13,771 results match your criteria Facial Nerve Anatomy


Thirty years of translational research in Mobility Medicine: Collection of abstracts of the 2020 Padua Muscle Days.

Authors:
Ugo Carraro

Eur J Transl Myol 2020 Apr 1;30(1):8826. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.

More than half a century of skeletal muscle research is continuing at Padua University (Italy) under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), the European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM) and recently also with the support of the A&CM-C Foundation for Translational Myology, Padova, Italy. The Volume 30(1), 2020 of the EJTM opens with the collection of abstracts for the conference "2020 Padua Muscle Days: Mobility Medicine 30 years of Translational Research". This is an international conference that will be held between March 18-21, 2020 in Euganei Hills and Padova in Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2019.8826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254447PMC

Neutralizing BDNF and FGF2 injection into denervated skeletal muscle improve recovery after nerve repair.

Muscle Nerve 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Anatomy I, University of Cologne, Germany.

Introduction: After facial nerve injury and surgical repair in rats, recovery of vibrissal whisking is associated with a high proportion of mono-innervated neuro-muscular junctions (NMJ). Our earlier work with Sprague Dawley (SD)/Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, which are blind and spontaneously restore NMJ-mono-innervation and whisking, showed correlations between functional recovery and increase of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in denervated vibrissal muscles.

Methods: We used normally-sighted rats (Wistar), in which NMJ-poly-innervation is highly correlated with poor whisking recovery, and injected the vibrissal muscle levator labii superioris (LLS) with combinations of BDNF, anti-BDNF and FGF2 at different postoperative periods after facial nerve injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26991DOI Listing

Hair-bearing human skin generated entirely from pluripotent stem cells.

Nature 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

The skin is a multilayered organ, equipped with appendages (that is, follicles and glands), that is critical for regulating body temperature and the retention of bodily fluids, guarding against external stresses and mediating the sensation of touch and pain. Reconstructing appendage-bearing skin in cultures and in bioengineered grafts is a biomedical challenge that has yet to be met. Here we report an organoid culture system that generates complex skin from human pluripotent stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2352-3DOI Listing

Applied anatomy and clinical significance of the maxillofacial and mandibular regions of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) and sambar deer (Rusa unicolor).

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University (I), Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India.

There is no previously reported information on the applied anatomy and clinical significance of the maxillofacial and mandibular regions of the barking deer and sambar deer. Therefore, the present study was designed to provide some important clinical landmarks related to tracking of the infraorbital, mental and mandibular nerves with its clinical implications in regional anaesthesia in both the species. In the present study, the distance between the most lateral bulging of the facial tuberosity to the infraorbital foramen and from the latter to the root of the alveolar tooth directly ventral to it was found to be 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2020.0061DOI Listing

Assessment of axonal sprouting and motor performance after hypoglossal-facial end-to-side nerve repair: experimental study in rats.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anatomy I, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFA) aims to reanimate denervated mimic muscles with hypoglossal axons when the transected facial nerve is not accessible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of HFA using a "Y" tube in two variants: (1) the proximal stump of the hypoglossal nerve was entubulated to the "Y" tube (classic "Y" tube HFA) and (2) the "Y" tube was sutured to an epineurial window of a slightly damaged hypoglossal nerve (end-to-side "Y" tube HFA). A total of 48 adult female rats were divided into four groups: intact controls (group 1), sham operated (group 2), classic "Y" tube HFA (group 3) and end-to-side "Y" tube HFA (group 4). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05835-6DOI Listing

Microsurgical anatomy of the stapedius muscle in adult cadavers.

Anat Sci Int 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.

This study aimed to establish an extended morphometric dataset regarding the stapedius muscle for anatomists and otologists. The tympanic cavity of ten cadavers (five females, five males) aged with 75.70 ± 13. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12565-020-00551-1DOI Listing

Facial nerve course in the temporal bone: Anatomical relationship between the tympanic and mastoid portions for safe ear surgery.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.

Objective: Avoidance of iatrogenic injury to the facial nerve is crucial during ear surgery. The anatomical relationship between the tympanic portion of the facial canal (FC) and the mastoid portion of the facial nerve was analyzed using multi-slice computed tomography (CT) scans to avoid iatrogenic facial nerve injury.

