67,733 results match your criteria Facial Bone Anatomy


Internal Lower Incisor Morphology revealed by Computerized Microtomography.

Acta Odontol Latinoam 2020 Apr;33(1):33-37

Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departmento de Clínica Odontológica, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

This study evaluated the internal morphology of lower incisors using computerized microtomography (micro-CT) images. Eighty-nine lower incisors were scanned by micro-CT and reconstructed with NRecon software. 2D parameters (perimeter, root length, circularity and canal diameter) and 3D parameters (volume, surface area and structure model index) were evaluated with CTAn and CTVol software. Read More

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Vestibular Alveolar bone height measurement: Accuracy and Correlation between direct and indirect techniques.

Acta Odontol Latinoam 2020 Apr;33(1):22-26

Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Odontología, Departamento de Ortodoncia, Puebla, Mexico.

Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has modified the perspective of dentistry images, providing manipulable threedimensional images with a 1:1 patient:image ratio. Treatments and diagnosis are modified or corroborated by CBCT; however, its accuracy in thin structures such as cortical bone has been subjected to critical review. The aim of this study is to correlate the measurement of vestibular alveolar bone height using direct measurements and measurements performed with cone-beam tomographic images with standard (SD) voxel resolution. Read More

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Accurate reconstructions of pelvic defects and discontinuities using statistical shape models.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute for Orthopaedic Research and Training (IORT), Department of Development and Regeneration, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Treatment of large acetabular defects and discontinuities remains challenging and relies on the accurate restoration of the native anatomy of the patient. This study introduces and validates a statistical shape model for the reconstruction of acetabular discontinuities with severe bone loss through a two-sided Markov Chain Monte Carlo reconstruction method. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation in three defect types with varying severity as well as severe defects with discontinuities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2020.1784404DOI Listing

The role of occlusal support and lower third molars in mandibular angle and condylar fractures

Orv Hetil 2020 07;161(28):1166-1174

Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Klinikai Központ, Fogászati és Szájsebészeti Klinika,Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Pécs, Dischka u. 5., 7621.

Introduction And Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the occlusal support, and mandibular third molars on mandibular angle and condylar fractures.

Method And Results: Patients with unilateral and isolated angle or condylar fractures were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Data was collected from patient records and panoramic x-rays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2020.31791DOI Listing

[A method of osteoplasty of the mental region of the mandible].

Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2020 ;99(3):47-51

S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Correction of the lower jaw contours is one of the most popular tasks in aesthetic maxillofacial surgery. There are many reduction operations aimed at changing the shape of the lower jaw. However, augmentation mandible plasty is mainly associated with the use of synthetic implants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/stomat20209903147DOI Listing

Craniofacial allometry in the OIM mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

FASEB J 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology & Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal disorder characterized by the impaired synthesis of type I collagen (Col1). This study tests the hypothesis that the craniofacial phenotype of severe OI is linked to an overall reduction in body size. 3D landmark data were collected from µCT scans of adult OIM and wild-type (WT) mice and used to calculate centroid sizes (CS) and interlandmark distances (ILDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000715RDOI Listing

Anatomy of petrous face.

Handb Clin Neurol 2020 ;170:143-156

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States. Electronic address:

The anatomy of the petrous face of the temporal bone, also known as the petrous pyramid, should be carefully examined to understand the location of, blood supply to, and venous drainage of meningiomas in this area (42%-59% of posterior fossa meningiomas). The petrous face is located in the skull base between the sphenoid and occipital bones. It consists of a base that joins the mastoid laterally and an apex that extends anteromedially to form the foramen lacerum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-822198-3.00036-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Immediate Tooth Replacement Therapy in Postextraction Sockets: A Comparative Prospective Study on the Effect of Variable Platform-Switched Subcrestal Angle Correction Implants.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2020 Jul/Aug;40(4):509-517

Immediate tooth replacement therapy (ITRT), ie, immediate implant placement and provisional restoration in postextraction sockets, has been shown to achieve favorable outcomes in reference to soft tissue stability and esthetics. However, avoiding socket perforation with uniaxial implants in the anterior maxilla can be challenging due to the inherent anatomy. Dual or co-axis subcrestal angle correction (SAC) implants have been developed to change the restorative angle of the clinical crown restoration subcrestally at the implant-abutment interface to enhance the incidence of screw-retained definitive restorations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/prd.4440DOI Listing

Stapedectomy in patients with dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve.

Am J Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 5:102580. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study is to apply the modified stapedectomy technique in cases with dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve canal, and to compare the postoperative results with those with normal facial nerve canal anatomy.

