949 results match your criteria Facelift Anatomy

Superficial Fascia of the Cheek Shown in P45 Sheet Plastination.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):759-761

Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Abstract: In this paper, the authors attempted to determine the extent of the superficial fascia of the cheek using P45 sheet plastination.Three head and neck specimens were sliced in horizontal (46 slices), coronal (30 slices), and sagittal (29 slices) sections using P45 sheet plastination (special polyester resin corrosion-resistant method designed to preserve biological sectional specimens in situ). Through slicing, bleaching, dehydration, casting, forced impregnation, curing, cutting, and sanding the molds, P45 plastination sheets provided good light transmission, allowing the internal structures within the sheet to reveal clearly in their intact form. Read More

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Facelift Part II: Surgical Techniques and Complications.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Although previous publications have reviewed face and neck-lift anatomy and technique from different perspectives, seldom were the most-relevant anatomical details and widely practiced techniques comprehensively summarized in a single work. As a result, the beginner is left with a plethora of varied publications that require sorting, re-arrangement, and critical reading. A recent survey of US plastic surgery residents and program directors disclosed less facility with facelift surgery when compared to aesthetic surgery of the breast and trunk. Read More

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February 2021

A Comprehensive Approach to Midface Rejuvenation: Our Philosophy, Algorithm, and Surgical Technique.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Apr 31;37(2):160-167. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Division of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York.

With a greater understanding of the aging process and relevant anatomy, the facial plastic surgeon has an expansive armamentarium of options for midface rejuvenation. Upon reflection, our practice has evolved over the years and only recently found a select number of interventions that have consistently produced excellent results. In this article, we discuss the steps needed to establish an effective patient relationship, present an algorithm on how to approach midface rejuvenation, describe our surgical technique, and review the attributes and liabilities of each procedure. Read More

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Comparison of Single- Versus Dual-Vector Technique Using Facial Suspension Threads: A Cadaveric Study Using Skin Vector Displacement Analysis.

Dermatol Surg 2020 12;46(12):1721-1727

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Facial suspension threads have been successfully used for facial soft-tissue repositioning. When using facial suspension threads, it is unclear which technique and/or material has the greatest lifting effect for the middle and lower face or which technique/material best reduces the appearance of the jowls.

Material And Methods: Three female and 2 male cephalic specimens of Caucasian ethnicity (65. Read More

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December 2020

Basic Consideration for Facial Aging: Analyses of the Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Based on Anatomy.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 02;41(3):NP113-NP123

Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: The superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) is an important structure to understand for face-lift surgeries. However, the detailed distribution and imaging findings of the SMAS have not been established yet.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the accurate distribution and computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of the SMAS based on cadaveric studies. Read More

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February 2021

A dose-response study of nanosecond electric energy pulses on facial skin.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2020 Jul 7;22(4-5):195-199. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Dept. Dermatology, Pulse Biosciences Inc, Hayward, CA, USA.

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields, also known as Nano-Pulse Stimulation or NPS, can trigger regulated cell death to clear skin lesions that are cellular in nature. Before treating facial lesions, it is important to demonstrate the effects of these pulses on normal facial skin. Here we have applied a range of NPS energies to the epidermis and dermis of normal facial skin scheduled for excision to establish a safe dose range of energies prior to use in clinical applications. Read More

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Multimodal Radiofrequency Application for Lower Face and Neck Laxity.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2020 Aug 26;8(8):e2862. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, BodySculpt, New York, N.Y.

Nonexcisional facial skin tightening has long been an elusive goal in aesthetic surgery. The "treatment gap" includes cases who are not "severe" enough for excisions surgery but not "mild" enough for most traditional noninvasive aesthetic modalities. In this retrospective review, we present the largest evaluation to date of radiofrequency (RF) skin tightening technology combination including bipolar RF (FaceTite; InMode) and fractional bipolar RF (Fractora modified to Morpheus8; InMode). Read More

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Facelift Surgery: History, Anatomy, and Recent Innovations.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Sep 16. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Facelift surgery has become a beautifully predictable, safe, and extremely effective operation. Our patients can expect natural and long-lasting results as a direct outcome of our improved understanding and applications of surgical facial anatomy. Rhytidectomy, once an operation of simple well-placed elliptical skin excisions, evolved to include longer skin flaps, skin and platysma flaps with various superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) manipulations, and various deep plane techniques involving the skin and SMAS as a single unit composite flap. Read More

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September 2020

Use of Polydioxanone Threads as an Alternative in Nonsurgical Procedures in Facial Rejuvenation.

Roxana Cobo

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Aug 31;36(4):447-452. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Otolaryngology,Centro Médico Imbanaco, Cali, Colombia.

Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures are in increasing demand worldwide. Patients are constantly searching for office-based techniques that can help improve the signs of aging but without the morbidity of a surgical procedure. Thread lifting with polydioxanone (PDO) sutures is a cosmetic procedure where lax tissue is lifted and repositioned trying to create a more youthful looking facial contour. Read More

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Another Look at Platysmaplasty in Facelifting.

