1,653 results match your criteria Facial Nerve Embryology


Sonographic reference values of cranial nerve size: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Muscle Nerve 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction/aims: Ultrasonography of the cranial nerves has recently gained attention in assessing inflammatory, compressive or degenerative neuropathies. However, sonographic reference values of cranial nerves have received less attention than those of peripheral nerves. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to provide current evidence of sonographic reference values for cranial nerve size. Read More

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The Results of Cochlear Implantation in the Inner Ear Malformations.

J Int Adv Otol 2022 May;18(3):203-209

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Cochlear implants are arguably the most successful neural prosthesis today. Cochlear implantation has several difficulties in patients with internal ear anomalies. This study was performed to analyze intraoperative, postoperative findings, and auditory performance of 55 patients who had inner ear malformations and were treated with cochlear implants at Otorhinolaryngology Department of Çukurova University Hospital. Read More

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Effect of Ultrasound Therapy on Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors, CD31 and Functional Recovery After Facial Nerve Injury.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2022 Aug 6;48(8):1453-1467. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

Functional recovery is provided by some neurotrophic factors released from the near vicinity of the injury site. Ultrasound treatment is known to increase neurotrophic factor expression. This study was aimed at determining the effect of ultrasound treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors and new vessel formation after facial nerve injury. Read More

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[The role of triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the surgery for first branchial cleft anomalies].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;36(4):297-299

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Xijing Hospital,Air Force Military Medical University,Xi'an,710032,China.

To explore the role of triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the operation of the first branchial cleft deformity. The clinical features and intraoperative characteristics of 25 cases with first branchial cleft anomalies who underwent surgery from September 2011 to September 2019 were analyzed, and the role of the triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the surgery was explored. Following dissecting and lesions removel of the triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid, all the lesions were resected completely. Read More

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Development of the Geniculate Ganglion in Human Fetuses.

Turk Neurosurg 2022 ;32(3):406-411

Mersin City Hospital, Department of Histology and Embryology, Mersin, Turkey.

Aim: To present the quantitative development of the geniculate ganglion (GG) in foetal cadavers.

Material And Methods: This study focused on 60 temporal bones of 30 (15 female and 15 male) foetuses aged 18?30 weeks of gestation (mean age, 22.83 ± 3. Read More

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Microanatomy of the Frontal Branch of the Facial Nerve: The Role of Nerve Caliber and Axonal Capacity.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Dec;148(6):1357-1365

From the Department of Plastic, Hand, and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg; Division of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Department of Plastic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University; Department of Anatomy, University Medical Center Utrecht; and Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg.

Background: A commonly seen issue in facial palsy patients is brow ptosis caused by paralysis of the frontalis muscle powered by the frontal branch of the facial nerve. Predominantly, static methods are used for correction. Functional restoration concepts include the transfer of the deep temporal branch of the trigeminal nerve and cross-facial nerve grafts. Read More

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December 2021

Analysis of the Clinical Features and Surgical Outcomes of First Branchial Cleft Anomalies.

Laryngoscope 2022 05 7;132(5):1008-1014. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: To analyze the clinical features and otologic manifestations of first branchial cleft anomalies (FBCAs) and the disparity between Work's classification, and to explore the relationships between postoperative facial paralysis and features of FBCAs.

Study Design: Retrospective clinical study.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 109 patients with FBCAs was conducted, including clinical characteristics and otologic features. Read More

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Clinical Spectrum and Neuroimagistic Features in Hospitalized Patients with Neurological Disorders and Concomitant Coronavirus-19 Infection.

Brain Sci 2021 Aug 27;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Neurology, "Victor Babeș" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300041 Timișoara, Romania.

In the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, several research studies focused on understanding the damage to the respiratory and circulatory systems. However, the evidence of neurological manifestations as part of the clinical spectrum of the disease has increased. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the potential association of neurological disorders with concomitant COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Bilateral facial swelling and Facial nerve palsy.

Emerg Med J 2021 Oct;38(10):779-802

ENT Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK.

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October 2021

Cochlear Implantation in Inner Ear Malformations: Considerations Related to Surgical Complications and Communication Skills.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2022 9;84(3):211-218. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: There are particular challenges in the implantation of malformed cochleae, such as in cases of facial nerve anomalies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, erroneous electrode insertion, or facial stimulation, and the outcomes may differ depending on the severity of the malformation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of inner ear malformations (IEMs) on surgical complications and outcomes of cochlear implantation.

Methods: In order to assess the impact of IEMs on cochlear implant (CI) outcomes, 2 groups of patients with similar epidemiological parameters were selected from among 863 patients. Read More

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First branchial arch cyst in an elderly patient: diagnostic dilemma and subsequent management.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2022 Feb 27;104(2):e44-e46. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, UK.