Methods: In total, 364 ears of 351 patients who underwent CT scans were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Augmented Visualization Surgical Microscope Assisted Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm.

Otol Neurotol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

University of Connecticut, School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut.

: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is curative treatment for primary Hemifacial Spasm, in cases where a vascular loop impinges on the facial nerve. Surgical techniques for MVD may be extended to MVD of the glossopharyngeal nerve and trigeminal nerve in cases of primary glossopharyngeal neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia. Stroke is a rare complication of these procedures that may occur during the separation of a vascular loop from nervous tissue, particularly when materials such as Teflon are used to separate the structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000002717DOI Listing

Evaluation of Residual Neuro-Muscular Integrity in the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle After Lower Eyelid Transcutaneous Blepharoplasty According to Reidy Adamson-s Flap.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Plastic and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Careggi University Hospital, Viale Giacomo Matteotti 42, 50132, Florence, Italy.

Background: The aging process affects skin, muscle and fat of the eyes in a different manner. Their individual rejuvenation would require specific surgical treatment according to their particular demands during lower eyelid blepharoplasty. This would require the separate management of the skin and the muscle by separating them into two different flaps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-01783-2DOI Listing

Facial palsy caused by an intrameatal metastatic disease - Reconstruction with an autologous sural nerve graft.

Injury 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Dysfunction of the facial nerve is frequently attributed to inflammation, followed by traumatic injury. Knowledge of the complex anatomical course of the facial nerve is critical to localize the site of pathology and for successful management. The multiplicity of etiologies and its complex anatomy often make facial paralysis a diagnostic challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.03.048DOI Listing

Temporal Bone Trauma: Typical CT and MRI Appearances and Important Points for Evaluation.

Radiographics 2020 May 22:190023. Epub 2020 May 22.

From the Department of Radiology, Machida Municipal Hospital, 2-15-41 Asahi-cho, Machida, Tokyo 194-0023, Japan (Y.Y.K., N.T., M.T.); Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan (A.F., H.I.); and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Ore (J.S.).

Temporal bone trauma is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Technologic advances have enabled timely acquisition of thin-section images and multiplanar reconstructions such that temporal bone anatomy can be evaluated in great detail, with excellent delineation of fractures. The temporal bone is composed of a myriad of tiny structures, including many fissures and canals, that must be distinguished from true fractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020190023DOI Listing

Resection of carcinoma of the external auditory canal in a patient with a high jugular bulb using temporal craniotomy.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, chuo, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

External auditory canal (EAC) carcinoma is a rare and unusual malignancy. The complex anatomy and relationship between the tumor and surrounding tissues in a limited space render it difficult to attain safe resection margins during surgery. A high jugular bulb (HJB) is one such anatomical variation that has important surgical implications that complicate the surgical procedure for EAC carcinoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2020.03.010DOI Listing

Prevalence of facial canal dehiscence and other bone defects by computed tomography.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Medicina, Human Anatomy Department, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Introduction: The facial nerve is the most vulnerable structure during otological surgeries. Facial canal dehiscence (FCD) is the main risk factor for iatrogenic injuries. Its prevalence in clinical studies ranges between 6 and 33. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06013-8DOI Listing
May 2020
1.608 Impact Factor

Description and relationships of the parotid gland levels proposed by the European Salivary Gland Society staging system: an anatomical study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

ENT Department, Servei ORL, Hospital de la Santa Creu i de Sant Pau, Carrer de Sant Quintí, 89, 08041, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: To perform an anatomical study to analyze the size, weight, and the relationships of the parotid levels proposed by the European Salivary Gland Society (ESGS).

Materials And Methods: Anatomical dissections of the parotid region in 19 human specimens were performed. All dissections were systematically carried out to study the dimensions and weight of each level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-020-02483-xDOI Listing

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Surveillance for Vestibular Schwannoma After Microsurgical Resection Using a Retrosigmoid Transmeatal Approach.