Fred G Fedok

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Aug 31;36(4):395-403. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Fedok Plastic Surgery, Foley, Alabama.

Over the history of facial rejuvenation surgery there has been a progressive assimilation of knowledge about the anatomy of neck structures that are central to the manifestations of the aging neck. These advances in knowledge have been accompanied by the innovation and introduction of several surgical techniques to restore the neck to a more youthful appearance. The rejuvenation of the aging neck frequently incorporates a consideration and execution of accepted methods to restore the platysma muscles to a more aesthetic form. Read More

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Deep-Plane Approach to the Vertical Platysma Advancement: Technical Modifications and Nuances over 25 Years.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Aug 31;36(4):358-375. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Division of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

In this article, we will provide the reader with the anatomical and embryologic evidence supporting the use of the deep-plane approach in rhytidectomy and insight into the evolution of the technique into the vertical platysma advancement. The original description of the deep-plane technique only described a basic superficial muscular aponeurotic system dissection in the midface with the ability to use tension on the flap without aesthetic consequences. This plane of dissection provides additional advantages not previously described, including access to deeper anatomical structures such as the buccal fat pad, and allows in vivo assessment and treatment of jowling. Read More

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Demystifying the Deep Plane Facelift: What It Means Anatomically and Why It Works.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Aug 31;36(4):351-357. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Rhytidectomy is a common procedure performed by facial plastic surgeons. On well-selected patients, rhytidectomy rejuvenates the aging face by repositioning soft tissues and improving facial shape. The fundamental goal of rhytidectomy, or facelift surgery, is to provide a more youthful facial appearance by elevating soft tissues that often descend with aging. Read More

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The "Segmental SMAS Model": A Didactic Concept of Face and Neck Lift Anatomy.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Aug 31;36(4):337-350. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Bezirkskrankenhaus Lienz, Lienz, Austria.

Profound understanding of the surgical anatomy of the face and neck is the key to successful face lift surgery. The "Segmental SMAS Model" presented herein is the result of a decade-long effort in teaching fellows a logical and coherent anatomic model of face lift anatomy. The superficial musculo-aponeurotic system (SMAS) consists of segments with distinct surgical characteristics. Read More

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Anatomic Characteristics and Treatment of the Midcheek Groove by Deep Filling.

Dermatol Surg 2021 02;47(2):e47-e52

Center of Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Because the anatomic mechanisms underlying the formation of the midcheek groove are unclear, treatments to date have resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes.

Objective: This study investigated the anatomical foundation of the midcheek groove and evaluated appropriate treatment methods.

Materials And Methods: Six cadaver hemifacial specimens were subjected to gross anatomic dissection and 6 to P45 sheet plastination. Read More

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February 2021

Regenerative application of stromal vascular fraction cells enhanced fat graft maintenance: clinical assessment in face rejuvenation.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2020 12 2;20(12):1503-1513. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute of Dermatology, F. Policlinico Gemelli IRCSS, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore , Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the use of FG-SVFs in face rejuvenation for esthetic improvement.

Methods: 33 female patients affected by face's soft-tissue defects with loss of volume, study group (SG), were treated with FG-SVFs, comparing results with a control group (CG) (n = 30) treated with fat graft not enhanced (FG). Clinical evaluation, a photographic assessment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) were performed. Read More

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December 2020

Skin Excursion with Cannula Lipodissection and the Anatomical Implications of Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Movement in the Tumescent Face Lift.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 08;146(2):269-276

From Atlanta Plastic Surgery P.C.; and the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Health System.

Background: The tumescent face lift uses the concept of subcutaneous cannula lipodissection of the neck, as opposed to wide skin undermining. Lipodissection mobilizes soft tissue while preserving perforating neurovascular branches. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to compare the skin recruitment with subcutaneous lipodissection of the neck alone versus wide undermining and (2) to examine the effect of superiorly oriented superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) movement on jowl excursion in the tumescent face lift. Read More

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Clinical validation of the temporal lifting technique using soft tissue fillers.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Oct 27;19(10):2529-2535. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: While the temporal lifting technique has gained increasing attention, there is a dearth of objective and reliable evidence of its effects.

Aim: The objective of the present study is to analyze the ability of the temporal lifting technique to reduce the midfacial volume by soft tissue repositioning and to achieve an improved pan-facial appearance by targeting exclusively the subdermal plane of the posterior and superior temple with soft tissue fillers.

Methods: A total of 12 patients (1 male and 11 females) with a mean age of 36. Read More

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October 2020

Distribution of the Laterally Supplying Facial Nerve to the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 01;41(2):161-169

Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The facial nerve that traverses the lateral border of the orbicularis oculi muscle is considered the primary motor for the muscle. Nevertheless, the lateral motor supply to the orbicularis oculi muscle has not yet been fully described.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to report detailed anatomic information about the lateral motor supply route to the orbicularis oculi. Read More

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January 2021

Surgical Anatomy for Extended Facelift Techniques.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Jun 17;36(3):309-316. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Preservation of the facial nerve is crucial in any type of facial procedure. This is even more important when performing plastic surgery on the face. An intricate knowledge of the course of the facial nerve is a requisite prior to performing facelifts, regardless of the technique used. Read More

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The Influence of the Insertion Angle on Middle and Lower Face Tissue-Mechanics When Treating the Nasolabial Folds with Facial Suspension Threads-An Experimental Split-Face Cadaveric Study.