Material And Method: 28 patients who underwent primary stapedectomy were included. Of the patients, 17 were in the normal anatomical facial nerve group, and 11 were in the dehiscent and prolapsed facial nerve group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102580DOI Listing

Distribution of bone thickness in the human mandibular ramus - a CBCT-based study.

Head Face Med 2020 Jun 8;16(1):13. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials, University Hospital Münster, Waldeyerstraße 30, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Background: The bone thickness of the human mandibular ramus is an important parameter in mandibular surgeries. The aim of this study was to systematically measure the bicortical bone thickness, the ramus dimensions and the position of the lingula. The measurements were tested on significant correlations to the patients' parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13005-020-00228-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278150PMC

Extraction of Maxillary Impacted Teeth with Simultaneous Immediate Full Mouth Loading Using Long Implant: A Case Report.

Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2020 Jul 5;61(2):135-143. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Dental College.

Here, we describe the provision of an implant-supported prosthesis in a patient with impacted teeth in the maxilla, which complicated implant placement and necessitated utilization of the extraction sockets of previously impacted teeth and residual submerged roots. The patient was a 63-year-old man who visited our clinic with the chief complaint of difficulty in mastication. Numerous residual roots were observed in the maxilla, and radiographic imaging revealed that the residual roots of teeth #13 and #16 were fully impacted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2209/tdcpublication.2019-0004DOI Listing

Cryptococcal osteomyelitis of the Zygomatic bone: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 5;20(1):399. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-0374, Japan.

Background: Disseminated cryptococcosis is a well-characterized complication in immunocompromised patients with cryptococcal pneumonia or meningitis; however, isolated cryptococcal osteomyelitis is a rare entity that occurs in approximately 5% of patients with cryptococcosis. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis in the head and neck region is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of cryptococcal osteomyelitis affecting only the zygomatic bone have been reported to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05123-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275450PMC

Fully Automatic Landmarking of Syndromic 3D Facial Surface Scans Using 2D Images.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 3;20(11). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, AB T2N 4N1, Canada.

3D facial landmarks are known to be diagnostically relevant biometrics for many genetic syndromes. The objective of this study was to extend a state-of-the-art image-based 2D facial landmarking algorithm for the challenging task of 3D landmark identification on subjects with genetic syndromes, who often have moderate to severe facial dysmorphia. The automatic 3D facial landmarking algorithm presented here uses 2D image-based facial detection and landmarking models to identify 12 landmarks on 3D facial surface scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309125PMC

Facial shape and allometry quantitative trait locus intervals in the Diversity Outbred mouse are enriched for known skeletal and facial development genes.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(6):e0233377. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute and McCaig Bone and Joint Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, Canada.

The biology of how faces are built and come to differ from one another is complex. Discovering normal variants that contribute to differences in facial morphology is one key to untangling this complexity, with important implications for medicine and evolutionary biology. This study maps quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal facial shape using Diversity Outbred (DO) mice. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233377PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274373PMC

Potential forensic implications of therapy - a traditional Indonesian therapy associated with neck bruising.

Med Sci Law 2020 Jun 5:25802420926867. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Faculty of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Australia.

is a traditional Indonesian treatment involving abrading the skin over various parts of the body with a blunt object such as a coin or a piece of ginger which may create suspicious injuries. Here, the case of a 30-year-old woman who had undergone therapy is reported. She was complaining of retro-sternal pain and epigastric discomfort and subsequently became markedly short of breath and died. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802420926867DOI Listing

Maxillary sinus augmentation procedures: a narrative clinical review.

Quintessence Int 2020 ;51(7):578-584

An edentulous posterior maxilla can present a challenge for placement of dental implants due to the proximity of the maxillary sinus. Sinus augmentation is a surgical bone grafting procedure aimed to increase the bone height for implant support. A number of sinus augmentation techniques have been presented and the outcomes show good implant success rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.qi.a44632DOI Listing

Automated syndrome diagnosis by three-dimensional facial imaging.

Genet Med 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Program in Craniofacial Biology and Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Deep phenotyping is an emerging trend in precision medicine for genetic disease. The shape of the face is affected in 30-40% of known genetic syndromes. Here, we determine whether syndromes can be diagnosed from 3D images of human faces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0845-yDOI Listing

Facial nerve course in the temporal bone: Anatomical relationship between the tympanic and mastoid portions for safe ear surgery.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.