World Neurosurg 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Microneurosurgery Laboratory, Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; INCLIVA Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign, usually slow-growing tumor. The drawback of radical microsurgical VS resection is the increased likelihood of neurologic injury, forcing surgeons to leave a tumor remnant in some cases. We evaluated the prognostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement patterns to determine the risk of tumor regrowth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.073DOI Listing

Morphological validation of a novel bi-material 3D-printed model of temporal bone for middle ear surgery education.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Mar;8(6):304

ENT Department, University Hospital of Nancy, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: A new model of 3D-printed temporal bone with an innovative distinction between soft and hard tissues is described and presented in the present study. An original method is reported to quantify the model's ability to reproduce the complex anatomy of this region.

Methods: A CT-scan of temporal bone was segmented and prepared to obtain 3D files adapted to multi-material printing technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186742PMC

Treacher Collins syndrome: A novel TCOF1 mutation and monopodial stapes.

Clin Otolaryngol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS: OMIM 154500) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses.

Objective: To investigate four Treacher Collins syndrome patients of the Sgaw Karen family living in Thailand.

Method: Clinical examination, hearing tests, lateral cephalometric analyses, Computed tomography, whole exome sequencing and Sanger direct sequencing were performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13560DOI Listing
April 2020
2.268 Impact Factor

Brain phenotyping in Moebius syndrome and other congenital facial weakness disorders by diffusion MRI morphometry.

Brain Commun 2020 14;2(1):fcaa014. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Quantitative Medical Imaging Section, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

In this study, we used a novel imaging technique, DTI (diffusion tensor imaging)-driven tensor-based morphometry, to investigate brain anatomy in subjects diagnosed with Moebius syndrome ( = 21), other congenital facial weakness disorders ( = 9) and healthy controls ( = 15). First, we selected a subgroup of subjects who satisfied the minimum diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome with only mild additional neurological findings. Compared to controls, in this cohort, we found a small region of highly significant volumetric reduction in the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the medial longitudinal fasciculus, important structures for the initiation and coordination of conjugate horizontal gaze. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158234PMC
February 2020

Gross Anatomical, Radiographic and Doppler Sonographic Approach to the Infra-auricular Parotid Region in Donkey (Equus asinus).

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 May 29;88:102968. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The present study was performed on 12 heads of donkey's cadavers of both sexes for different anatomic techniques and on 20 live adult donkeys for ultrasonographic approaches of local anesthetic techniques. The aim was to achieve safe desensitization of the ear canal and tympanic membrane in addition to measuring different parameters of the structures occupying the infra-auricular parotid region. The internal auricular nerve was divided into two fine branches and constituting, at its origin, a characteristic V-shape with the caudal auricular nerve. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.102968DOI Listing
May 2020
0.871 Impact Factor

CD4+ T cell expression of the IL-10 receptor is necessary for facial motoneuron survival after axotomy.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Apr 17;17(1):121. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Medical Science Building 5035, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Background: After peripheral nerve transection, facial motoneuron (FMN) survival depends on an intact CD4+ T cell population and a central source of interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, it has not been determined previously whether CD4+ T cells participate in the central neuroprotective IL-10 cascade after facial nerve axotomy (FNA).

Methods: Immunohistochemical labeling of CD4+ T cells, pontine vasculature, and central microglia was used to determine whether CD4+ T cells cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the facial motor nucleus (FMNuc) after FNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01772-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164177PMC

Unilateral external jugular vein fenestration with variant anatomy of the retromandibular and facial vein.

Anat Cell Biol 2020 Mar 3;53(1):117-120. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, India.

External jugular vein (EJV), a significant superficial vein draining head and neck (H&N) region is been increasingly used for cannulation in diverse diagnostic purposes and intravenous therapies. The variant anatomy of formation and draining patterns of EJV and retromandibular veins were reported earlier. In the present case, EJV showed significant variation in one of the male cadaver, during routine H&N dissection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5115/acb.19.172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118259PMC

Aberrant Abducent Nerve During Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgiass.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 3;138:454-456. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery-University College London Hospitals, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a commonly performed procedure to treat trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle is crucial to avoid injury to cranial nerves.

