14,427 results match your criteria Facial Nerve Anatomy

Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Alleviate Facial Pain in Rats with Trigeminal Neuralgia by Inhibiting the Expression of P2X7 Receptor.

Brain Sci 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical School, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common facial neuropathic pain that is mainly characterized by spontaneous or induced needling or electric shock pain in the innervation area of the trigeminal nerve. It is also referred to as "the cancer that never dies". The olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) is a special glial cell in the nervous system that has a strong supportive function in nerve regeneration. Read More

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Masseteric nerve position on the "temporomandibular joint-chin tip" artificial axis: an anatomical study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital of Amiens, Avenue Laennec, 80000, Amiens, France.

Purpose: The use of the masseteric nerve develops in the surgery of facial paralysis rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to determine the topography of the masseteric nerve and to deduce and predict a precise and reproducible anatomical cluster to facilitate its clinical identification during V-VII neurotization surgery.

Method: For the purpose of this work, a cadaveric study was performed on 31 hemi-faces. Read More

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New Technology: Compound Abnormal Muscle Response During Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 May;33(3):e283-e285

Department of Neurosurgery, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To discuss effect of intraoperative compound abnormal muscle response (AMR) in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS).

Methods: Eighty-six HFS patients were underwent single or compound AMR monitoring during MVD. Single AMR recording was from the frontal muscle by stimulation of the marginal mandibular branch. Read More

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Recombinant Human Nerve Growth Factor for Pediatric Neurotrophic Keratopathy.

Eye Contact Lens 2022 Jul 3;48(7):303-305. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Ophthalmology (D.N., S.S.M.F.), University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; and Department of Ophthalmology (D.N.), Banphaeo General Hospital, Samut Sakhon, Thailand.

Abstract: A 4-year-old boy presented with right neurotrophic corneal ulcer, lagophthalmos, and facial palsy 8 months after neurosurgery for synchronous brain tumors. Initial treatment with topical antibiotics, topical corticosteroids, lubrication, and lateral tarsorrhaphy successfully treated the corneal epithelial defect; however, the cornea continued to demonstrate diffuse epitheliopathy and a dense stromal opacity and remained insensate on Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry. After a course of topical cenegermin, central corneal sensation normalized, and the corneal epitheliopathy was markedly improved. Read More

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Variability of the retrotympanum and its association with mastoid pneumatization in cholesteatoma patients.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Inselspital, University Hospital and University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 15, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the variability of the retrotympanum in patients undergoing surgical treatment for cholesteatoma.

Methods: We included 59 ears of patients undergoing middle ear surgery for cholesteatoma who had preoperative computed tomography scans. A retrospective analysis of the medical records was conducted. Read More

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The petrosal artery and its variations: a comprehensive review and anatomical study with application to skull base surgery and neurointerventional procedures.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Background: The petrosal artery supplies several structures at the skull base and is often the focus of various neurointerventional procedures. Therefore, knowledge of its anatomy and variations is important to surgeons and interventionalists.

Materials And Methods: Twenty latex injected cadaveric heads (40 sides) underwent microsurgical dissection of the petrosal artery. Read More

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Microanatomy of the central myelin portion and transitional zone of the oculomotor and abducens nerves.

Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The microanatomy of the central myelin portion and transitional zone of several cranial nerves including trigeminal, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves have been clearly demonstrated to provide information for neurovascular compression syndrome such as trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. However, the study of oculomotor and abducens nerve is limited.

Material And Methods: Oculomotor and abducens nerves were harvested with a portion of brainstem and embeded in paraffin. Read More

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Secondary trigeminal neuralgia diagnosed in orofacial pain setting as epidermoid tumor.

Quintessence Int 2022 Jun;53(7):624-630

This case report describes the rare occurrence of an epidermoid tumor compressing the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve resulting in secondary trigeminal neuralgia. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of secondary trigeminal neuralgia. The epidermoid tumor was discovered by an orofacial pain specialist after reassessing the MRI study, previously reported as normal. Read More

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Treatment With Nimodipine or FK506 After Facial Nerve Repair Neither Improves Accuracy of Reinnervation Nor Recovery of Mimetic Function in Rats.

Front Neurosci 2022 13;16:895076. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department I of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne and University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Nimodipine and FK506 (Tacrolimus) are drugs that have been reported to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We therefore tested these substances aiming to improve the final functional outcome of motoric reinnervation after facial nerve injury.

Methods: In 18 female rats, the transected facial nerve was repaired by an artificial nerve conduit. Read More

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An Unusual Bifurcated Proximal Facial Nerve Found During Excision of a Vestibular Schwannoma: Clinical Imaging with a Surgical Video.

World Neurosurg 2022 May 26;164:253-255. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Electronic address:

Carefully preserving facial nerve function is crucial when using the translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma surgery. Nerve preservation can only be accomplished by employing rigorous surgical methods and having a thorough understanding of the relevant anatomy, including any variations. Anatomical variations in the path of the facial nerve are infrequent but are most commonly encountered in association with congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone or ossicles. Read More

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Endoscopically Assisted Marginal Mandibulectomy Using an Intraoral Approach Alone for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Posterior Mandibular Gingiva: A Technical Note.

