14,070 results match your criteria Facial Nerve Anatomy


A quick method to expose the structures and relations of the middle ear and inner ear by cadaveric dissection.

Morphologie 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632002, India.

Introduction: The temporal bone contains structures related to hearing and balance, and is a valuable learning resource for medical students and trainee surgeons. The middle ear and inner ear are difficult to demonstrate by cadaveric dissection as the structures are closely contained in a small space in the dense temporal bone. Consequently, the teaching and learning of the ear are largely relegated to virtual and theoretical images, and models, which has resulted in a knowledge gap in medical students and prospective surgeons. Read More

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Submandibular gland degloving: A minimally invasive function-preserving surgical approach for benign diseases.

Head Neck 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Otolaryngology Division, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria, Sassari, Italy.

In the Video S1, a modified technique for submandibular gland resection in benign disease is shown. The main plane of dissection is below the fascia and immediately superficial to the fibrous capsule of the gland. The video shows the surgical steps and the structures that become evident along the procedure and illustrates some tips and tricks. Read More

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Identifying the Facial Nerve in Parotid Surgeries: How We Do It.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar;33(115):93-96

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan.

Introduction: The facial nerve is an important structure related to parotid gland surgery. Its identification at the time of surgery is critical. Multiple anatomical landmarks have been described to aid in its identification. Read More

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Defining a Safe Corridor of Cervical Branch Preservation in Lateral Platysmaplasty Surgery During Facial Rejuvenation Surgery.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Background: During rhytidectomies, the cervical branch of the facial nerve (CBFN) can easily be encountered, and potentially injured, when releasing the cervical retaining ligaments in the lateral neck. This nerve has been shown to occasionally co-innervate the depressor anguli oris muscle, and damage to it can thus potentially compromise outcomes with a post-operative palsy.

Objectives: To examine the lateral cervical anatomy specific to the CBFN, to ascertain if the position of the nerve can be predicted, enhancing safety of the platysmal flap separation and dissection from this lateral zone of adhesion. Read More

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Facial nerve regeneration using silicone conduits filled with ammonia-functionalized graphene oxide and frankincense-embedded hydrogel.

Inflamm Regen 2021 Apr 26;41(1):13. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Silicone tube (ST) conduits have been accepted as a therapeutic alternative to direct nerve suturing in the treatment of nerve injuries; however, the search for optimal adjuncts to maximize the outcomes is still ongoing. Frankincense (Fr) and graphene oxide (GO) have both been cited as neuroregenerative compounds in the literature. This study assesses the efficacy of these materials using a ST conduit in a rat facial nerve motor neuron axotomy model, distal to the stylomastoid foramen. Read More

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OpenEar Image Data Enables Case Variation in High Fidelity Virtual Reality Ear Surgery.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

MED-EL Elektromedizinische Geräte GesmbH, Innsbruck, Austria Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Alexandra Instituttet, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Virtual reality (VR) simulation is an established option for temporal bone surgical training. Most VR simulators are based on computed tomography imaging, whereas the Visible Ear Simulator (VES) is based on high-fidelity cryosections of a single temporal bone specimen. Recently published OpenEar datasets combine cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and micro-slicing to achieve similar model quality. Read More

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Hemifacial spasm caused by a tortuous recurrent perforating artery: A case report.

Authors:
L Li H Zhang

Neurochirurgie 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, NO. 37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: When the culprit vessel in hemifacial spasm (HFS) is hard to determine, this is a challenge in microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. In such a situation, small arteries such as perforators to the brainstem might be suspected. But small arteries are omnipresent near the facial nerve root exit/entry zone (fREZ). Read More

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Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Resection of a Pterygopalatine Fossa Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 8;150:171. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom; Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is an inverted, pyramid-shaped space immediately behind the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and lesions arising here include juvenile angiofibromas, schwannomas, and, in exceptionally rare cases, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Surgical access to the PPF is challenging and has been historically achieved via an open transmaxillary approach associated with facial scaring/deformity as well as potential injury to facial and infraorbital nerve branches. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman with facial numbness secondary to a presumed trigeminal schwannoma in the right PPF on magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Imaging features of myopericytoma arising from the parotid gland: Report of 2 cases and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25471

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jiefang Road 88#, Hangzhou 310009.