Objective: Avoidance of iatrogenic injury to the facial nerve is crucial during ear surgery. The anatomical relationship between the tympanic portion of the facial canal (FC) and the mastoid portion of the facial nerve was analyzed using multi-slice computed tomography (CT) scans to avoid iatrogenic facial nerve injury.

Methods: In total, 364 ears of 351 patients who underwent CT scans were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Mid-trimester fetal facial dysmorphology associated with 2p25.3 microdeletion.

J Clin Ultrasound 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

The Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

We describe unusual mid-trimester sonography of subtle fetal facial dysmorphic features including; flattened nasofrontal angle with an almost vertically positioned nasal bone, acute nasolabial angle, and convexity of the maxillary areas in a fetus with otherwise normal anatomy. Microarray identified a 64.5 KB interstitial deletion of 2q25. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.22863DOI Listing

Temporal Bone Trauma: Typical CT and MRI Appearances and Important Points for Evaluation.

Radiographics 2020 Jul-Aug;40(4):1148-1162. Epub 2020 May 22.

From the Department of Radiology, Machida Municipal Hospital, 2-15-41 Asahi-cho, Machida, Tokyo 194-0023, Japan (Y.Y.K., N.T., M.T.); Department of Radiology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan (A.F., H.I.); and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Ore (J.S.).

Temporal bone trauma is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Technologic advances have enabled timely acquisition of thin-section images and multiplanar reconstructions such that temporal bone anatomy can be evaluated in great detail, with excellent delineation of fractures. The temporal bone is composed of a myriad of tiny structures, including many fissures and canals, that must be distinguished from true fractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.2020190023DOI Listing

[Lower teeth anesthesia in patients with limited mouth opening].

Stomatologiia (Mosk) 2020 ;99(2):105-109

First I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Limited mouth opening is a common pathology in dental practice. Dental treatment of these group patients is hindered by low access to oral cavity, which complicates operative, prosthetic and surgical interventions. Local anesthesia is also difficult due to changes in anatomical landmarks, changes in bone structures and soft tissues ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/stomat202099021105DOI Listing

Cortical bone lamina approach for mandibular large cystic defect: a case report.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2019 Nov-Dec;33(6 Suppl. 2):85-91

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.

This study evaluated the bone healing of the residual cavity after enucleation of mandibular inflammatory cyst by using only a coverage with cortical bone barrier. This study was conducted at the dental clinic of the Medical, Oral and Biotechnology Sciences Department of Chieti in February 2015. A 36-year-old male patient, D. Read More

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The six different injection techniques for the temple relevant for soft tissue filler augmentation procedures - Clinical anatomy and danger zones.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Jul 1;19(7):1570-1579. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department for Hand, Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Ludwig - Maximilian University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Objective: The most promising facial region for inducing pan-facial effects is the temporal region. The temple displays signs of facial aging itself which include temporal volume loss and increased visibility of the temporal crest, the temporal vasculature, the lateral orbital rim, and the upper zygomatic arch. The objective of this article is to provide a detailed review of temple anatomy pertaining to routinely performed temporal injection techniques, their expected esthetic outcomes as well as the intendant advantages, disadvantages, and procedure pearls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13491DOI Listing

Prevalence of facial canal dehiscence and other bone defects by computed tomography.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Medicina, Human Anatomy Department, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

Introduction: The facial nerve is the most vulnerable structure during otological surgeries. Facial canal dehiscence (FCD) is the main risk factor for iatrogenic injuries. Its prevalence in clinical studies ranges between 6 and 33. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06013-8DOI Listing
May 2020
1.608 Impact Factor

Pink Esthetics: A Study on Significant Gingival Parameters.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Feb 1;21(2):207-210. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Dr DY Patil Dental College and Hospital, Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India, Phone: +91 9823871462, e-mail:

Aim: The aim of the study was to quantify the specific spatial displacement of gingival zenith (GZ) and determine a representative value for the interdental papilla height as a percentage ratio of clinical crown length (CL), as measured from GZ in the maxillary anterior dentition.

Materials And Methods: A total of 100 subjects and 1,200 interdental papillae were included. Eighty percent of the population presented with the gingival margin of lateral incisor (LI) teeth positioned coronally to the GZ of the ipsilateral canine (C) and central incisor (CI). Read More

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February 2020

Minimal Invasive Flapless Piezotome Alveolar Crest Horizontal Split Technique: Preliminary Results.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Jan 1;21(1):28-35. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, Italy, Phone: +39 392333485, e-mail:

Introduction: Alveolar split crest is an established surgical technique to enable implant insertion into narrow and atrophic alveolar crest. This surgical technique is adopted to position standard or large implants so that postextractive anatomy compromises with this attempt. The aim of this study was to evaluate the horizontal alveolar bone augmentation and its stability along time with a minimally invasive flapless technique. Read More

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January 2020

Tumour-to-tumour metastasis: breast carcinoma to an olfactory neuroblastoma.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2020 Jul 6;102(6):e118-e121. Epub 2020 May 6.