Atsushi Shudo

Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2022 Jun 2;15(2):175-183. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kishiwada Tokushukai Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: Technical note.

Objective: Marginal mandibulectomy is a surgical procedure for treatment of mandibular gingival tumors. The intraoral approach to the posterior region of the mandible for marginal mandibulectomy is difficult due to limited access and operating field visibility; the conventional surgical procedure may require some skin incisions. Read More

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The Results of Cochlear Implantation in the Inner Ear Malformations.

J Int Adv Otol 2022 May;18(3):203-209

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Cochlear implants are arguably the most successful neural prosthesis today. Cochlear implantation has several difficulties in patients with internal ear anomalies. This study was performed to analyze intraoperative, postoperative findings, and auditory performance of 55 patients who had inner ear malformations and were treated with cochlear implants at Otorhinolaryngology Department of Çukurova University Hospital. Read More

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Severe Diesel Injection Injury to the Face, Neck and Orbit: Surgical Management and Critical Care Considerations.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

The purpose of this report is to discuss high-pressure injection injuries involving the face and orbit and discuss factors affecting prognosis and management as these injuries are rare and uniquely challenging to manage given the complex anatomy and extensive damage that may occur. In this case, we present severe injury to the left orbit, maxillofacial region, and neck of a 29-year-old male who suffered a high-pressure diesel injection injury requiring several surgical debridements, intensive care unit (ICU) level care, and ultimately sub-total exenteration. Initial management involved systemic antibiotics, steroids, and surgical debridement; however, our patient experienced subsequent rapid deterioration resulting in admission for more aggressive subspecialty intervention. Read More

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Interplay of Oral, Mandibular, and Facial Disorders and Migraine.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Brotman Facial Pain Clinic, Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, University of Maryland, School of Dentistry, 650 W. Baltimore St. 8th Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: Migraine and other primary headache disorders can be localized in the face resembling facial or dental pain, indicating the influence of the trigeminovascular system in the structures innervated by the maxillary (V2) and mandibulary (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve. Disorders of oral and craniofacial structures may influence primary headache disorders. In the current article, we review the potential links of this interplay. Read More

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Preauricular anteroparotid transmasseteric approach of the mandibular condyle: The natural evolution after cervical dissections? An anatomical feasibility study.

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, F 76000 Rouen, France; Laboratory of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine-Pharmacy, Rouen-Normandie University, 22 Boulevard Gambetta, 76183, Rouen, France.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of a novel approach for base and neck fractures of the mandible. An anatomical study was conducted on 22 given to Science subjects. A rhytidectomy-like approach was performed, followed by a transmasseteric anteroparotid dissection. Read More

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Effect of Ultrasound Therapy on Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors, CD31 and Functional Recovery After Facial Nerve Injury.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Medical Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.

Functional recovery is provided by some neurotrophic factors released from the near vicinity of the injury site. Ultrasound treatment is known to increase neurotrophic factor expression. This study was aimed at determining the effect of ultrasound treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptors and new vessel formation after facial nerve injury. Read More

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Clival Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

Neurol India 2022 Mar-Apr;70(2):775-777

Department of Neurosurgery, BYL Nair Ch. Hospital and Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

A 39-year-old female presented with complaints of occipital headaches, diplopia, numbness over left half of face and deviation of face to the right. On examination she had hypoesthesia over left half of face, associated with bilateral abductor and left facial palsy. Neuroradiology showed a well-defined lytic lesion involving the clivus and adjacent sphenoid sinus and sella. Read More

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[The role of triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the surgery for first branchial cleft anomalies].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;36(4):297-299

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Xijing Hospital,Air Force Military Medical University,Xi'an,710032,China.

To explore the role of triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the operation of the first branchial cleft deformity. The clinical features and intraoperative characteristics of 25 cases with first branchial cleft anomalies who underwent surgery from September 2011 to September 2019 were analyzed, and the role of the triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid in the surgery was explored. Following dissecting and lesions removel of the triangular space of ear canal-parotid-mastoid, all the lesions were resected completely. Read More

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Analysis of the Outcome of Reoperative Face Lifts Using Sub-SMAS Techniques.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

From the California Plastic Surgery Clinic; and the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco.

Background: Reoperative face lift can be technically more demanding than primary face lift because of altered anatomy and scarred tissue plane. This study was carried out to analyze the outcome of reoperative face lift using sub-superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) techniques, including facial nerve injury.

Methods: Seventy reoperative face lifts using sub-SMAS techniques were studied. Read More

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Deep Plane Anatomy for the Facelift Surgeon: A Comprehensive Three-Dimensional Journey.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2022 May;30(2):205-214

Kansas City University.