Rationale: Myopericytoma of the parotid gland is a rare condition of which preoperative definitive diagnosis is relatively challenging. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the radiologic features of myopericytoma of parotid gland.

Patient Concerns: A 62-year-old man presented with a history of a walnut-size mass in left parotid gland when yawned for half-month, and a 48-year-old woman complaint about a grape-size, painless mass behind the right ear for a month. Read More

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Selective Denervation of the Facial Dermato-Muscular Complex in the Rat: Experimental Model and Anatomical Basis.

Front Neuroanat 2021 22;15:650761. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The facial dermato-muscular system consists of highly specialized muscles tightly adhering to the overlaying skin and thus form a complex morphological conglomerate. This is the anatomical and functional basis for versatile facial expressions, which are essential for human social interaction. The neural innervation of the facial skin and muscles occurs via branches of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Read More

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Signal processing & audio processors.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Mar;141(sup1):106-134

MED-EL Elektromedizinische Geraete Gesellschaft m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria.

Signal processing algorithms are the hidden components in the audio processor that converts the received acoustic signal into electrical impulses while maintaining as much relevant information as possible. Signal processing algorithms should be smart enough to mimic the functionality of external, middle and the inner-ear to provide the cochlear implant (CI) user with a hearing experience as natural as possible. Modern sound processing strategies are based on the continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy proposed by B. Read More

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CT of Skull Base Fractures: Classification Systems, Complications, and Management.

Radiographics 2021 May-Jun;41(3):762-782. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (D.D., K.C., D.G., R.E.M.), R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (D.D., B.A., A.J.N.), Department of Neurosurgery (B.A.), Division of Plastic Surgery (A.J.N.), and Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (D.J.E.), University of Maryland Medical Center, 22 S Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201; Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass (O.S.); and Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (K.C.).

As advances in prehospital and early hospital care improve survival of the head-injured patient, radiologists are increasingly charged with understanding the myriad skull base fracture management implications conferred by CT. Successfully parlaying knowledge of skull base anatomy and fracture patterns into precise actionable clinical recommendations is a challenging task. The authors aim to provide a pragmatic overview of CT for skull base fractures within the broader context of diagnostic and treatment planning algorithms. Read More

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A novel cochlear measurement that predicts inner-ear malformation.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7339. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Research and Development Department, MED-EL GmbH, Innsbruck, Austria.

The A-value used in cochlear duct length (CDL) estimation does not take malformed cochleae into consideration. The objective was to determine the A-value reported in the literature, to assess the accuracy of the A-value measurement and to evaluate a novel cochlear measurement in distinguishing malformed cochlea. High resolution Computer Tomography images in the oblique coronal plane/cochlear view of 74 human temporal bones were analyzed. Read More

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Origin and distribution of facial nerve anatomy in van cats.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institut fuer Anatomie, Histologie und Embryologie, Vetemeduni, Vienna, Austria.

This study aims to reveal the morphological properties of facial nerve and the middle ear in Van cats. Study material was composed of 6 female Van cats. Dissections were performed under a Zoom Stereo Microscope. Read More

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Optimizing Location of Subdermal Recording Electrodes for Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring.

Laryngoscope 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine if different facial muscle groups demonstrate different responses to facial nerve stimulation, the results of which could potentially improve intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IOFNM).

Methods: IOFNM data were prospectively collected from patients undergoing cochlear implantation. At different stages of nerve exposure, three sites were stimulated using a monopolar pulse. Read More

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Endoscopic Anatomy of the Chorda Tympani: Systematic Dissection, Novel Anatomic Classification, and Surgical Implications.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Inselspital, University Hospital and University of Bern Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy Hearing Research Laboratory, ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Hypothesis: A transcanal endoscopic approach enables visualization of the variable course of the chorda tympani inside the middle ear.