Ear, Nose and Throat Department, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Tumour-to-tumour metastasis is a rare phenomenon. It occurs when a primary tumour is a recipient of a separate tumour within the same individual. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with known breast cancer who presented with one-sided nasal symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1308/rcsann.2020.0038DOI Listing

Effects of Strontium-Doped β-Tricalcium Scaffold on Longitudinal Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Promoter Activities during Healing in a Murine Critical-Size Bone Defect Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 1;21(9). Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

It was hypothesized that strontium (Sr)-doped β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-based scaffolds have a positive effect on the regeneration of large bone defects (LBD). Readouts in our mice models were nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) activity and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) promoter activity during the healing process. A 2-mm critical-size femoral fracture was performed in transgenic NF-κB- and VEGFR-2-luciferase reporter mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246816PMC

Achieving Predictable Hydraulic Sinus Condensing Using an Innovative Functional Sinus Implant: A Case Report.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2020 May;41(5):278-283

President, Dental Implant Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada; Fellow and Diplomate, International Congress of Oral Implantologists.

Inadequate alveolar bone height/volume and sinus anatomy can complicate the predictable placement of conventional implants and subsequent restoration in posterior maxillary sites. A variety of sinus lift and vertical bone height augmentation materials and techniques have been utilized for this purpose; however, generally they are clinically challenging, demand well-trained surgical proficiency, and require the use of multiple armamentaria. Simultaneously, clinicians must meticulously handle the sinus membrane to achieve elevation without perforation, attain successful bone grafting, and ensure predictable implant osseointegration. Read More

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Morphological validation of a novel bi-material 3D-printed model of temporal bone for middle ear surgery education.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Mar;8(6):304

ENT Department, University Hospital of Nancy, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: A new model of 3D-printed temporal bone with an innovative distinction between soft and hard tissues is described and presented in the present study. An original method is reported to quantify the model's ability to reproduce the complex anatomy of this region.

Methods: A CT-scan of temporal bone was segmented and prepared to obtain 3D files adapted to multi-material printing technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186742PMC

Treacher Collins syndrome: A novel TCOF1 mutation and monopodial stapes.

Clin Otolaryngol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS: OMIM 154500) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses.

Objective: To investigate four Treacher Collins syndrome patients of the Sgaw Karen family living in Thailand.

Method: Clinical examination, hearing tests, lateral cephalometric analyses, Computed tomography, whole exome sequencing and Sanger direct sequencing were performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13560DOI Listing
April 2020
2.268 Impact Factor

Correlation between the cephalometric measurements and acoustic properties of /s/ sound in Turkish.

J Appl Oral Sci 2020 27;28:e20190399. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Orthodontics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Objectives To evaluate the acoustic properties of the /s/ sound in individuals with different occlusion types and to investigate relationships between these properties and cephalometric measurements. Methodology Sixty patients were divided into three groups based on malocclusion. Group 1 included 20 patients (mean age: 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2019-0399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185985PMC

Effects of reduced connexin43 function on skull development in the Cx43 mutant mouse that models oculodentodigital dysplasia.

Bone 2020 Jul 19;136:115365. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada. Electronic address:

Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a disease caused by mutations in the GJA1 gene that encodes the gap-junctional protein connexin43 (Cx43). ODDD affects multiple organs, but craniofacial anomalies are typical. However, details on the timing of phenotypic presentation of these abnormalities and their correspondence with potential cellular changes are incomplete. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115365DOI Listing

Animal Models for Understanding Human Skeletal Defects.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1236:157-188

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Skeletal defects, such as cleft palate, scoliosis, and shortening of the limb bones are common in the human population. Animal models have been essential for characterizing the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie these and other skeletal disorders. This chapter will explore the cellular origins of the vertebrate skeleton and introduce a selection of animal models for human disorders of the skull and facial bones, spinal column, and limbs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2389-2_7DOI Listing

What Do Animal Models Teach Us About Congenital Craniofacial Defects?

