1,180,815 results match your criteria Family & Community Health [Journal]


Artificial Intelligence in Primary Health Care: Perceptions, Issues, and Challenges.

Yearb Med Inform 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) is heralded as an approach that might augment or substitute for the limited processing power of the human brain of primary health care (PHC) professionals. However, there are concerns that AI-mediated decisions may be hard to validate and challenge, or may result in rogue decisions.

Objective: To form consensus about perceptions, issues, and challenges of AI in primary care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677901DOI Listing

Social Network Structure in Young Stroke Survivors with Aphasia: A Case Series Report.

Semin Speech Lang 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Communication Equity and Outcomes Laboratory, College of Allied Health Sciences East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.

The aim of this study was to profile the social networks of young adult stroke survivors with aphasia. A case series approach using four persons with aphasia (PWA) younger than 50 years was utilized. Semistructured interviews were completed with the PWA and their primary caregiver/family to explore the most salient relationships in the PWA's social network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1688695DOI Listing

Overexpression of MMPs in Corneas Requiring Penetrating and Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Apr;60(5):1734-1747

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States.

Purpose: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases involved in wound healing processes, including neovascularization and fibrosis. We assessed MMP protein expression levels in diseased corneas of patients requiring penetrating and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that upregulation of MMPs in diseased corneas is positively associated with clinical levels of corneal neovascularization and fibrosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-25961DOI Listing

Quaternary-centre-guided synthesis of complex polycyclic terpenes.

Nature 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

University of Chicago, Department of Chemistry, Chicago, IL, USA.

The presence of a quaternary centre-a carbon with four other carbons bonded to it-in any given molecule can have a substantial chemical and biological impact. In many cases, it is enabling, as in the Thorpe-Ingold effect, which gives rise to large rate enhancements in cyclization reactions, including applications in drug delivery for molecules with modest bioavailability. Similarly, the addition of quaternary centres to a drug candidate can enhance both activity and metabolic stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1179-2DOI Listing

Characterization of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in PYNOD-Deficient Mice.

Immunohorizons 2018 Apr 30;2(4):129-141. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Division of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan;

PYNOD (also called NLRP10) is a member of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family. Many members of this family play important roles in the activation and/or regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. We previously showed that PYNOD inhibits the IL-1β secretion in response to microbial infection in PYNOD-transgenic mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.1700074DOI Listing

In vitro, in cellulo and structural characterizations of the interaction between the integrase of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus A/C and proteins of the BET family.

Virology 2019 Apr 16;532:69-81. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

INRA, Université Lyon 1, UMR754, Viral Infections Compared Pathology, 69007, Lyon, France; Université de Lyon, 69000, Lyon, France; UMSl3444 Biosciences Gerland Lyon Sud, 69007, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Retroviral integrase (IN) proteins catalyze the permanent integration of the viral genome into host DNA. They can productively recruit cellular proteins, and the human Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (hBET) proteins have been shown to be co-factors for integration of gamma-retroviruses such as Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) into human cells. By using two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro interaction assays, we showed that IN of the gamma- Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus-A/C (PERV IN) interacts through its C-terminal domain (CTD) with hBET proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.002DOI Listing

The identification of naturally occurring labdane diterpenoid calcaratarin D as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Apr 16;174:33-44. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Block S4A, Level 3, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore; Drug Discovery and Optimization Platform, Medical Science Cluster, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore. Electronic address:

In this study we report, for the first time, the synthesis of the natural product calcaratarin D via a stereo- and regio-selective aldol condensation with (S)-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone as key steps. A concise synthetic route (under 10 steps) to a series of structurally related normal-labdane diterpenes was also developed and their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated in an in vitro model of inflammation. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) pertaining to the labdane scaffold were elucidated and results suggest that an α-alkylidene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone system is necessary for potent activity in the labdanes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.04.023DOI Listing

High-resolution QTL mapping in Tetranychus urticae reveals acaricide-specific responses and common target-site resistance after selection by different METI-I acaricides.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000, Ghent, Belgium; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Science Park 904, 1908, XH, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Arthropod herbivores cause dramatic crop losses, and frequent pesticide use has led to widespread resistance in numerous species. One such species, the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an extreme generalist herbivore and a major worldwide crop pest with a history of rapidly developing resistance to acaricides. Mitochondrial Electron Transport Inhibitors of complex I (METI-Is) have been used extensively in the last 25 years to control T. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09651748193010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.04.011DOI Listing
April 2019
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THE BIAS OF COMBINING VARIABLES ON FISH'S aggressive behavior STUDIES.