Case Description: A 76-year-old lady with right V1 (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve) and V2 (maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve) trigeminal neuralgia, refractory to medical treatment, underwent elective MVD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.115DOI Listing

Anatomical Characteristics of Facial Nerve Trunk in Vietnamese Adult Cadavers.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Dec 15;7(24):4230-4238. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: In medical literature, there are few studies provided a precise and detailed description of the facial nerve rami and its branches.

Aim: Identify several practical anatomic landmarks related to the facial nerve main trunk and its rami.

Methods: A descriptive study, 30 cadavers in the anatomy department of UPNT from October 2012 to April 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084012PMC
December 2019

Current landscape in motoneuron regeneration and reconstruction for motor cranial nerve injuries.

Neural Regen Res 2020 Sep;15(9):1639-1649

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The intricate anatomy and physiology of cranial nerves have inspired clinicians and scientists to study their roles in the nervous system. Damage to motor cranial nerves may result from a variety of organic or iatrogenic insults and causes devastating functional impairment and disfigurement. Surgical innovations directed towards restoring function to injured motor cranial nerves and their associated organs have evolved to include nerve repair, grafting, substitution, and muscle transposition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.276325DOI Listing
September 2020

Imaging the facial nerve: A contemporary review of anatomy and pathology.

Eur J Radiol 2020 May 26;126:108920. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Radiology, Northwick Park & Central Middlesex Hospitals, London North West University Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Watford Road, London, HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: The facial nerve is the seventh paired cranial nerve which anatomically can be divided into six distinct segments. There are a wide range of pathologies that may occur along each segment of the nerve. The aim of this pictorial review is to untangle the complex appearances of the facial nerve, both in its normal anatomical course and when affected by pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108920DOI Listing

Facial Nerve Arterial Arcade Supply in Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Anatomy and Treatment Strategies.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Apr 19;41(4):687-692. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

From the Division of Neuroradiology (K.D.B., H.K., H.L., V.M.P., T.K.), Joint Department of Medical Imaging.

Background And Purpose: Endovascular treatment of petrous dural AVFs may carry a risk of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy if the facial nerve arterial arcade, an anastomotic arterial arch that supplies the geniculate ganglion, is not respected or recognized. Our purpose was to demonstrate that the use of a treatment strategy algorithm incorporating detailed angiographic anatomic assessment allows identification of the facial nerve arterial arcade and therefore safe endovascular treatment.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive petrous dural AVF cases managed at Toronto Western Hospital between 2006 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144641PMC

Does Mastoid Pneumatization Affect Facial Canal Dimensions and Distances of Facial Tympanic Segment-Scutum and Lateral Semicircular Canal-Scutum?

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2020 May/Jun;44(3):380-385

ENT Clinics, VM Mersin Medical Park Hospital, Mersin, Turkey.

Objectives: In the present study, we investigated whether mastoid pneumatization affects facial canal dimensions and distances of facial tympanic segment and scutum, and lateral semicircular (LSS) canal and scutum.

Methods: One hundred sixty-one temporal multidetector computed tomography scans were reviewed. Patients with unilateral sclerotic mastoid pneumatization (no aeration) (group 1, n = 81) and unilateral total mastoid pneumatization (100. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000000992DOI Listing

The FTLD Risk Factor TMEM106B Regulates the Transport of Lysosomes at the Axon Initial Segment of Motoneurons.

Cell Rep 2020 Mar;30(10):3506-3519.e6

Institute of Biochemistry, Kiel University, 24098 Kiel, Germany. Electronic address:

Genetic variations in TMEM106B, coding for a lysosomal membrane protein, affect frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in GRN- (coding for progranulin) and C9orf72-expansion carriers and might play a role in aging. To determine the physiological function of TMEM106B, we generated TMEM106B-deficient mice. These mice develop proximal axonal swellings caused by drastically enlarged LAMP1-positive vacuoles, increased retrograde axonal transport of lysosomes, and accumulation of lipofuscin and autophagosomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.060DOI Listing

Ulcerative C2 neurocutaneous dysesthesia (trigeminal trophic syndrome in an alternative distribution).

