1,615 results match your criteria Facial Nerve Embryology


Effects of chitosan and platelet-rich plasma on facial nerve regeneration in an animal model.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: There is still no widely-accepted local agent proven to be effective in nerve regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan gel and platelet-rich plasma MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrophysiological measurements were performed before and immediately after injury. The injured nerves were covered with spongostan impregnated with the following agents: Group 1 (Control Group): Saline at a dose of 50 µl; Group 2: Chitosan (CHT) at a dose of 50 µl; Group 3: PRP at a dose of 50 ml; and Group 4: a solution of CHT with PRP (1:1). Read More

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Is Decorin a Promising New Agent for Facial Nerve Regeneration? An Experimental Study.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 5;26(3):195-205. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Histology and Embryology, İnönü University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of decorin (DC) on facial nerve (FN) regeneration.

Methods: A total of 32 female albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control (C) group: no bilateral FN neurorrhaphy (B-FNN), no DC application, sham-operated group: B-FNN without DC application, DC group: DC application without B-FNN, and B-FNN + DC group: B-FNN and DC application. Nerve conduction studies were performed before and after skin incisions at 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th weeks in all groups. Read More

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Effects of titanium prepared platelet rich fibrin on facial nerve regeneration: an experimental study.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Dec 26. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, Çanakkale, Turkey.

Introduction: Facial nerve damage is a condition that causes functional, psychological, and cosmetic problems; and treatment methods need to be improved.

Objective: We investigated the efficacy of titanium-prepared platelet-rich fibrin as a healing enhancer at the region of transection of the facial nerve.

Methods: Twenty-seven New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study, divided into three experimental groups. Read More

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December 2020

Prosaposin and its receptors GRP37 and GPR37L1 show increased immunoreactivity in the facial nucleus following facial nerve transection.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0241315. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime, Japan.

Neurotrophic factor prosaposin (PS) is a precursor for saposins A, B, C, and D, which are activators for specific sphingolipid hydrolases in lysosomes. Both saposins and PS are widely contained in various tissues. The brain, skeletal muscle, and heart cells predominantly contain unprocessed PS rather than saposins. Read More

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January 2021

The Anatomy of the Temporal and Zygomatic Branches of the Facial Nerve: Application to Crow's Feet Wrinkles.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

*Department of Human Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Science, Kumming Medical University †Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Kunming Medical University ‡Department of the Head and Neck Surgery, the Third Affiliate Hospital, Kunming Medical University §School of Rehabilitation, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, PR China.

Background: Advances in the understanding of wrinkling crow's feet while improving the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A injection has pointed to drug dispersion in the lateral orbital wrinkles as a cause of adverse events of botulinum toxin type A injection. The purpose of this study is to identify the distribution of temporal and zygomatic branches of facial nerve in the orbicularis oculi muscles.

Methods: Anatomical dissection of cadavers was performed in 31 cadavers, 13 females and 18 males, with ages ranging from 20 to 60 years, which of all had been embalmed by 10% formalin solution. Read More

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October 2020

Endoscope-Assisted Surgery of the Elongated Styloid Process Using the Retroauricular Approach: An Anatomic Study for Clinical Application.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 28;79(3):622-628. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; and Professor, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Surgical shortening of the styloid process (SP) mainly involves intraoral and transcervical approaches. A retroauricular incision was performed by our surgical team in endoscope-assisted shortening of the SP. This study aimed to clarify the important anatomic landmarks and adjacent structures around the SP through a retroauricular approach. Read More

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Clinical Analysis of Type II First Branchial Cleft Anomalies in Children.

Laryngoscope 2021 04 26;131(4):916-920. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Objectives/hypothesis: We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and introduce a new subclassification system for type II first branchial cleft anomalies (FBCAs) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

Study Design: Retrospective cases study.