Behav Processes 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP/IBILCE), Departamento de Zoologia e Botânica, Aquaculture Center UNESP (CAUNESP), R. Cristóvão Colombo, 2265, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Quantifying animal aggressive behavior by behavioral units, either displays or attacks, is a common practice in animal behavior studies. However, this practice can generate a bias in data analysis, especially when the variables have different temporal patterns. This study aims to use Bayesian Hierarchical Linear Models (B-HLMs) to analyze the feasibility of pooling the aggressive behavior variables of four cichlids species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Genome-wide and functional analyses of tyrosine kinase-like family genes reveal potential roles in development and virulence in mosquito pathogen Pythium guiyangense.

Fungal Genet Biol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

The tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) gene family is widely existed in most eukaryotes and participates in many biological processes, however, has been rarely studied in oomycetes. In this study we performed bioinformatic and experimental analyses to characterize TKLs in Pythium guiyangense, a promising mosquito biological control agent. Our results revealed that TKLs were widely distributed in all the detected oomycetes, but were largely expanded in P. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10871845183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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Transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 and its binding protein 1 participate in the innate immune responses via modulating the IMDNFκB signaling in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase 1 (TAK1) is essential for diverse important biological functions, such as innate immunity, development and cell survival. In the present study, the homologs of TAK1 and TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1) were identified and characterized from mud crab Scylla paramamosain for the first time. The full-length cDNAs of SpTAK1 and SpTAB1 were 2, 226 bp and 2, 433 bp with 1, 782 bp and 1, 533 bp open reading frame (ORF), respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.054DOI Listing

A versatile method for producing labeled or unlabeled Aβ55, Aβ40, and other β-amyloid family peptides.

Protein Expr Purif 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, United States; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637, United States. Electronic address:

We present a straightforward, versatile method for expressing and purifying β-amyloid (Aβ40) and transmembrane peptides derived from β-amyloid precursor protein (Aβ55). In principle, these methods should be applicable to other types of strongly aggregating peptides. We start with a DNA plasmid encoding a HexaHis tag with a flexible, hydrophilic linker sequence, followed by a cleavage site, and then Aβ peptides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Molecular and genetic characterization of the pOV plasmid from Pasteurella multocida and construction of an integration vector for Gallibacterium anatis.

Plasmid 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Biotecnología Veterinaria de Puebla SA de CV, Tehuacán, Pue, Mexico.

Background: The pOV plasmid isolated from the Pasteurella multocida strain PMOV is a new plasmid, and its molecular characterization is important for determining its gene content and its replicative properties in Pasteurellaceae family bacteria.

Methods: Antimicrobial resistance mediated by the pOV plasmid was tested in bacteria. Purified pOV plasmid DNA was used to transform E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plasmid.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Characterization of the mitochondrial genome sequences of the liver fluke Amphimerus sp. (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) from Ecuador and phylogenetic implications.

Acta Trop 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

OneHealth Group, Carrera de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de las Américas (UDLA), Quito, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Amphimerus Barker, 1911 is a liver fluke infecting several animal species and humans. Being a digenetic trematode of the Opisthorchiidae family, Amphimerus is closely related to the genera Metorchis, Clonorchis and Opisthorchis. Recently, a high prevalence of Amphimerus infection in humans, cats, and dogs had been demonstrated in a tropical Pacific region of Ecuador. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.04.025DOI Listing

Community-Level Breast Cancer Screening Estimates, Alaska, 2014.

Prev Chronic Dis 2019 Apr 25;16:E51. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Anchorage, Alaska.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180654DOI Listing

IRF2BP2: A new player in the regulation of cell homeostasis.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Program of Immunology and Tumor Biology, Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The IRF2BP2 (IFN regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2) protein was identified as a nuclear protein that interacts with IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF-2) and is an IRF-2-dependent transcriptional repressor. IRF2BP2 belongs to the IRF2BP family, which includes IRF2BP1, IRF2BP2, and IRF2BPL (EAP1). Recently, IRF2BP2 has emerged as an important new transcriptional cofactor in different biological systems, acting as a positive and negative regulator of gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.MR1218-507RDOI Listing

Pharmacogenetic Analysis of OATP1B1, UGT1A1, and BCRP Variants in Relation to the Pharmacokinetics of Letermovir in Previously Conducted Clinical Studies.