Background: The chorda tympani is the longest intrapetrous branch of the facial nerve. Despite having been investigated in several studies, a description of its tympanic tract from an endoscopic point of view is lacking in the literature. Read More

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Multiple neurological manifestations in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-NXP2-positive myositis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e25063

Department of Neurology, The General Hospital of Western Theater Command, Jinniu District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune inflammatory disease that frequently affects various organs. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE patients, known as neuropsychiatric SLE, are clinically common. However, the principal manifestation of cranial neuropathy in patients with SLE and comorbidities is relatively rare. Read More

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Scientific review of the aesthetic uses of botulinum toxin type A.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2021 Feb 20;22(1):1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Dr. Ahn's Aesthetic and Plastic Surgical Clinic and Botulinum Center, Daegu, Korea.

Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for temporary improvement of glabellar lines in patients 65 years and younger in 2002, and has also been used widely for aesthetic purposes such as hyperhidrosis, body shape contouring, and other noninvasive facial procedures. BoNT-A inhibits presynaptic exocytosis of acetylcholine (ACh)-containing vesicles into the neuromuscular junction at cholinergic nerve endings of the peripheral nervous system, thereby paralyzing skeletal muscles. ACh is the most broadly used neurotransmitter in the somatic nervous system, preganglionic and postganglionic fibers of parasympathetic nerves, and preganglionic fibers or postganglionic sudomotor nerves of sympathetic nerves. Read More

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February 2021

Anatomical Features in Lower-Lip Depressor Muscles for Optimization of Myectomies in Marginal Mandibular Nerve Palsy.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital and Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Hospital of Divine Savior (Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland) Faculty of Medicine, Sigmund Freud University, Vienna, Austria Department of Radiology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Myectomies of the lower-lip depressor muscles, with the aim to improve facial balance in unilateral facial paralysis, have unexplained high recurrence rates. A potential explanation is that these recurrences are due to inadequate resection through the muscle width, leaving lateral muscle fibers intact.

Aim: Revisit the anatomy of the lower-lip depressor muscles and suggest an optimization of the surgical technique. Read More

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An Extraoral Surgical Approach to Treat Chronic Submandibular Sialolithiasis - A Case Series.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2020 Jul-Dec;10(2):537-542. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Sialolithiasis is the most common cause of sialadenitis in the submandibular gland, in which the highest incidence of this condition occurs, among the major salivary glands. This could be explained by the anatomy of Wharton's duct, and the chemical composition of the saliva produced by this gland. There are several alternatives and techniques for the treatment of sialolithiasis, including lithotripsy, sialoendoscopy, and conservative removal of the sialoliths or complete removal of the submandibular gland, through the transoral and extraoral routes for access to the gland. Read More

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December 2020

Special Considerations in Chinese Face-Lift Procedure: Insights From a 15-Year Experience of 1026 Cases.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 03;86(3S Suppl 2):S244-S252

Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Background: There is extensive literature on different face-lift techniques; however, few articles published in the English language address the particularities of the face-lift for Chinese patients. Because of differences in facial anatomy, facial aging, and patient expectations, facial rejuvenation procedures for Chinese patients can be quite different from those of White patients.

Methods: The study includes 1026 consecutive primary face-lift cases performed by the senior author (D. Read More

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Management of Acute Facial Nerve and Parotid Injuries.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Acute soft tissue trauma to the head and neck is a common reason for emergency department presentation and should be appropriately evaluated by a facial plastic surgeon. The evaluation of a patient who has suffered facial trauma should always include a comprehensive facial nerve exam and carry a low threshold of suspicion for parotid duct injury when involving the cheek. Injuries to the facial nerve and parotid duct can result in significant long-term functional, cosmetic, and emotional morbidity, particularly when diagnosis is delayed. Read More

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Gray-Scale Inversion on High Resolution Computed Tomography of the Temporal Bone: An Observational Study.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Feb 25:3489421996844. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA.

Objectives: This is a qualitative study to explore the utility of gray-scale inversion or the "invert" function of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans in the diagnosis of temporal bone anatomy and pathology.

Methods: This is a case series describing an innovative application of an existing image processing tool to visualize temporal bone anatomy and pathology. Illustrative patients at a tertiary referral center with otologic symptoms and findings leading to HRCT scans of the temporal bone were included. Read More

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February 2021

Improved access in minimally invasive temporomandibular joint surgery through a novel endaural template.