Methods: We conducted an analysis of data from patients with type II FBCAs. Read More

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Facial Nerve Repair by Muscle-Vein Conduit in Rats: Functional Recovery and Muscle Reinnervation.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 03 4;27(5-6):351-361. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Anatomy I, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck traumata. Repair of interrupted nerves is generally reinforced by fine microsurgical techniques; nevertheless, regaining all functions is the exception rather than the rule. The so-called "postparalytic syndrome," which includes synkinesia and altered blink reflexes, follows nerve injury. Read More

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High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of congenital aural atresia - how useful is this?

J Laryngol Otol 2020 Jul 20;134(7):610-622. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak, Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research ('GIPMER'), and Guru Nanak Eye Centre ('GNEC') Hospitals, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Objective: To depict various temporal bone abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography in congenital aural atresia patients, and correlate these findings with auditory function test results and microtia subgroup.

Methods: Forty patients (56 ears) with congenital malformation of the auricle and/or external auditory canal were evaluated. Auricles were graded according to Marx's classification, divided into subgroups of minor (grades I and II) and major (III and IV) microtia. Read More

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Effect of Bumetanide on Facial Nerve Regeneration in Rat Model.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 01 30;164(1):117-123. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: We investigated the effects of bumetanide alone and in combination with dexamethasone on facial nerve regeneration in rats with facial paralysis.

Study Design: A prospective controlled animal study.

Setting: An animal laboratory. Read More

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January 2021

Stapedectomy in patients with dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve.

Am J Otolaryngol 2020 Sep - Oct;41(5):102580. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study is to apply the modified stapedectomy technique in cases with dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve canal, and to compare the postoperative results with those with normal facial nerve canal anatomy.

Material And Method: 28 patients who underwent primary stapedectomy were included. Of the patients, 17 were in the normal anatomical facial nerve group, and 11 were in the dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve group. Read More

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November 2020

Superficial and Deep Facial Anatomy and Its Implications for Rhytidectomy.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):243-251. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Semmelweis University, Jozsef krt. 30-32., 2.em. 5/A, Budapest 1085, Hungary; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.

The relationship of the skin, the superficial and deep fat compartments, and the ligaments that connect these structures is key to performing any rhytidectomy. In order to successfully mobilize, elevate, and reposition the facial soft tissues, a detailed understanding of facial anatomy is required. This article details the anatomy of the midface and neck that is essential to understanding and performing the face-lift operation. Read More

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Neutralizing BDNF and FGF2 injection into denervated skeletal muscle improve recovery after nerve repair.

Muscle Nerve 2020 09 18;62(3):404-412. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Anatomy I, University of Cologne, Germany.

Background: After facial nerve injury and surgical repair in rats, recovery of vibrissal whisking is associated with a high proportion of mono-innervated neuro-muscular junctions (NMJs). Our earlier work with Sprague Dawley (SD)/Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, which are blind and spontaneously restore NMJ-monoinnervation and whisking, showed correlations between functional recovery and increase of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in denervated vibrissal muscles.

Methods: We used normally sighted rats (Wistar), in which NMJ-polyinnervation is highly correlated with poor whisking recovery, and injected the vibrissal muscle levator labii superioris (LLS) with combinations of BDNF, anti-BDNF, and FGF2 at different postoperative periods after facial nerve injury. Read More

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September 2020

Unique skeletal manifestations in patients with Primrose syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Aug 27;63(8):103967. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute of Medical Genetics and Genomics, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Primrose syndrome (OMIM 259050) is a rare disorder characterised by macrocephaly with developmental delay, a recognisable facial phenotype, altered glucose metabolism, and other features such as sensorineural hearing loss, short stature, and calcification of the ear cartilage. It is caused by heterozygous variants in ZBTB20, a member of the POK family of transcription repressors. Recently, this gene was shown to have a role in skeletal development through its action on chondrocyte differentiation by repression of SOX9. Read More

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Unusual presentation of a first Branchial cleft cyst associated with an abnormal bony canal -a case report.

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 May 29;49(1):32. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades - Paris V University, Paris, France.

Background: First branchial cleft anomalies are rare, accounting for only 10% of all branchial cleft anomalies. We report an even more rare and unique case of a branchial cleft cyst with features of both first and second arch derivatives.