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1236:137-155

Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The formation of the head and face is a complex process which involves many different signaling cues regulating the migration, differentiation, and proliferation of the neural crest. This highly complex process is very error-prone, resulting in craniofacial defects in nearly 10,000 births in the United States annually. Due to the highly conserved mechanisms of craniofacial development, animal models are widely used to understand the pathogenesis of various human diseases and assist in the diagnosis and generation of preventative therapies and treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2389-2_6DOI Listing

[Anatomical study of rat trigeminal motor nucleus-lateral pterygoid muscle projection pathway].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Apr;55(4):259-263

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University & State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Xi'an 710032, China.

To determine the opening and closing action of the external muscle, the projection pathway of the axon terminal of trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo) neuron to the lateral pterygoid muscle was revealed. In this study, 10 SD rats of 8 weeks old were included. The left lateral pterygoid muscle of SD rats was surgically exposed, and the wound was closed after intramuscular injection of hydroxystilbamidine/fluorogold (FG) 3-5 μl. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112144-20191129-00427DOI Listing

Asymmetry of the Accessory Anterior Digastric Muscle Bellies: The Clinical Significance in Facial and Neck Surgery.

Cureus 2020 Feb 29;12(2):e7148. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Anatomy and Surgical Anatomy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GRC.

The anterior digastric muscle belly (ADMB) may present significant variations of substantial surgical importance. We present an unusual complex bilateral asymmetry of an accessory ADMB found when dissecting the submental area in a 72-year-old Greek male cadaver. A rare variant was recognized in the submental area constituted by a combination of bilateral asymmetry of the ADMB with unilateral absence of the intermediate tendon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108676PMC
February 2020

Physiological changes in the size of the septal swell body correlate with changes in inferior turbinate size.

J Laryngol Otol 2020 Apr 3;134(4):323-327. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Objective: The nasal septal swell body is a normal anatomical structure located in the superior nasal septum anterior to the middle turbinate. However, the impact of the septal swell body in nasal breathing during normal function and disease remains unclear. This study aimed to establish that the septal swell body varies in size over time and correlates this with the natural variation of the inferior turbinates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215120000675DOI Listing

Red-green-blue analysis of nasal mucosa discolouration in allergic rhinitis.

J Laryngol Otol 2020 Apr 2;134(4):332-337. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the colour values of nasal mucosa for the purpose of presenting an objective parameter of allergic rhinitis.

Methods: Seventy-three patients with allergic rhinitis (allergy group) and 73 normal healthy individuals (control group) were included in the study. Endoscopic examinations were conducted, and endoscopic photographs of the septum and both inferior turbinates were taken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215120000572DOI Listing

Immature remains and the first partial skeleton of a juvenile Homo naledi, a late Middle Pleistocene hominin from South Africa.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(4):e0230440. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Evolutionary Studies Institute and Centre for Excellence in PalaeoSciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Immature remains are critical for understanding maturational processes in hominin species as well as for interpreting changes in ontogenetic development in hominin evolution. The study of these subjects is hindered by the fact that associated juvenile remains are extremely rare in the hominin fossil record. Here we describe an assemblage of immature remains of Homo naledi recovered from the 2013-2014 excavation season. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230440PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112188PMC

An artificial intelligence algorithm that identifies middle turbinate pneumatisation (concha bullosa) on sinus computed tomography scans.

J Laryngol Otol 2020 Apr 1;134(4):328-331. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Westmead Hospital, Australia.

Objective: Convolutional neural networks are a subclass of deep learning or artificial intelligence that are predominantly used for image analysis and classification. This proof-of-concept study attempts to train a convolutional neural network algorithm that can reliably determine if the middle turbinate is pneumatised (concha bullosa) on coronal sinus computed tomography images.

Method: Consecutive high-resolution computed tomography scans of the paranasal sinuses were retrospectively collected between January 2016 and December 2018 at a tertiary rhinology hospital in Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215120000444DOI Listing

Minimally Invasive Management of Implant-Supported Rehabilitation in the Posterior Maxilla, Part II. Surgical Techniques and Decision Tree.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2020 May/Jun;40(3):e95-e102

Insufficient crestal bone is a common feature encountered in the edentulous posterior maxilla due to atrophy of the alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus pneumatization. Numerous surgical techniques, grafting materials, and timing protocols have been proposed for implant-supported rehabilitation of posterior maxillae with limited bone height. In the majority of potential implant sites, residual bone height is less than 8 mm and the clinician has to select either a lateral or transcrestal sinus-elevation technique or placing short implants as the correct surgical option. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/prd.4498DOI Listing

Braincase anatomy of Almadasuchus figarii (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha) and a review of the cranial pneumaticity in the origins of Crocodylomorpha.