J Clin Pharmacol 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

The cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral terminase inhibitor letermovir is indicated for prevention of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In this analysis, functional variants in solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were assessed for effects on letermovir pharmacokinetics (PK) using pooled genetic information from 296 participants in 12 phase 1 studies. Letermovir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased in carriers of the SLCO1B1 variant rs4149056 C allele relative to noncarriers with a geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1420DOI Listing

Cell-free synthesis of human toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9): Optimization of synthesis conditions and functional analysis.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215897. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI), Branch Bioanalytics and Bioprocesses (IZI-BB), Potsdam, Germany.

The Toll-like receptor family belongs to the group of pathogen recognition receptors which is responsible for the discrimination of self and non-self pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP's). Toll-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity and defects in protein expression or polymorphism is linked to various diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The elucidation of the underlying mechanism is crucial for future treatment and therapeutics of toll-like receptor linked diseases. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215897PLOS

A negative role for the interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) in human Foxp3+ TREG differentiation.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215963. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Janssen Research & Development, Spring House, Pennsylvania, United States America.

The Tec kinases ITK (interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase) and RLK (resting lymphocyte kinase) are critical components of the proximal TCR/CD3 signal transduction machinery, and data in mice suggest that ITK negatively modulates regulatory T cell (TREG) differentiation. However, whether Tec kinases modulate TREG development and/or function in human T cells remains unknown. Using a novel self-delivery siRNA platform (sdRNA), we found that ITK knockdown in human primary naïve peripheral blood CD4 T cells increased Foxp3+ expression under both TREG and T helper priming conditions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215963PLOS
April 2019
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The protein elicitor Hrip1 enhances resistance to insects and early bolting and flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0216082. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plants Resource Research and Development, School of Sciences, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, China.

The elicitor Hrip1 isolated from necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima, could induce systemic acquired resistance in tobacco to enhance resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. In the present study, we found that the transgenic lines of Hrip1-overexpression in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana were more resistant to Spodoptera exigua and were early bolting and flowering than the WT. A profiling of transcription assay using digital gene expression profiling was used for transgenic and WT Arabidopsis thaliana. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216082PLOS
April 2019
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Identifying obesity/overweight status in children and adolescents; A cross-sectional medical record review of physicians' weight screening practice in outpatient clinics, Saudi Arabia.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215697. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Aldara Hospital and Medical Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: BMI is a feasible and recommended measure for overweight and obesity screening in children and adolescents. The study aimed to determine how often physicians correctly identified obesity/ overweight status in children and adolescents by using BMI percentile charts.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study reviewed the paper medical records of children and adolescents (6-14 years) who visited family medicine and pediatric outpatient clinics (Jan-June 2012) in a medical city in Riyadh. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215697PLOS

Longitudinal stability in cigarette smokers of urinary eicosanoid biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215853. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.

The urinary metabolites (Z)-7-[1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(E,3S)-3-hydroxyoct-1-enyl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoic acid (8-iso-PGF2α), an F2-isoprostane and biomarker of oxidative damage, and "prostaglandin E2 metabolite" (PGE-M), a biomarker of inflammation, are elevated in cigarette smokers. However, there is little information in the literature on the longitudinal stability of these widely used biomarkers. In a large clinical trial involving 10 institutional sites, smokers were given, free of charge over a period of 20 weeks, Spectrum NRC600/601 research cigarettes containing 15. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215853PLOS

Positive selection and recombination shaped the large genetic differentiation of Beet black scorch virus population.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(4):e0215574. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Plant Virus Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection (IRIPP), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.

Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a species in the Betanecrovirus genus, in family Tombusviridae. BBSV infection is of considerable importance, causing economic losses to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) field crops worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses using 3'UTR sequences divided most BBSV isolates into two main groups. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215574PLOS
April 2019
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Nomograms to identify elevated blood pressure values and left ventricular hypertrophy in a paediatric population: American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice vs. Fourth Report/European Society of Hypertension Guidelines.

J Hypertens 2019 Jun;37(6):1213-1222

School of Medicine and Surgery, University Milano - Bicocca.

Objective And Methods: The study aimed at evaluating, in a large sample of Italian children, the reclassification of blood pressure categories with the new U.S. nomograms, obtained in a population of normal-weight children (American Academy of Pediatrics Clinical Practice Guidelines, AAP-CPG), compared with the Fourth Report/European Society of Hypertension (ESH) nomograms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002069DOI Listing
June 2019
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Work Exposures and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Railroad Maintenance-of-Way Workers.