The branchial system plays a significant role in the embryological development of the many internal and external human body structures. Failure of normal development of these systems may result in branchial system anomalies. Anomalies of the first branchial cleft are rare and account for 1-8% of all branchial anomalies. Read More

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February 2022

A bibliometric analysis of research on the treatment of facial nerve palsy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(33):e26984

Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: There are various treatments for facial nerve palsy, and research into this topic is ongoing. In the present study, we carried out bibliometric and visualized analyses to identify the trends of research into facial nerve palsy treatment.

Methods: To identify articles, the SCOPUS database was searched for articles published from its inception to December 27, 2020. Read More

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Congenital Aural Atresia: What the Radiologist Needs to Know?

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2022 Jul-Aug;51(4):599-616. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak, G.I.P.M.E.R. and G.N.E.C. Hospitals, New Delhi, DL, India.

Congenital aural atresia (CAA) is characterized by hypoplasia or aplasia of external auditory canal associated with auricular deformity. It also embodies a spectrum of temporal bone abnormalities including anomalies of middle ear, ossicles, facial nerve, oval window, round window, mastoid pneumatization, temporomandibular joint and occasionally inner ear and vascular anomalies. The management in such patients is variable and consists of rehabilitative hearing aids or surgical correction depending on various patient factors like associated temporal bone abnormalities, degree of hearing impairment and laterality. Read More

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Internal auditory canal hypoplasia associated with bilateral vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia and deviant facial nerve course: A case report and MRI findings.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 May 31;15(5):17-23. Epub 2021 May 31.

Radiology Department, Fortaleza General Hospital (HGF), Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

The evaluation of internal auditory canals and cochlea has gained significant importance due to the increasing number of cochlear implantations worldwide. This region's anatomical study is essential for cochlear implant surgery using magnetic resonance imaging as the method of choice. We report a case of a 6-year-old male patient diagnosed with a rare bilateral malformation of the internal auditory canals associated with an aberrant course of the facial nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia. Read More

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Absent pyramidal eminence and stapedial tendon associated with congenital stapes footplate fixation: Intraoperative and radiographic findings.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Nov-Dec;42(6):103144. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: Report an association between congenital stapes footplate fixation (CSFF) and radiological absence of the pyramidal eminence and stapedial tendon.

Patients: Children and adults with intraoperatively confirmed CSFF and an absent stapedial tendon.

Interventions: Computed tomography (CT); exploratory tympanotomy with stapedotomy. Read More

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January 2022

The sternohyoid muscle flap for new dynamic facial reanimation technique: Anatomical study and clinical results.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Nov 20;74(11):3040-3047. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Otorhinolaryngology Service, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain.

Background: Long-term facial nerve palsy has a highly negative impact on patients' quality of life. In 2016, Alam reported one case of facial reanimation with the sternohyoid muscle after publishing a preclinical study in 2013. Despite the potentially ideal characteristics of this muscle for reanimation of facial palsy, this technique is still not widely used. Read More

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November 2021

Effects of chitosan and platelet-rich plasma on facial nerve regeneration in an animal model.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Feb 6;279(2):987-994. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: There is still no widely-accepted local agent proven to be effective in nerve regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan gel and platelet-rich plasma MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electrophysiological measurements were performed before and immediately after injury. The injured nerves were covered with spongostan impregnated with the following agents: Group 1 (Control Group): Saline at a dose of 50 µl; Group 2: Chitosan (CHT) at a dose of 50 µl; Group 3: PRP at a dose of 50 ml; and Group 4: a solution of CHT with PRP (1:1). Read More

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February 2022

Otopathologic Abnormalities in CHARGE Syndrome.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 02 20;166(2):363-372. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Objective: To perform an otopathologic analysis of temporal bones (TBs) with CHARGE syndrome.

Study Design: Otopathologic study of human TB specimens.

Setting: Otopathology laboratories. Read More

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February 2022

Optic Nerve Aplasia.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 03 14;42(1):e140-e146. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (BDS), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pediatric Ophthalmology and Ocular Genetics (BDS, SHY), Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pediatric Ophthalmology (BEG), Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan; The Rotterdam Eye Hospital (JTHNF), Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Cullen Eye Institute (LSB), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology (MB), LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India; Ophthalmology Unit (SG), Ricardo Gutiérrez Children Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cataract and Laser Institute of Southern Oregon PC (TR), Medford, Oregon; Flaum Eye Institute and Golisano Children's Hospital (AVL), University of Rochester, New York, New York.

Objective: Optic nerve aplasia (ONA) is a rare ocular anomaly. We report ophthalmologic, systemic, and genetic findings in ONA.

Methods: Patients were identified through an International Pediatric Ophthalmology listserv and from the practice of the senior author. Read More

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Auricular reconstruction using Medpor combined with different hearing rehabilitation approaches for microtia.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Jun 6;141(6):572-578. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Institute of Otology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Congenital microtia-atresia affects patients in two specific ways: severe conductive hearing loss and difficulty in integrating into social environments due to auricle malformation.

Aims/objectives: To investigate the safety and efficacy of single-stage auricular reconstruction and hearing rehabilitation in children with microtia and external auditory canal atresia.