Case Presentation: A 6-year-old boy presented to us with a left conductive hearing loss associated with pre-tympanic keratin debris and an ipsilateral painful cervical mass. Read More

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Mid-trimester fetal facial dysmorphology associated with 2p25.3 microdeletion.

J Clin Ultrasound 2020 Oct 24;48(8):486-488. Epub 2020 May 24.

The Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

We describe unusual mid-trimester sonography of subtle fetal facial dysmorphic features including; flattened nasofrontal angle with an almost vertically positioned nasal bone, acute nasolabial angle, and convexity of the maxillary areas in a fetus with otherwise normal anatomy. Microarray identified a 64.5 KB interstitial deletion of 2q25. Read More

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October 2020

Cochlear implant surgery through oval window: A novel approach in a child with facial nerve aberration.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Aug 13;135:110110. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100730, PR China.

Cochlear implantation is safe for simple case presentations. However, facial nerve (FN) aberrations may impede insertion of the electrode through a round window and increase the risk of iatrogenic FN injury. We developed a novel method of cochlear implantation, a present the case of a child with FN aberrations. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Surveillance for Vestibular Schwannoma After Microsurgical Resection Using a Retrosigmoid Transmeatal Approach.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 1;139:e585-e591. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Microneurosurgery Laboratory, Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; INCLIVA Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign, usually slow-growing tumor. The drawback of radical microsurgical VS resection is the increased likelihood of neurologic injury, forcing surgeons to leave a tumor remnant in some cases. We evaluated the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement patterns to determine the risk of tumor regrowth. Read More

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Gross Anatomical, Radiographic and Doppler Sonographic Approach to the Infra-auricular Parotid Region in Donkey (Equus asinus).

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 05 29;88:102968. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The present study was performed on 12 heads of donkey's cadavers of both sexes for different anatomic techniques and on 20 live adult donkeys for ultrasonographic approaches of local anesthetic techniques. The aim was to achieve safe desensitization of the ear canal and tympanic membrane in addition to measuring different parameters of the structures occupying the infra-auricular parotid region. The internal auricular nerve was divided into two fine branches and constituting, at its origin, a characteristic V-shape with the caudal auricular nerve. Read More

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Aberrant Abducent Nerve During Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgiass.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 3;138:454-456. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery-University College London Hospitals, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a commonly performed procedure to treat trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle is crucial to avoid injury to cranial nerves.

Case Description: A 76-year-old lady with right V1 (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve) and V2 (maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) trigeminal neuralgia, refractory to medical treatment, underwent elective MVD. Read More

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Surgical resection of macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the head and neck: Short and long-term outcomes.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jul 20;134:110013. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology and Center for the Investigation of Congenital Aberrancies of Vascular Development, Arkansas Children's Hospital, 1 Children's Way, Little Rock, AR, USA; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W Markham St #543, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background: Controversy exists on management of lymphatic malformations, with schools of thought advocating for observation, surgery or sclerotherapy. This study sought to examine outcomes after surgical resection of pediatric cervicofacial macrocystic lymphatic malformations (MLM).

Methods: Case series with planned data collection on pediatric patients with cervicofacial MLM who underwent surgical resection at a tertiary referral center for vascular anomalies from January 1995 to June 2016. Read More

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Vestibular Impairment in Hemifacial Spasm Syndrome: A Case Report.

J Int Adv Otol 2020 Apr;16(1):138-140

Department of Otolaryngology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Navarra, Spain.

A 52-year-old man presented with left hemifacial spasm (HFS). A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed compression of the left facial nerve at the cerebellopontine angle by a dolichoectatic basilar artery. The neurotological evaluation showed an otolithic deficit, with canalicular preservation and normal hearing. Read More

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A Rare Case of Bifurcated Chorda Tympani.

