Clin Plast Surg 2019 Oct 17;46(4):505-513. Epub 2019 Jul 17.
Department of Plastic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, A60, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:
In this article, we review the history of the facelift operation and how it evolved from skin excision only to the modern superficial musculoaponeurotic system operation. We describe the critical surgical anatomy of the facial layers, retaining ligaments of the face, facial spaces, the 3-dimensional complex course of the facial nerve branches, and the pertinent anatomy of the neck. This article is supplemented by fresh cadaver anatomic dissections. Read More