J Occup Environ Med 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

State University of New York (SUNY)-Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY (Landsbergis, Stillo, Jain, Davis), Johanning MD, PC (Johanning), Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of. Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY (Johanning).

Objective: Measure musculoskeletal disorders and occupational risk factors among railroad maintenance-of-way (MOW) workers.

Methods: 4,816 active, retired and disabled members of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes Division (BMWED) completed a survey.

Results: Compared to U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001614DOI Listing

Development of Acute Malnutrition Despite Nutritional Supplementation in Malawi.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2019 May;68(5):734-737

School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi.

Malnutrition in children is most often attributed to inadequate nutrient intake. Utilizing data from 2 prospective, randomized controlled trials of complimentary feeding with supplemental legumes (n = 693, ages 6-24 months) in 2 Malawian villages, Masenjere, and Limera, we document a high rate 70/693 (10.1%) of acute malnutrition (AM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002241DOI Listing

Estimating the Costs and Income of Providing Vaccination to Adults and Children.

Med Care 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta.

Introduction: Vaccinations are recommended to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. However, providers' concerns regarding costs and payments for providing vaccination services are commonly reported barriers to adult vaccination. Information on the costs of providing vaccination is limited, especially for adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001117DOI Listing

Patient- and Family-Centered Electroconvulsive Therapy.

Authors:
Herbert A Fox

J ECT 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

From the Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell College of Medicine; Department of Psychiatry, New York Medical College; Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Lenox Hill Hospital; and Department of Psychiatry, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, NY.

This article builds upon prior efforts to improve the quality of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) practice and care by encouraging the participation of family members in the ECT process. This participation included the presence of a family member or significant other (SO) in the treatment room during the ECT procedure. Suggestions for limiting that presence to the induction process and for providing limited physical contact with the patient are proposed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000596DOI Listing

A Standard Form of Cardiac Rehabilitation Can Improve Self-Reported Positive Behavior Changes in the Short- to Medium-Term.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2019 May;39(3):175-180

College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia (Drs Tang, Blackstock, O'Halloran, and Taylor and Ms Aldcroft); Department of Physiotherapy, Western Sydney University, Australia (Dr Blackstock); Department of Physiotherapy, Knox Private Hospital, Wantirna, Australia (Ms Aldcroft); and Allied Health Clinical Research Office, Eastern Health, Box Hill, Australia (Dr Taylor).

Purpose: Little is known about the impact of standard cardiac rehabilitation (CR), consisting of health education and exercise, on self-reported behavior change among people who have completed rehabilitation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the lived experiences of participants' behaviors toward exercise and diet in the short- to medium-term after CR program completion.

Methods: Using a phenomenological framework, we interviewed participants who had completed a 4-wk CR program and then 6 mo later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCR.0000000000000371DOI Listing

Heating Injection Drug Preparation Equipment Used for Opioid Injection May Reduce HIV Transmission Associated with Sharing Equipment.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Western University, B3 414, St. Joseph's Health Care London, PO Box 5777, Stn B, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4V2.

Background: London, Canada experienced an HIV outbreak among persons who inject drugs (PWID) despite widespread distribution of harm reduction equipment. Hydromorphone controlled-release (HMC) is the local opioid of choice. Injection drug preparation equipment (IDPE; i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002063DOI Listing

Sharing of Injection Drug Preparation Equipment is Associated with HIV Infection: A Cross Sectional Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, Western University, B3 414, St. Joseph's Health Care London, PO Box 5777, Stn B, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4V2.

Background: Sharing needles/syringes is an important means of HIV transmission amongst persons who inject drugs (PWIDs). London, Canada is experiencing an outbreak of HIV amongst PWIDs, despite a large needle/syringe distribution program and low rates of needle/syringe sharing.

Objective: To determine whether sharing of injection drug preparation equipment (IDPE) is associated with HIV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002062DOI Listing

Effectiveness of family-based weight management interventions for children with overweight and obesity: an umbrella review.

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

Objectives: The objective of the review was to synthesize the effectiveness and strategies used in family-based behavioral childhood obesity interventions in improving child weight-related outcomes.

Introduction: Family-based interventions are common practice in the treatment of childhood obesity. Research suggests that direct parental involvement can improve child weight-related outcomes. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01938924-900000000-9992
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003695DOI Listing
April 2019
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Challenges Experienced By North Korean Refugee Doctors in Acquiring a Medical License in South Korea: A Qualitative Analysis.

