advanced fibrosis among T2DM patients.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of consecutive adult T2DM patients attending the Diabetes Clinic of a university hospital. Read More

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December 2018
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Investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying Salicornia ramosissima response to atmospheric CO enrichment under coexistence of prolonged soil flooding and saline excess.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;135:149-159. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, 1095, 41080, Sevilla, Spain.

A 45-days long climatic chamber experiment was design to evaluate the effect of 400 and 700 ppm atmospheric CO treatments with and without soil water logging in combination with 171 and 510 mM NaCl in the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima. In order to ascertain the possible synergetic impact of these factors associate to climatic change in this plant species physiological and growth responses. Our results indicated that elevated atmospheric CO concentration improved plant physiological performance under suboptimal root-flooding and saline conditions plants. Read More

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December 2018

Odorous compounds sources and transport from a swine deep-pit finishing operation: A case study.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 11;233:12-23. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, 1015 N. University Boulevard, Ames, IA, 50011, United States.

Odor emissions from swine finishing operations are an air quality issue that affects residents at the local level. A study was conducted at a commercial swine deep-pit finishing operation in central Iowa to monitor odorous compounds emitted and transported offsite. Gaseous compounds were sampled using either sorbent tubes or canisters with GC/MS analysis, and particulates matter (PM) were sampled with high volume samplers and thermally extracted onto sorbent tubes for GC/MS analysis. Read More

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December 2018

Enhanced removal and detection of benzo[a]pyrene in environmental water samples using carbon dots-modified magnetic nanocomposites.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 11;170:383-390. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Yunnan Province 650500, China. Electronic address:

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have already proven their efficacy in the disposal of a wide array of environmental contaminants in recent years. However, the difficulties in dispersibility and agglomeration of MNPs arising from its own physical and chemical properties limit its large-scale application. Herein, we fabricated the carbon dots/fatty acid-coated MNPs (CDs/C-FeO) through a facile and simple method. Read More

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December 2018

Signalling molecules responsive to ozone-induced oxidative stress in Salvia officinalis.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 2;657:568-576. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa 56124, Italy; CIRSEC, Centre for Climatic Change Impact, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, Pisa 56124, Italy; Nutrafood Research Center, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

Tropospheric ozone (O) is the most important gaseous pollutant and induces a mass of negative impacts on vegetation at functional and genic levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species and signalling molecules in sage plants exposed to O (200 ppb, 5 h). Ozone exposure induced only a transient oxidative burst, as confirmed by the rapid peak of anion superoxide during the first hours of exposure (+16% compared to controls). Read More

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December 2018

Appetite responses to high-fat diets rich in mono-unsaturated versus poly-unsaturated fats.

Appetite 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Modifying the type of dietary fat consumed may impact appetite, therefore having implications in weight management.

Objective: To test the effects of a 5-day, high-fat diet rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and a diet rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) on markers of appetite.

Methods: Fifteen normal weight men participated in a randomized cross-over design with two controlled feeding trials (3d lead-in diet, pre-diet visit, 5d PUFA- or MUFA-rich diet, post-diet visit). Read More

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December 2018

The IRS/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway mediates olanzapine-induced hepatic insulin resistance in male rats.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Endocrinology and Metabolism Group, Sydney Institute of Health Sciences, Sydney Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. Electronic address:

Aims: Chronic treatment with antipsychotics, especially most of atypical ones, leads to development of metabolic abnormalities. Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced metabolic adverse effects in the liver, however, remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Peptide antibiotic trichogin in model membranes: Self-association and capture of fatty acids.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The antimicrobial action of peptides in bacterial membranes is commonly related to their mode of self-assembling which results in pore formation. To optimize peptide antibiotic use for therapeutic purposes, a study on the concentration dependence of self-assembling process is thus desirable. In this work, we investigate this dependence for peptaibol trichogin GA IV (Tric) in the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) model membrane in the range of peptide concentrations between 0. Read More

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December 2018

Treatment of Active Crohn's Disease With an Ordinary Food-based Diet That Replicates Exclusive Enteral Nutrition.