J Anat 2020 Jul 30;237(1):48-73. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Almadasuchus figarii is a basal crocodylomorph recovered from the Upper Jurassic levels of the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation (Oxfordian-Tithonian) of Chubut, Argentina. This taxon is represented by cranial remains, which consist of partial snout and palatal remains; an excellently preserved posterior region of the skull; and isolated postcranial remains. The skull of the only specimen of the monotypic Almadasuchus was restudied using high-resolution computed micro tomography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13171DOI Listing

Cone-beam-computed-tomography of the symmetry of root canal anatomy in mandibular incisors.

J Oral Sci 2020 ;62(2):180-183

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, University of Göttingen.

This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of internal symmetry (the number and morphology of root canals) in the mandibular incisors using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 302 CBCT scans involving 1,208 mandibular incisors were evaluated using the Vertucci's classification regarding the number and configuration of root canals. The central mandibular incisors exhibited two root canals in 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.19-0113DOI Listing

The Impacts of Orthognathic Surgery on the Facial Appearance and Age Perception of Patients Presenting Skeletal Class III Deformity: An Outcome Study Using the FACE-Q Report and Surgical Professional-Based Panel Assessment.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 04;145(4):1035-1046

Taoyuan, Taiwan From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the Craniofacial Research Center, and the Division of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University.

Background: A recent artificial intelligence-based investigation has shown the impacts of orthognathic surgery on the patient's facial appearance and apparent age. However, appearance and age perception as reported by patients and surgical professionals have not been addressed in the same cohort to date.

Methods: FACE-Q facial appraisal (appearance and age) and quality-of-life scale scores obtained before and after orthognathic surgery, in addition to three-dimensional photographs of 70 patients with skeletal class III deformity, were collected for a comparative cross-sectional study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006650DOI Listing

Imaging the facial nerve: A contemporary review of anatomy and pathology.

Eur J Radiol 2020 May 26;126:108920. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Radiology, Northwick Park & Central Middlesex Hospitals, London North West University Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Watford Road, London, HA1 3UJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: The facial nerve is the seventh paired cranial nerve which anatomically can be divided into six distinct segments. There are a wide range of pathologies that may occur along each segment of the nerve. The aim of this pictorial review is to untangle the complex appearances of the facial nerve, both in its normal anatomical course and when affected by pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108920DOI Listing

Facial Nerve Arterial Arcade Supply in Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Anatomy and Treatment Strategies.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 04 19;41(4):687-692. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

From the Division of Neuroradiology (K.D.B., H.K., H.L., V.M.P., T.K.), Joint Department of Medical Imaging.

Background And Purpose: Endovascular treatment of petrous dural AVFs may carry a risk of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy if the facial nerve arterial arcade, an anastomotic arterial arch that supplies the geniculate ganglion, is not respected or recognized. Our purpose was to demonstrate that the use of a treatment strategy algorithm incorporating detailed angiographic anatomic assessment allows identification of the facial nerve arterial arcade and therefore safe endovascular treatment.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive petrous dural AVF cases managed at Toronto Western Hospital between 2006 and 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144641PMC

Hemifacial microsomia: skeletal abnormalities evaluation using CBCT (case report).

J Radiol Case Rep 2019 Nov 30;13(11):1-9. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Human Morphology, Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

The article presents a case report and literature review of hemifacial microsomia with cervical vertebral anomalies. Unilateral hypoplasia of the mandible, congenital anomalies of the external ear and cervical spine pathology identified in this case are common major signs/symptoms of Goldenhar (Goldenhar-Gorlin) syndrome. Complete fusion of bodies and spinous processes of the second and third cervical vertebrae as well as atlantooccipital assimilation and anterior cleft of the atlas were also found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3941/jrcr.v13i11.3687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060003PMC
November 2019

Revision of the sixgill sawsharks, genus Pliotrema (Chondrichthyes, Pristiophoriformes), with descriptions of two new species and a redescription of P. warreni Regan.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(3):e0228791. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.

Recent sampling efforts in Madagascar and Zanzibar, as well as examinations of six-gilled sawsharks in several museum collections provided evidence for a complex of species within Pliotrema warreni Regan. The present manuscript contains a redescription of P. warreni involving the syntypes and additional material, as well as formal descriptions of two new species of Pliotrema Regan. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228791PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080233PMC