Material And Methods: From January 2016 to December 2019, we included 32 patients with microtia and external canal atresia who received auricle reconstruction with high-density polyethylene (Medpor) framework and three different hearing rehabilitation approaches at the Ninth People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Read More

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A novel cochlear measurement that predicts inner-ear malformation.

Sci Rep 2021 04 1;11(1):7339. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Research and Development Department, MED-EL GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria.

The A-value used in cochlear duct length (CDL) estimation does not take malformed cochleae into consideration. The objective was to determine the A-value reported in the literature, to assess the accuracy of the A-value measurement and to evaluate a novel cochlear measurement in distinguishing malformed cochlea. High resolution Computer Tomography images in the oblique coronal plane/cochlear view of 74 human temporal bones were analyzed. Read More

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Is Decorin a Promising New Agent for Facial Nerve Regeneration? An Experimental Study.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 5;26(3):195-205. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Histology and Embryology, İnönü University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of decorin (DC) on facial nerve (FN) regeneration.

Methods: A total of 32 female albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control (C) group: no bilateral FN neurorrhaphy (B-FNN), no DC application, sham-operated group: B-FNN without DC application, DC group: DC application without B-FNN, and B-FNN + DC group: B-FNN and DC application. Nerve conduction studies were performed before and after skin incisions at 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th weeks in all groups. Read More

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Dual-Vector Gracilis Muscle Transfer for Smile Reanimation with Lower Lip Depression.

Laryngoscope 2021 08 4;131(8):1758-1760. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

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Salivary Gland Choristoma of the Middle Ear in a Child: A Case Report.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jun 16;100(3_suppl):356S-359S. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Paediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 48243University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine of Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Salivary gland choristoma is an extremely rare middle ear pathology. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Tympanotomy showed a nonspecific middle ear mass, absence of stapes, anomaly of incus, and displaced facial nerve. Read More

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Ocular Phenotype Associated with Variants.

Genes (Basel) 2021 02 5;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V E9L, UK.

Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A or contributes to central nervous system development in a dose-sensitive manner. Triallelic is implicated in the neuropathology of Down syndrome, whereas haploinsufficiency causes the rare -related intellectual disability syndrome (also known as mental retardation 7). It is characterised by intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and microcephaly with a typical facial gestalt. Read More

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February 2021

Acoustic Reflexes in Aural Atresia Patients: Evidence of an Intact Efferent System?

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Sep 24;130(9):1004-1009. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Objective: To record crossed acoustic reflex thresholds (xART's) postoperatively from patients after surgical repair of unilateral congenital aural atresia (CAA). To seek explanations for when xARTs can and cannot be recorded. We hope to understand the implications for this central auditory reflex despite early afferent deprivation. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of titanium prepared platelet rich fibrin on facial nerve regeneration: an experimental study.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Dec 26. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, Çanakkale, Turkey.

Introduction: Facial nerve damage is a condition that causes functional, psychological, and cosmetic problems; and treatment methods need to be improved.

Objective: We investigated the efficacy of titanium-prepared platelet-rich fibrin as a healing enhancer at the region of transection of the facial nerve.

Methods: Twenty-seven New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study, divided into three experimental groups. Read More

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December 2020

De novo ZIC2 frameshift variant associated with frontonasal dysplasia in a Limousin calf.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jan 2;22(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Institute for Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Bovine frontonasal dysplasias like arhinencephaly, synophthalmia, cyclopia and anophthalmia are sporadic congenital facial malformations. In this study, computed tomography, necropsy, histopathological examinations and whole genome sequencing on an Illumina NextSeq500 were performed to characterize a stillborn Limousin calf with frontonasal dysplasia. In order to identify private genetic and structural variants, we screened whole genome sequencing data of the affected calf and unaffected relatives including parents, a maternal and paternal halfsibling. Read More

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January 2021

Dpysl2 (CRMP2) is required for the migration of facial branchiomotor neurons in the developing zebrafish embryo.

Int J Dev Biol 2020 ;64(10-11-12):479-484

Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.

Dihydropyrimidinase-like family proteins (Dpysls) are relevant in several processes during nervous system development; among others, they are involved in axonal growth and cell migration. Dpysl2 (CRMP2) is the most studied member of this family; however, its role in vivo is still being investigated. Our previous studies in zebrafish showed the requirement of Dpysl2 for the proper positioning of caudal primary motor neurons and Rohon-Beard neurons in the spinal cord. Read More

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Prosaposin and its receptors GRP37 and GPR37L1 show increased immunoreactivity in the facial nucleus following facial nerve transection.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0241315. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime, Japan.

Neurotrophic factor prosaposin (PS) is a precursor for saposins A, B, C, and D, which are activators for specific sphingolipid hydrolases in lysosomes. Both saposins and PS are widely contained in various tissues. The brain, skeletal muscle, and heart cells predominantly contain unprocessed PS rather than saposins. Read More

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January 2021