Gastroenterology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the only established dietary treatment for Crohn's disease (CD), but its acceptability is limited. There is a need for novel dietary treatments for CD.

Methods: We evaluated the effects of an individualized, food-based diet (CD-TREAT), with similar composition to EEN, on the gut microbiome, inflammation and clinical response in a rat model, healthy adults, and children with relapsing CD. Read More

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December 2018

Reproducibility of quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography in asymptomatic individuals and patients with acute chest pain.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0207980. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) provides important prognostic information of coronary atherosclerosis. We investigated intraobserver and interobserver QCT reproducibility in asymptomatic individuals, patients with acute chest pain without acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and patients with acute chest pain and ACS.

Methods: Fifty patients from each cohort, scanned between 01/02/2010-14/11/2013 and matched according to age and gender, were retrospectively assessed for inclusion. Read More

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December 2018

Lipoprotein metabolism in liver diseases.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The liver is the central hub of lipoprotein metabolism. A complex relationship exists between dyslipidemia and chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Recent advances in the genetics of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) exemplify the pivotal role of lipoprotein metabolism in the pathogenesis of CLD. Read More

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December 2018

Combination of ω-3 fatty acids and cisplatin as a potential alternative strategy for personalized therapy of metastatic melanoma: an in-vitro study.

Melanoma Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of General Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.

The recently developed therapeutic strategies have led to unprecedented improvements in the control of metastatic melanoma and in the survival of specific subgroups of patients. However, drug resistance, low response rates, and undesired side effects make these treatments not suitable or tolerable for all the patients, and chemotherapeutic treatments appear still indispensable, at least for subgroups of patients. New combinatory strategies are also under investigation as tailored treatments or salvage therapies, including combined treatments of immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy. Read More

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December 2018

Strategies to improve bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from ethyl ester concentrates.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Midwest Biomedical Research, Center for Metabolic & Cardiovascular Health, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe recent strategies that have been developed to enhance absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from dietary supplements.

Recent Findings: The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have important physiologic functions, and numerous potential health benefits have been suggested by results from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. EPA and DHA intakes in the average American diet are substantially below recommended levels. Read More

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December 2018

Nanoparticle-mediated lysosomal reacidification restores mitochondrial turnover and function in β cells under lipotoxicity.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 14:fj201801292R. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Chronic exposure of pancreatic β cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids leads to lipotoxicity (LT)-mediated suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is in part caused by a decline in mitochondrial function as well as by a reduction in lysosomal acidification. Because both mitochondria and lysosomes can alter one another's function, it remains unclear which initiating dysfunction sets off the detrimental cascade of LT, ultimately leading to β-cell failure. Read More

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December 2018

[The becoming of reactions of lipolysis in phylogenesis. The palmitic and oleic triglycerides as substrates. Insulin, condition of normolipemia and formation of hyper lipoproteinemia type IIb, IV and V].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):4-15

The Federal state budget scientifc institution "The research institute of general pathology and pathophysiology" of the Russian academy of sciences, 125315, Moscow, Russia.

According to phylogenetic theory of general pathology, when living in ocean all were carnivorous (piscivorous) fatty acids transferring to cells in form of non-polar triglycerides nitially began apoB-48 chylomicrons, continued lipoproteins of very low and low density and fnalized its apoB-100 endocytosis. The fatty acids are transferred by chylomicrons + lipoproteins of very low density + lipoproteins of low density and non-polar triglycerides are hydrolyzed by hepatic glycerolhydrogenase and co-enzyme apoC-III; according WHO classifcation, hyperlipoproteinemia corresponds to type V. On land, in herbivorous who are not yet synthesized insulin, apoB-48 and chylomicrons left process of non-polar triglycerides transferring. Read More

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January 2018

Prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence as measured by direct ethanol metabolites in meconium in a Native American tribe of the southwest.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Environmental Health Program, University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Background: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a significant public health problem, Native Americans are underrepresented in population and targeted screening programs. Prior reports suggest that Native American tribal communities may have a higher prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy; however, systematic examination using ethanol biomarkers is lacking.