J Contin Educ Health Prof 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Dr. Ha: Director, The Office of Medical Research and Academic Affairs, Korea University Medical Center, and Association of Healthcare for Korean Unification. Dr. Choi: Doctor, Division of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Dr. Jong Koo Lee: Professor, JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea, and Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Mr. Yo Han Lee: Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.

Introduction: In general, refugee doctors encounter difficulties in regularly practicing medicine in their host countries. In particular, many barriers impede the efforts of North Korean refugee doctors (NKRDs) who have settled in South Korea to acquire a medical license in the country. This study examines the experiences and opinions of NKRDs in their attempts to acquire permission to legally practice medicine in South Korea and the opinions of South Korean experts regarding this matter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000251DOI Listing

Barriers to Reproductive Healthcare for Women With Opioid Use Disorder.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2019 Apr/Jun;33(2):E3-E11

Belmont University Inman College of Health Sciences, Nashville, Tennessee (Drs Smith, Morse, and Busby); and Family Planning Clinic, Lentz Public Health Center, Nashville, Tennessee (Dr Smith).

The health impact of opioid use disorder on women and infant health alongside persistent rates of unintended pregnancy calls for better targeted reproductive healthcare for all women, especially those receiving treatment for opioid treatment disorder and decreasing barriers to care. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study explored the reproductive intentions and contraceptive practices of women (N = 50) in medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder with a focus on knowledge and use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), specifically intrauterine devices and implants. Eighty-four percent of the 50 women interviewed had experienced at least 1 unintended pregnancy, and 30% were using contraceptive methods with high failure rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000401DOI Listing

Understanding the Effects of Neonatal Early Discharge on Parents: A Literature Review.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2019 Apr/Jun;33(2):170-188

College of Medicine and Public Health (Ms Setiawan); and College of Nursing and Health Science (Drs Mannix and Sweet), Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.

A neonatal early discharge (NED) program is a supported process where preterm infants leave hospital before they have established full sucking feeds and are gavage fed by their parents while they transition to breast- and/or bottle-feeds. While there is some evidence in the literature describing the outcomes of this process for preterm infants, there is even more limited evidence of the effects and outcomes of these NED programs on parents. The objective of this study was to summarize and critically appraise the literature regarding the effects of NED on parents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000395DOI Listing

The Ethics of Perinatal Care for Black Women: Dismantling the Structural Racism in "Mother Blame" Narratives.

J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 2019 Apr/Jun;33(2):108-115

Public Health & Health Equity Program, Mills College, Oakland, California (Dr Scott); School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Dr Britton); and Family Health Care Nursing Department, University of California, San Francisco (Dr McLemore).

Perinatal and neonatal nurses have a critical role to play in effectively addressing the disproportionate prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes experienced by black childbearing families. Upstream inequities in maternal health must be better understood and addressed to achieve this goal. The importance of maternal health before, during, and after pregnancy is illustrated with the growing and inequitable prevalence of 2 common illnesses, pregestational diabetes and chronic hypertension, and 2 common conditions during and after pregnancy, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JPN.0000000000000394DOI Listing

Postapplication Advisement for U.S. Medical School Reapplicants: One School's Program.

Acad Med 2019 May;94(5):688-691

M.P. Ballejos is assistant professor and vice chair of diversity, equity and inclusion, Department of Family and Community Medicine, and assistant dean for admissions, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6288-1849. C.L. Schmitt is senior statistician, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico. K.L. McKinney is research specialist, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico. R. Sapien is distinguished professor, Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, and associate dean for admissions, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Problem: Reapplicants make up over one-quarter of U.S. medical school applicants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002538DOI Listing
May 2019
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Remembering the Heart of a Teacher.

Authors:
Jessica T Servey

Acad Med 2019 May;94(5):625

J.T. Servey is associate dean for faculty development and associate professor of family medicine and medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; e-mail: Twitter:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002639DOI Listing

In Reply to Carvajal et al.

Acad Med 2019 May;94(5):612

Visiting project scientist, Center for Health Services and Society, Department of Psychiatry, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, and physician specialist, Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health, Los Angeles, California; Adjunct associate professor, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, health sciences associate professor of family medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, and director, Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention and Office of Senior Health, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, California. Director, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002656DOI Listing

Close the Gap: A Call for Pay Parity in Academic Medicine.