BMC Surg 2021 Feb 19;21(1):93. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leipzig University, Liebigstraße 12, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Digitally designed surgical templates for minimally invasive temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery (MITMJS) are a promising tool for improving the safety of these procedures. Given the TMJ anatomy, the template fitting and intraoperative overview are the most important issues for a safe surgery. This article is a technical advance article that aims to describe an endaural surgical template based on the Moses approach as a possible solution in TMJ surgery. Read More

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February 2021

Audiological and Surgical Outcomes of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation in Mondini's Dysplasia: Our Experience.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Jan;17(1):19-22

Madras ENT Research Foundation (Pvt) Ltd, Chennai, India.

Objectives: Aim of present study is to compare audiological and surgical outcomes in prelingual deaf children with Mondini's dysplasia (MD) and those with normal inner ear anatomy.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective data was collected from Jan 2008 to Dec 2016. Children with bony IEM other than MD, syndromic association, multiple disabilities, those lost to follow up, and perilingual or postlingual deafness were excluded from study. Read More

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January 2021

Cochleo-facial corridor to the vestibule and fundus of the internal auditory canal through oval window: a minimal invasive and cochlea sparing approach.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin University, Mersin, Turkey.

Purpose: This cadaveric work aimed to test the effectiveness of a modified surgical corridor (ExpTSA: expanded transcanal supracochlear approach) developed for anatomic cochlear preservation in selected vestibular schwannoma patients necessitating to perform cochlear implantation for appropriate cases to achieve the best outcome.

Methods: The ears of 10 cadavers (at mean age 75.70 ± 13. Read More

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February 2021

Sialodochitis fibrinosa managed with staged bilateral total parotidectomy.

J Laryngol Otol 2021 Feb 17;135(2):182-184. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

ENT Department, Sunderland Royal Hospital, UK.

Objective: This paper reports a rare case of a 61-year-old man with sialodochitis fibrinosa.

Methods: Clinical case report and review of current literature.

Results: Sialodochitis fibrinosa is a diagnosis of exclusion and in many cases can be managed conservatively. Read More

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February 2021

Topographic and Neural Anatomy of the Depressor Anguli Oris Muscle and Implications for Treatment of Synkinetic Facial Paralysis.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Feb;147(2):268e-278e

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.

Background: Synkinetic patients often fail to produce a satisfactory smile because of antagonistic action of a hypertonic depressor anguli oris muscle and concomitantly weak depressor labii inferioris muscle. This study investigated their neurovascular anatomy to partially explain this paradoxical depressor anguli oris hypertonicity and depressor labii inferioris hypotonicity and delineated consistent anatomical landmarks to assist in depressor anguli oris muscle injection and myectomy.

Methods: Ten hemifaces from five fresh human cadavers were dissected to delineate the neurovascular supply of the depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris muscles in addition to the depressor anguli oris muscle relation to consistent anatomical landmarks. Read More

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February 2021

Surgical approach to the facial recess influences the acceptable trajectory of cochlear implantation electrodes.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Surgery (Otolaryngology), University of Melbourne, Level 5, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, 32, Gisborne Street, East Melbourne, VIC, 3002, Australia.

Purpose: To provide practical guidance to the operative surgeon by mapping the location, where acceptable straight-line virtual cochlear implant electrode trajectories intersect the facial recess. In addition, to investigate the influence of facial recess preparation, virtual electrode width and surgical approach to the cochlea on these available trajectories.

Methods: The study was performed on imaging data from eight cadaveric temporal bones within the University of Melbourne Virtual Reality (VR) Temporal Bone Surgery Simulator. Read More

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February 2021

New classification of branching pattern of facial nerve during parotidectomy: A cross sectional study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Feb 14;62:190-196. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, P.O.Box: 19503, Zayona, Baghdad, Iraq.

Background: Parotidectomy is one of the most frequent modes to treate tumors of parotid gland. Previous studies documented a variation in the facial nerve branching which might risk facial nerve injury during Parotidectomy.

Aim Of Study: To make a new classification system that includes a new branching pattern of facial nerve trunk that has not been described before, also to mention a simple method of how to identify the facial nerve trunk, all that will help the new surgeon in performing parotidectomy with less complications and unpredictable outcome. Read More

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February 2021