Methods: This study utilized data collected through the Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS)-a birth cohort study of a Southwestern tribal community. Read More

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December 2018

Induction of fat apoptosis by a non-thermal device: Mechanism of action of non-invasive high-intensity electromagnetic technology in a porcine model.

Lasers Surg Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Objectives: While controlled thermal changes in subcutaneous tissue have been used to trigger apoptosis of fat cells and have been proven clinically efficacious, another mechanism of electromagnetic stress suggests that fat apoptosis could be achieved by a non-thermal manner as well. This animal model study investigates the use of a non-invasive high-intensity magnetic field device to induce apoptosis in fat cells.

Methods: Yorkshire pigs (N = 2) received one treatment (30 minutes) in the abdominal area using a High-Intensity Focused Electromagnetic (HIFEM) device. Read More

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December 2018
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MicroRNAs: Unfolding the link between inositol-requiring enzyme 1α and fatty liver.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver chemistry tests in the United States and western world. The mechanisms underlying hepatic steatosis and the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain incompletely understood. Multiple cellular stress pathways are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of fatty liver, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and its adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). Read More

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December 2018

Effects of dietary ramie powder at various levels on growth performance, antioxidative capacity and fatty acid profile of finishing pigs.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Healthy Livestock and Poultry Production, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha, Hunan, China.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ramie (Boehmeria nivea, previously known as a fibre crop and also called "China grass") included in diets on growth performance, antioxidative capacity and muscular fatty acid profile of finishing pigs. A total of 180 Xiangcun Black pigs (initial body weight =70.71 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

Interatrial septal fat thickness and left atrial stiffness are mechanistic links between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and incident atrial fibrillation.

Echocardiography 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Cardiology Department, Zagazig University Hospital-Egypt, Zagazig, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Recently, a clear evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Yet, the underlying pathogenesis is speculative. Thereby, we aimed to investigate the hypothesis that, interatrial thickness (IAST) and left atrial stiffness (LASt) might have mechanistic links between NAFLD and AF. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of new urinary gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) markers applying untargeted metabolomics analysis following placebo-controlled administration to humans.

Drug Test Anal 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Forensic Pharmacology & Toxicology, Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that occurs naturally in the mammalian brain and that is prescribed as a medication against narcolepsy or used as a drug of abuse. Particularly, its use as a knock-out drug in cases of drug facilitated crimes is of major importance in forensic toxicology. Because of its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection windows (<12 h in urine), detection of GHB remains challenging. Read More

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December 2018

Causality between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Liver Int 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University and Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata of Verona, Verona, Italy.

I would like to congratulate Morrison and colleagues for the interesting meta-analysis aimed at investigating the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this elegant meta-analysis, the Authors demonstrated that NAFLD was not independently associated with an increased risk of incident CVD (n=13 eligible studies, RR 1.48, 95% CI 0. Read More

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December 2018

3T chemical shift-encoded MRI: Detection of altered proximal femur marrow adipose tissue composition in glucocorticoid users and validation with magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

New York Langone Health, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Osteoporosis (OP) results in weak bone and can ultimately lead to fracture. Drugs such as glucocorticoids can also induce OP (glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis [GIO]). Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity may play a role in OP pathophysiology, but has not been thoroughly studied in GIO compared to primary OP. Read More

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December 2018

Potent anti-proliferative effect of fatty-acid derivative AIC-47 on leukemic mice harboring BCR-ABL mutation.

Cancer Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

United Graduate School of Drug Discovery and Medical Information Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan.