J Int Adv Otol 2020 Apr;16(1):141-144

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Preservation of the chorda tympani is important in middle ear surgery to prevent dysgeusia postoperatively. However, determining the exact course of the chorda tympani before surgery is not always possible, especially in cases with accompanying malformations. In this report, we presented an extremely rare case of bifurcation of the chorda tympani in a 15-year-old male patient. Read More

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Ameloblastomas Exhibit Stem Cell Potential, Possess Neurotrophic Properties, and Establish Connections with Trigeminal Neurons.

Cells 2020 03 6;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Orofacial development and regeneration, Institute of Oral Biology, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

Ameloblastomas are locally invasive and aggressive odontogenic tumors treated via surgical resection, which results in facial deformity and significant morbidity. Few studies have addressed the cellular and molecular events of ameloblastoma onset and progression, thus hampering the development of non-invasive therapeutic approaches. Tumorigenesis is driven by a plethora of factors, among which innervation has been long neglected. Read More

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A Novel Classification: Anomalous Routes of the Facial Nerve in Relation to Inner Ear Malformations.

Laryngoscope 2020 11 5;130(11):E696-E703. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Otolaryngology, Ondokuz Mayıs University School of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey.

Objectives/hypothesis: The objective of this study was to classify anomalous facial nerve (FN) routes and to determine their association with inner ear malformations (IEMs).

Study Design: Retrospective cross sectional study.

Methods: The computed tomography images of 519 patients (796 ears) with IEMs were retrospectively evaluated, and the abnormal routes of the FN were classified as: Meatal segment: type 1, normal internal auditory canal (IAC); type 2, narrow IAC; type 3, facial canal (FC) only; type 4: separate FC/duplicated IAC. Read More

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November 2020

Location of the stapedius muscle with reference to the facial nerve in patients with unilateral congenital aural atresia: implication for active middle ear implants surgery.

Acta Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 18;140(6):445-449. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Sen-En Rifu Otologic Surgery Center, Miyagi, Japan.

Detailed investigations of the stapedial muscle (SM) in congenital aural atresia (CAA) patients have yet to be adequately conducted. To assess image variations in the mastoid segment of the facial nerve (FN) and SM in CAA. A total of nine patients comprising of 9 ears with unilateral CAA were studied. Read More

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The efficiency of ozone therapy and low-level laser therapy in rat facial nerve injury.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2020 Mar 3;48(3):308-314. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Bezmialem Vakif University Dentistry Faculty, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Purpose: Comparison of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone therapy (OT) methods for the treatment of facial nerve injury (FNI) in rats, evaluated by histomorphometric measurement analysis.

Materials And Methods: Thirty rats were randomly divided into control (C), LLLT, and OT groups. The left facial nerves (FNs) of all rats (n = 30) were used in this study. Read More

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Cochlear-facial dehiscence in a pediatric patient.

Pediatr Radiol 2020 05 8;50(5):750-752. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

The George Washington School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Temporal bone dehiscence is an infrequent but clinically important phenomenon. Cochlear-facial dehiscence, the rarest type, has been described only in adults. We report cochlear-facial dehiscence in a child. Read More

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The Developmental Origin of the Auricula Revisited.

Laryngoscope 2020 10 11;130(10):2467-2474. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

and Department of Medical Biology, Section Clinical Anatomy and Embryology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives/hypothesis: Congenital auricular anomalies are common. Additionally, the auricle plays an important role in the staging of human embryos. However, little is known about the embryological development of the auricle. Read More

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October 2020

Mosaic PTEN alteration in the neural crest during embryogenesis results in multiple nervous system hamartomas.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 12 3;7(1):191. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Genetics, Rouen University Hospital and Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245, Normandy Centre for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, F76000, Rouen, France.

The contribution of mosaic alterations to tumors of the nervous system and to non-malignant neurological diseases has been unmasked thanks to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. We report here the case of a young patient without any remarkable familial medical history who was first referred at 7 years of age, for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of Asperger type, not associated with macrocephaly. The patient subsequently presented at 10 years of age with multiple nodular lesions located within the trigeminal, facial and acoustic nerve ganglia and at the L3 level. Read More

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December 2019