Facial Plast Surg 2020 Jun 8;36(3):268-275. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Clinical Anatomy, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota.

A novel treatment approach to address the nasolabial fold is the insertion facial suspension threads. However, there is a paucity of data available to guide insertion techniques and material selection. Three female and two male cephalic specimens of Caucasian ethnicity (73. Read More

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Approaches to Reducing Risk in Rhytidectomy Surgery.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):419-427. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA; American Board of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Private Practice, Easthampton, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Please verify edit, "complications could". All operations have sequelae. These are to be expected and must be told to patients. Read More

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Incorporating Midline Platysmaplasty with Lateral Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Facelifting.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):369-378. Epub 2020 May 6.

Meridian Plastic Surgeons, 170 West 106th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46290, USA.

Management of the platysma is key to achieving an ideal neck contour during rhytidectomy. This article reviews platysmal anatomy, indications for platysmaplasty, preoperative patient assessment, surgical technique for midline platysmaplasty, postoperative management, long-term outcomes, and the senior author's experience and philosophy on midline platysmaplasty in the setting of lateral superficial muscular aponeurotic system facelifting. Read More

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A Novel Volumizing Extended Deep-Plane Facelift: Using Composite Flap Shifts to Volumize the Midface and Jawline.

Andrew A Jacono

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug;28(3):331-368

NY Center for Facial Plastic & Laser Surgery/JSpa Medical Spa, 630 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Traditional superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) facelifting surgery uses a laminar surgical dissection. This approach does not treat areas of facial volume loss, and requires additional volume supplementation with fat grafting or fillers. The novel volumizing extended deep-plane facelift uses a composite approach to the facelift flap. Read More

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From the Deep-Plane Rhytidectomy to the Vertical Platysma Advancement.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):311-330. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Otolaryngology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA; Section of Facial Plastics and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, St. Barnabas Medical Center-RWJ Health, Livingston, NJ, USA.

This article provides the facial plastic surgeon with anatomic and embryologic evidence supporting use of the deep-plane technique and understanding the evolution of the technique over decades to the vertical platysma advancement for optimal treatment of facial aging. The original description of the deep-plane rhytidectomy described a basic subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system dissection in the midface. This plane of dissection provides access to deeper anatomic structures. Read More

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Nuances in Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Rhytidectomy.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug;28(3):285-301

Surgery, Facial Plastic Surgery, Rousso Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic, 2700 Highway 280, Suite 300 West, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA.

Rhytidectomy techniques have evolved since the early 1900s. As the understanding of facial anatomy and the aging process expanded, the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) became a focal point in developing longer-lasting, natural results. Further evolution led to various approaches in repositioning the SMAS layer, including subperiosteal, composite, and deep plane rhytidectomies. Read More

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Less Invasive Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Approaches in Rhytidectomy: How, When, and Why.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 29;28(3):273-283. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Holzapfel & Lied Plastic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

As a facial plastic surgeon gains experience, further improvements can be gained with more aggressive surgery, but complications begin to occur when more aggressive measures are undertaken. Therefore, the ideal technique is one that maximizes rejuvenation while minimizing adverse effects. The senior author has found that the aggressive techniques in the region of the neck have improved dramatically the overall initial and long-term results for the neck portion of the rhytidectomy. Read More

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Subunit Approach to Facelifting and Facial Rejuvenation.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):253-272. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Advanced Facial Plastic Surgery, 9401 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 650, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA.

Facial analysis techniques traditionally separate the upper, middle, and lower facial thirds as distinct entities without guidance in achieving aesthetic youthfulness. There is now an opportunity to develop better analytical tools and specific algorithms to help create an overall harmony to the face and restore a youthful appearance. Facial anatomic subunits have similar three-dimensional qualities based on underlying anatomic structures, craniofacial skeletal modeling, superficial and deep facial fat compartments, skin thickness, facial muscle activity, and curvature (flat, convex, concave). Read More

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Superficial and Deep Facial Anatomy and Its Implications for Rhytidectomy.

Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2020 Aug 6;28(3):243-251. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Semmelweis University, Jozsef krt. 30-32., 2.em. 5/A, Budapest 1085, Hungary; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.

The relationship of the skin, the superficial and deep fat compartments, and the ligaments that connect these structures is key to performing any rhytidectomy. In order to successfully mobilize, elevate, and reposition the facial soft tissues, a detailed understanding of facial anatomy is required. This article details the anatomy of the midface and neck that is essential to understanding and performing the face-lift operation. Read More

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