Therapy based on targeted inhibition of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has greatly improved the prognosis for patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive leukemia and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become the standard therapy. However, some patients acquire resistance to TKIs that is frequently associated with point mutations in the BCR-ABL. We previously reported that a medium-chain fatty-acid derivative AIC-47 induced transcriptional suppression of BCR-ABL and perturbation of the Warburg effect, leading to growth inhibition in Ph-positive leukemia cells. Read More

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December 2018

Hyperpolarized [1- C] pyruvate as a possible diagnostic tool in liver disease.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13943

MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Introduction of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance in preclinical studies and lately translation to patients provides new detailed in vivo information of metabolic flux in organs. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance based on C enriched pyruvate is performed without ionizing radiation and allows quantification of the pyruvate conversion products: alanine, lactate and bicarbonate in real time. Thus, this methodology has a promising potential for in vivo monitoring of energetic alterations in hepatic diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Increased IL-1β levels are associated with an imbalance of "oxidant/antioxidant" status during Behçet's disease.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2018 Sep;29(3):95-102

USTHB, "Cytokines and NO Synthases" team, LBCM, FSB, BP 32, El Alia, 16111, Bab ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria.

Behçet's disease is a multisystem disease. It stands at the crossroad between the autoimmunity and auto-inflammatory disorders. In this study, we sought to address a relationship that might exist between interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the oxidants/antioxidants markers in Behçet's patients. Read More

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September 2018

Obesity and inflammation.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2018 Sep;29(3):83-94

Department of Gastroenterology, Human Nutrition and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Fredry 10, Poznan 61-701, Poland.

The prevalence of obesity has recently increased dramatically and has contributed to the increasing prevalence of various pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, asthma, various types of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and others. Accumulating evidence points to localized inflammation in adipose tissue, which, in turn, promotes systemic low-grade inflammation as a primary force contributing to the development of these pathologies. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is required to develop effective therapeutic or prophylactic strategies. Read More

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September 2018

Nocardioides gansuensis sp. nov., isolated from geopark soil.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China.

A novel bacterial strain, designated WSJ-1, was isolated from geopark soil in Gansu province, PR China. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were to those of Nocardioides sediminis MSL-01 (97.10 %), Nocardioides aquiterrae GW-9 (97. Read More

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December 2018

Microbacterium suaedae sp. nov., isolated from Suaeda aralocaspica.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

6​Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Two bacterial strains, YZYP 306 and YZGP 509, were isolated from the halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica collected from the southern edge of the Gurbantunggut desert, north-west China. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, short rods. Strain YZYP 306 grew at 4-40 °C, while strain YZGP 509 grew at 4-42 °C, with optimum growth at 28 °C, and they both grew at pH 6. Read More

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December 2018

Genomics of lipid-laden human hepatocyte cultures enables drug target screening for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

BMC Med Genomics 2018 Dec 14;11(1):111. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health burden in need for new medication. To identify potential drug targets a genomic study was performed in lipid-laden primary human hepatocyte (PHH) and human hepatoma cell cultures.

Methods: PHH, HuH7 and HepG2 hepatoma cell cultures were treated with lipids and/or TNFα. Read More

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December 2018

Epigenetic modifications acetylation and deacetylation play important roles in juvenile hormone action.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 14;19(1):934. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA.

Background: Epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones are known to regulate gene expression. Antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate transcriptional reprogramming during insect development as shown in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects. Juvenile hormones (JH) play vital roles in the regulation of growth, development, metamorphosis, reproduction and other physiological processes. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluating the profound effect of gut microbiome on host appetite in pigs.

BMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 14;18(1):215. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Pig Genetic Improvement and Production Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China.

Background: There are growing evidences showing that gut microbiota should play an important role in host appetite and feeding behavior. However, what kind of microbe(s) and how they affect porcine appetite remain unknown.

Results: In this study, 280 commercial Duroc pigs were raised in a testing station with the circadian feeding behavior records for a continuous period of 30-100 kg. Read More

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December 2018

Daphnia galeata responds to the exposure to an ichthyosporean gut parasite by down-regulation of immunity and lipid metabolism.

BMC Genomics 2018 Dec 14;19(1):932. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany.