Acad Med 2019 May;94(5):611-612

Assistant professor and director, Reproductive Health Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Assistant professor, associate residency program director, and director of maternal child health, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Interim associate vice president of health equity and inclusion and professor of family and preventive medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002617DOI Listing

The Power of Light: Nobel Prize in Physics 2018.

IEEE Pulse 2019 Mar-Apr;10(2):14-19

The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to three scientists in the field of laser science: Dr. Arthur Ashkin for his invention of the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems, and Dr. Gérard Mourou and Dr. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPULS.2019.2899703DOI Listing

ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Filoviridae.

J Gen Virol 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

20​National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Members of the family Filoviridae produce variously shaped, often filamentous, enveloped virions containing linear non-segmented, negative-sense RNA genomes of 15-19 kb. Several filoviruses (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001252DOI Listing

Effects of Hormone Therapy on List and Story Recall in Post-Menopausal Women.

Exp Aging Res 2019 Apr 25:1-24. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

b Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine , University of California , Davis , USA.

Background/Study Context: A number of longitudinal randomized controlled trials (LRCT) have used free verbal recall tests to study the effects of post-menopausal estrogen hormone therapy (HT) on episodic memory, but none have explicitly explored contrasts between list and story recall, in spite of cognitive differences between the tasks. For example, list recall provides little support for the use of gist, while story recall emphasizes it, and there is evidence that estrogen produces gist bias. Moreover, we present a literature tabulation that also suggests a task-specific HT effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2019.1609169DOI Listing

miR393s regulate salt stress response pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana through scaffold protein RACK1A mediated ABA signaling pathways.

Plant Signal Behav 2019 Apr 25:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

a Department of Biology , Howard University , Washington , DC , USA.

Scaffold protein Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is a negative regulator of plant stress hormone - abscisic acid (ABA) mediated pathways. RACK1 has been reported to regulate global miRNA biogenesis pathway in C. elegans, humans, and in Arabidopsis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2019.1600394DOI Listing

Impact of a family interventions module on students' knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2019 Apr 25:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

a School of Nursing and Midwifery , University of Dublin , Trinity College , Dublin , Ireland.

Current evidence strongly supports the implementation of family interventions as a recognised approach to working with families. The aim of this study was to evaluate postgraduate students' learning experiences and skills development whilst undertaking a Master of Science module in family interventions. Questionnaires were used to elicit students' learning and experiences in relation to their work with families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2019.1572252DOI Listing

Stress Experiences and Mental Health of Pregnant Women: The Mediating Role of Social Support.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2019 Apr 25:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

a aUniversity of Missouri Sinclair School of Nursing, S235 School of Nursing, University of Missouri , Columbia , Missouri , USA.

Stress in pregnancy is an exceedingly common issue that impacts the mother's mental health and the health of her baby. Yet, women with a supportive network of friends and family may experience lower stress and improved mental health. Therefore, the aims of this secondary analysis were to (a) examine relationships between stress experiences (i. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01612840.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2019.1565873DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Large Family of Synthetic Two-Dimensional Metal Hydrides.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Synthetic two-dimensional (2D) materials without layered bulk allotropes are approaching a new frontier of materials flatland, one with properties richer than those of graphene-like materials. This is the case even as only a few chemical elements and blends have shown synthetic 2D forms. While hydrogen and metals are earth-abundant and form numerous compounds, rarely are 2D materials with only robust metal-hydrogen bonds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b02279DOI Listing

Histone H2A variants enhance the initiation of base excision repair in nucleosomes.

ACS Chem Biol 2019 Apr 25. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Substituting histone variants for their canonical counterparts can profoundly alter chromatin structure, thereby impacting multiple biological processes. Here, we investigate the influence of histone variants from the H2A family on excision of uracil (U) by the base excision repair (BER) enzymes uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) and single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). Using a DNA population with globally distributed U:G bp, enhanced excision is observed in H2A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00229DOI Listing

[Acute respiratory and urinary tract infections in medical practice : a selection of complementary medicines].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(648):875-881

Département de médecine de famille, Centre universitaire de médecine générale et santé publique (Unisanté), 1011 Lausanne.

Respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis or sinusitis and urinary tract infections are common in the family doctor's office. Bronchitis and sinusitis are mostly of viral origin and antibiotics rarely hold a place in their management, while urinary tract infections most often require the prescription of antibiotics. In both situations, patients often seek complementary medicines to relieve symptoms or prevent recurrences. Read More

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