Dermatol Online J 2020 Jan 15;26(1). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

Trigeminal trophic syndrome is an uncommon condition characterized by paresthesia, itch, and self-inflicted wounds following the trigeminal dermatome(s). Similar processes adhering to cervical nerve distributions have been reported, calling into question the specificity of trigeminal trophic syndrome for the trigeminal network. Herein, we report patient with trigeminal trophic syndrome adhering to the C2 dermatome, a previously unreported distribution. Read More

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January 2020

Decompression of Cavernous Sinus for Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain From Perineural Spread of Tumor: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Head and neck malignancies with perineural spread are rare. Patients can present with neuropathic pain and cranial nerve palsies.1 Skull base approaches for surgical decompression are a consideration for patients to provide symptom relief. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa033DOI Listing

The temporalis muscle and its relationship to the accessory attachments and the main pedicle-a cadaveric study.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Jan 22. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Eldridge Road, Bankstown 2200, NSW, Australia; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Liverpool Hospital, 75 Elizabeth Street, Liverpool 2170, NSW, Australia.

Lengthening temporalis myoplasty, described by Daniel Labbe in 1997, is a facial reanimation procedure for the treatment of facial nerve palsy. It involves the mobilization of temporalis muscle antero-inferiorly, and the insertion of its tendon at the nasolabial fold-oral commissure region. Knowledge of the temporalis muscle is crucial in performing this procedure; however, previous anatomical studies are limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.01.020DOI Listing
January 2020

Platysma muscle additionally innervated by a variant anterior branch of the great auricular nerve: a case report.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

University Clinical Centre Ljubljana.

Damage to the great auricular nerve, with consequent clinical deficits, is a common surgical complication in facial aesthetic and in head and neck procedures such as parotidectomy, neck dissection, rhytidectomy and platysma flap operations. Hence, a thorough knowledge of nerve anatomy, particularly its potential variations, is critical in reducing the associated operative morbidity. Accordingly, we report an unusual variation of the anterior branch of the great auricular nerve noted in an 81-year-old female cadaver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FM.a2020.0015DOI Listing
February 2020

Characteristics of Neuropeptide-Containing Innervation, Tissue Remodeling, Growth, and Vascularity in Noses of Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Feb 18:1055665620904519. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Morphology, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia.

Objective: To detect the appearance and distribution of factors regulating remodeling, innervation, growth, and vascularity of the nasal tissue affected by cleft lip and palate (CLP).

Design: Morphological analysis of human tissue.

Setting: Cleft and craniofacial center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1055665620904519DOI Listing
February 2020

Surgical anatomy of the facial nerve: from middle cranial fossa approach to endoscopic approach. A pictorial review.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 May 12;277(5):1315-1326. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Otolaryngology Department, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: The pathology of the facial nerve is extremely varied and extensive knowledge of the surgical anatomy in different approaches is required to manage it. During the last 15 years, the development of endoscopic ear surgery has significantly changed anatomical concepts, introducing new surgical approaches. The aim of this review is to illustrate five different surgical approaches to the facial nerve: the endoscopic approach, the middle cranial fossa approach, two translabyrinthine approaches (one simple and one endoscopic-assisted) with decompression of the whole petrous portion of the facial nerve, and a transotic approach with temporal craniotomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05841-yDOI Listing

Warthin's tumor with necrotizing tuberculous granulomatous inflammation causing severe facial nerve adhesion in parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(7):e18763

School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan.

Rationale: Warthin's tumor is the second most common tumor arising from the parotid gland, but it rarely occurs concomitantly with tuberculous granulomatous inflammation with only 13 documented case reports in the English literature.

Patient Concerns: An 82-year-old woman had a left infraauricular mass for approximately 3 years that had significantly increased in size over the previous 1 month.

Diagnoses: A diagnosis of Warthin's tumor was made by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035061PMC
February 2020

Magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging using constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography of the extracranial course of the facial nerve.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2020 Feb 5. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Professor and chair of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery and M.D. supervisor, Trinity College Dublin.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) featuring constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography in tracking the extracranial course of the facial nerve to provide a reliable facial nerve map to facilitate well-tolerated and effective tumor resection.

Study Design: Magnetic resonance DWI was conducted on 2 parotid-healthy cadaveric patients with various protocols to identify the best representation of the extracranial facial nerve tract. This was subsequently correlated to dissection of the facial nerves to ascertain anatomic validation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2019.12.012DOI Listing
February 2020

Rapid and Precise Semi-Automatic Axon Quantification in Human Peripheral Nerves.