Background: Regulatory circuits of infection in the emerging experimental model system, water flea Daphnia and their microparasites, remain largely unknown. Here we provide the first molecular insights into the response of Daphnia galeata to its highly virulent and common parasite Caullerya mesnili, an ichthyosporean that infects the gut epithelium. We generated a transcriptomic dataset using RNAseq from parasite-exposed (vs. Read More

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December 2018

[Role of prebiotics and probiotics in the functionality of the microbiota in the patients receiving enteral nutrition].

Nutr Hosp 2018 Apr 3;35(Spec no2):18-26. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

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Set of resident microorganisms in our body that are responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of health is named microbiota. The microbiota´s role is protective, trophic and metabolic. Different groups of microbiota intestinal name enterotypes, each one of them are in relation to specific dietary habits. Read More

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Long-term myocardial toxicity in a patient with tizanidine and etizolam overdose.

J Cardiol Cases 2016 Mar 28;13(3):78-81. Epub 2015 Nov 28.

Department of Critical Care and Emergency Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.

Tizanidine hydrochloride, α2-receptor stimulant, is a central muscle relaxant. Etizolam is a benzodiazepine-based anti-anxiety agent. Both drugs are widely used for the treatment of a variety of muscle pain and frequently used together in Japan. Read More

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Quantification of Mitochondrial Genome Transcription in Male Reproductive Cells by Real-Time PCR.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:171-180

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondria are organelles that play a key role in the regulation of cell energy metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in important physiological processes, such as the three-carboxylic acid cycle, the oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, and calcium ion homeostasis. The energy demands of male germ cells during mitosis and meiosis are higher than those of somatic cells, suggesting that mitochondria play a critical role in sperm. Read More

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January 2019
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Correction to: Weight Reduction and Pioglitazone are Cost-Effective for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Thailand.

Pharmacoeconomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, 65000, Phitsanulok, Thailand.

Weight Reduction is Cost-Effective for the Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Thailand. Read More

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December 2018

Sex Pheromones of Two Leafminer Species, Antispila oinophylla and Holocacista rivillei (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae) Infesting Grapevine in Italy.

J Chem Ecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.

Two heliozelid species, Antispila oinophylla van Nieukerken & Wagner and Holocacista rivillei (Stainton) severely infest Italian grapevines. The volatile pheromones from calling females were collected by solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Two compounds from A. Read More

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December 2018

PET imaging of glucose and fatty acid metabolism for NAFLD patients.

J Nucl Cardiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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December 2018

Lower follicular n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with a better response to ovarian stimulation.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress (FROS) Research Group of the Department of Physiology, Medicine and Nursing School, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

Objectives: To analyze in detail the fatty acid (FA) composition of follicular fluid (FF) from two-sized follicles at oocyte retrieval and to determine associations of the FAs from large follicles with the woman's age and the response to ovarian stimulation.

Design: Observational study.

Setting: University and fertility clinic. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiovascular mortality attributable to dietary risk factors in 51 countries in the WHO European Region from 1990 to 2016: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Competence Cluster for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.

This study was performed to highlight the relationship between single dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the WHO European Region. We used the comparative risk assessment framework of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate CVD mortality attributable to diet; comprising eleven forms of CVDs, twelve food and nutrient groups and 27 risk-outcome pairs in four GBD regions including 51 countries by age and sex between 1990 and 2016. In 2016, dietary risks were associated with 2. Read More

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December 2018
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Hepatic steatosis and reduction in steatosis following bariatric weight loss surgery differs between segments and lobes.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, 200 W. Arbor Drive #8756, San Diego, CA, 92103-8756, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate proton density fat fraction (PDFF) distribution across liver segments at baseline and (2) compare longitudinal segmental PDFF changes across time points in adult patients undergoing a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) and subsequent bariatric weight loss surgery (WLS).

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of data from 118 morbidly obese adult patients enrolled in a VLCD-WLS program. PDFF was estimated using magnitude-based confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI in each hepatic segment and lobe at baseline (visit 1), after completion of VLCD (visit 2), and at 1, 3, and 6 months (visits 3-5) following WLS. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanistic Insights From Global Metabolomics Studies into Synergistic Bactericidal Effect of a Polymyxin B Combination With Tamoxifen Against Cystic Fibrosis MDR .