Strong command of facial anatomy is paramount for all facelift surgeons. A comprehensive understanding of how aging impacts facial anatomy is equally important for effective preoperative evaluation of the patient undergoing facelift surgery. Key areas for assessment of the patient undergoing facelift surgery are addressed. Read More

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Posterior-Anterior Cephalometric Study of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Patients With Facial Plexiform Neurofibroma: Analysis of Skeletal Symmetry Concerning Midfacial and Skull Base Reference Points (Zygomatic Arch, Mastoid, and Juga).

Anticancer Res 2022 May;42(5):2607-2623

Department of Orthodontics, Eppendorf University Hospital, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background/aim: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome that is also characterized by skeletal abnormalities. In the cranial region, skeletal dysplasia is observed that is associated with a characteristic peripheral nerve sheath tumor, the plexiform neurofibroma (PNF). The aim of the study was to determine PNF-associated skeletal asymmetries of the mid-skull and skull base as an indicator of local tumor development. Read More

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Facial Cutaneous Metastases of Gastric Signet-ring Cell Carcinoma: Resection and Reconstruction as a Palliative Surgical Treatment Option.

In Vivo 2022 May-Jun;36(3):1508-1512

Institute of Pathology, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Background: Cutaneous metastases of gastric signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma are very rare. Our following case report highlights the need for careful clinical examination and skin biopsy of newly developing scar-like or erythematous skin lesions in patients with a known history of malignant disease in order to prevent diagnostic and therapeutic delay.

Case Report: A 68-year-old male patient presented with two slightly painful, erythematous, facial skin lesions (chin and forehead) 2 years after gastrectomy for a signet-ring cell gastric carcinoma. Read More

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Management of benign parotid tumors. What can we learn from our experience?

Ann Ital Chir 2022 ;93:152-159

Aim: Parotid gland is the most common location for salivary gland tumors, more commonly pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor. Types of parotid surgery include superficial parotidectomy (SP), partial superficial parotidectomy (PSP), total conservative parotidectomy (TCP), enucleation (E), extracapsular dissection (ECD), and are related to different incidence of complications. The choice depends on tumors localization, dimension and histology. Read More

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Identification of a Novel Pathogenic Variant in a Patient with a Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Genes (Basel) 2022 04 14;13(4). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Genetic defects in the gene, encoding for synaptic scaffolding protein, are associated with a variety of neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism spectrum disorders and mild to moderate intellectual disability. Until now, limited patient clinical descriptions have been published. Only 13 unrelated patients with pathogenic variations or microdeletions have been reported worldwide. Read More

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Commentary on: Communicating Branches of the Facial Nerve: Descriptions and Clinical Considerations.

Robert Singer

Aesthet Surg J 2022 May;42(6):NP383-NP384

The University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

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Bilateral Giant Familial Carotid Body Tumors With Concomitant Skull-Base Paraganglioma and Facial Nerve Palsy.

Tex Heart Inst J 2022 03;49(2)

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, National Cardiothoracic Center of Excellence, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria.

Carotid body tumors, rare neck paragangliomas arising from the common carotid artery bifurcation, can be classified as sporadic, hyperplastic, or familial. The familial type is often bilateral and associated with germline mutation of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. We report the rare case of a 42-year-old man who presented with bilateral giant familial carotid body tumors associated with a concomitant skull-base paraganglioma, left-sided facial nerve palsy, and an incomplete circle of Willis. Read More

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Trigeminal Neuralgia from Simultaneous Compression by Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid and Duplicated Superior Cerebellar Artery Loop: Two-Dimensional Operative Video of Resection and Microvascular Decompression with Endoscopic Assistance.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 13;163:67. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Northwest Permanente, Clackamas, Oregon, USA. Electronic address:

A 51-year-old woman presented with 2 years of progressive left facial pain and numbness in maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve distributions. Symptoms were refractory to increasing doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left cerebellopontine angle nonenhancing mass, with diffusion restriction causing trigeminal nerve compression. Read More

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Space occupying lesion presenting as Millard-Gubler syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 12;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Millard-Gubler syndrome (MGS) is a ventral pontine syndrome due to an ipsilateral involvement of abducens and facial nerve with a contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia. Although classically described as a vascular brainstem syndrome, various other aetiologies such as infection or demyelination may lead to MGS. In this case, a young female presented with MGS, which was attributed to a strategically located infective granuloma of the brainstem. Read More

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The Molecular Basis and Pathophysiology of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 25;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a complex orofacial pain syndrome characterized by the paroxysmal onset of pain attacks in the trigeminal distribution. The underlying mechanism for this debilitating condition is still not clearly understood. Decades of basic and clinical evidence support the demyelination hypothesis, where demyelination along the trigeminal afferent pathway is a major driver for TN pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Read More

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[Technique of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Based on Surgical Anatomy].

No Shinkei Geka 2022 Mar;50(2):467-479

Department of Neurosurgery, Saitama Medical University Hospital.

This article describes the anatomical approach and operative points of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm based on the author's personal experience with 1,000 cases. As vascular compression of the facial nerve is often quite caudal, it is necessary to ensure that the compressing arteries in this area are moved. Neither the vessels nor the prosthesis used to move them should not touch the root exit zone of the nerve(vascular transposition nerve isolation technique). Read More

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