Sci Rep 2020 Feb 6;10(1):1935. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Plastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

We developed a time-efficient semi-automated axon quantification method using freeware in human cranial nerve sections stained with paraphenylenediamine (PPD). It was used to analyze a total of 1238 facial and masseteric nerve biopsies. The technique was validated by comparing manual and semi-automated quantification of 129 (10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58917-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005293PMC
February 2020

Adhesive dentistry sensory stimulus technique as a neuromechanism for the treatment of orofacial pain associated to temporomandibular disorders: Case study.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):6-12. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Surgery and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal.

Purpose: The authors intend, by presenting a case study, emphasize the neuromodulation process of orofacial pain induced by the stimulation of the sensory and motor stimulation of the trigeminal nerve, which can play an important role on pain modulation.

Materials And Methods: A 25 year-old woman presenting orofacial pain was referred to the stomatology service at the Centro Hospitalar do Porto. After collecting the patient's anamnesis, the thermographic camera FLIR i7 was used to record the thermal status of the orofacial structures, before the adhesive dentistry sensory stimulus protocol, after 45 minutes, and after one week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996012PMC
January 2020

Bi-allelic Variants in RALGAPA1 Cause Profound Neurodevelopmental Disability, Muscular Hypotonia, Infantile Spasms, and Feeding Abnormalities.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 02 30;106(2):246-255. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, University Children's Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Ral (Ras-like) GTPases play an important role in the control of cell migration and have been implicated in Ras-mediated tumorigenicity. Recently, variants in RALA were also described as a cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay, indicating the relevance of this pathway to neuropediatric diseases. Here, we report the identification of bi-allelic variants in RALGAPA1 (encoding Ral GTPase activating protein catalytic alpha subunit 1) in four unrelated individuals with profound neurodevelopmental disability, muscular hypotonia, feeding abnormalities, recurrent fever episodes, and infantile spasms . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010976PMC
February 2020
10.931 Impact Factor

Reply: Vascular and Nerve Relations of the Marginal Mandibular Nerve of the Face: Anatomy and Clinical Relevance.

Authors:
Gaoussou Touré

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 02;145(2):461e-462e

Maxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery, Intercity Hospital Villeneuve Saint Georges, Villeneuve, France, ANCRE-URDIA, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006458DOI Listing
February 2020

Vascular and Nerve Relations of the Marginal Mandibular Nerve of the Face: Anatomy and Clinical Relevance.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 02;145(2):460e-461e

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Memphis, Tenn.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006457DOI Listing
February 2020

Migraine Surgery at the Frontal Trigger Site: An Analysis of Intraoperative Anatomy.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Feb;145(2):523-530

Boston, Mass. From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Massachusetts General Hospital.

Background: The development of migraine headaches may involve the entrapment of peripheral craniofacial nerves at specific sites. Cadaveric studies in the general population have confirmed potential compression points of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves at the frontal trigger site. The authors' aim was to describe the intraoperative anatomy of the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves at the level of the supraorbital bony rim in patients undergoing frontal migraine surgery and to investigate associated pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006475DOI Listing
February 2020

Tolerability of facial electrostimulation in healthy adults and patients with facial synkinesis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Apr 24;277(4):1247-1253. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate optimal stimulation parameters with regard to discomfort and tolerability for transcutaneous electrostimulation of facial muscles in healthy participants and patients with postparetic facial synkinesis.

Methods: Two prospective studies were performed. First, single pulse monophasic stimulation with rectangular pulses was compared to triangular pulses in 48 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05818-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072059PMC

Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome-associated pathogenic MAP2K1 variants activate autophagy.

Gene 2020 Apr 20;733:144369. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Genetic and Metabolic Central Laboratory, Birth Defect Prevention Research Institute, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, China; Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

MAP2K1 encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK1). Mutations in MAP2K1 lead to continuous activation of MEK/ERK signaling pathway, giving rise to cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS). However, the molecular mechanisms of abnormal activation of MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the role of autophagy, if any, in manifesting CFCS in MAP2K mutants remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144369DOI Listing