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2018 10;16:587-599. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, VIC, Australia.

Polymyxins are amongst the most important antibiotics in modern medicine, in recent times their clinical utility has been overshadowed by nosocomial outbreaks of polymyxin resistant MDR Gram-negative 'superbugs'. An effective strategy to surmount polymyxin resistance is combination therapy with FDA-approved non-antibiotic drugs. Herein we used untargeted metabolomics to investigate the mechanism(s) of synergy between polymyxin B and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen against a polymyxin-resistant MDR cystic fibrosis (CF) FADDI-PA006 isolate (polymyxin B MIC=8 mg/L , it is an MDR polymyxin resistant isolated from the lungs of a CF patient). Read More

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November 2018

Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Bioluminescence.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2018 15;16:551-564. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Biochemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.

Bioluminescence refers to the production of light by living organisms. Bioluminescent bacteria with a variety of bioluminescence emission characteristics have been identified in , and . Bioluminescent bacteria are mainly found in marine habitats and they are either free-floating, sessile or have specialized to live in symbiosis with other marine organisms. Read More

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November 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Phospholipase A in skin biology: new insights from gene-manipulated mice and lipidomics.

Inflamm Regen 2018 7;38:31. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

1Laboratory of Microenvironmental and Metabolic Health Science, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655 Japan.

The skin represents one of the tissues that are most profoundly influenced by alterations in the quality of lipids (lipoquality). Lipids not only constitute cellular membranes, but also serve as bioactive lipid mediators and essential components of the skin barrier. Phospholipase A (PLA) enzymes supply fatty acids and lysophospholipids from membrane phospholipids, thereby variably affecting cutaneous homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018

MicroRNA-182-5p contributes to the protective effects of thrombospondin 1 against lipotoxicity in INS-1 cells.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):5272-5279. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610106, P.R. China.

The dysfunction of beta cells serves an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying beta cell mass and failure will be useful for identifying novel approaches toward preventing and treating this disease. Recent studies have indicated that free fatty acids (FFAs) can cause beta cell dysfunction. Read More

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December 2018

Changes of Intracellular Porphyrin, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Fatty Acids Profiles During Inactivation of Methicillin-Resistant by Antimicrobial Blue Light.

Front Physiol 2018 28;9:1658. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Antimicrobial blue light (aBL) has attracted increasing interest for its antimicrobial properties. However, the underlying bactericidal mechanism has not yet been verified. One hypothesis is that aBL causes the excitation of intracellular chromophores; leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resultant oxidization of various biomolecules. Read More

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November 2018

Characterisation of small molecule ligands 4CMTB and 2CTAP as modulators of human FFA2 receptor signalling.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 13;8(1):17819. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are protective against inflammatory diseases. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), is a target of SCFAs however, their selectivity for FFA2 over other FFA receptors is limited. This study aimed to functionally characterise 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-N-(thiazole-2-yl)butanamide (4CMTB) and 4-((4-(2-chlorophenyl)thiazole-2-yl)amino)-4oxo-3-phenylbutanoic acid (2CTAP), and their enantiomers, in modulating FFA2 activity. Read More

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December 2018

Electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes are systemically transported and distributed upon esterification to complex lipids.

J Lipid Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

University of Pittsburgh, United States.

Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA) showed beneficial signaling actions in preclinical studies, and safety in Phase 1 clinical trials. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of NO2-FA is complicated by the capability of electrophilic fatty acids to alkylate thiols reversibly, become esterified in various complex lipids, and the instability of the nitroalkene moiety during enzymatic and base hydrolysis. Herein, we report the mechanism and kinetics of absorption, metabolism, and distribution of the endogenously-detectable and prototypical NO2-FA 10-nitro-oleic acid (10-NO2-OA) in dogs after oral administration. Read More

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December 2018