1,060 results match your criteria F1000 medicine reports[Journal]


Recent advances in cytokinesis: understanding the molecular underpinnings.

F1000Res 2018 26;7. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Departments of Cell Biology and Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA.

During cytokinesis, the cell employs various molecular machineries to separate into two daughters. Many signaling pathways are required to ensure temporal and spatial coordination of the molecular and mechanical events. Cells can also coordinate division with neighboring cells to maintain tissue integrity and flexibility. Read More

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November 2018

New hypoglycemic agents and the kidney: what do the major trials tell us?

F1000Res 2018 23;7. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Sydney, Australia.

As the burden of diabetic kidney disease continues to expand, new therapies to preserve renal function or prevent diabetic nephropathy are urgently needed. In the past decade, a number of new hypoglycemic classes have emerged, each with a unique profile of action and benefits. Here we review the impact of glycemic control on renal outcomes and the results of the major clinical trials of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Read More

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November 2018

Multiple evolutionary origins of giant viruses.

F1000Res 2018 22;7. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) are a monophyletic group of diverse eukaryotic viruses that reproduce primarily in the cytoplasm of the infected cells and include the largest viruses currently known: the giant mimiviruses, pandoraviruses, and pithoviruses. With virions measuring up to 1.5 μm and genomes of up to 2. Read More

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November 2018

Recent advances in understanding the ryanodine receptor calcium release channels and their role in calcium signalling.

F1000Res 2018 27;7. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, John Curtin School of Medical Research, 131 Garran Road, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT, 2601, Australia.

The ryanodine receptor calcium release channel is central to cytoplasmic Ca signalling in skeletal muscle, the heart, and many other tissues, including the central nervous system, lymphocytes, stomach, kidney, adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, thymus, and lungs. The ion channel protein is massive (more than 2.2 MDa) and has a structure that has defied detailed determination until recent developments in cryo-electron microscopy revealed much of its structure at near-atomic resolution. Read More

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November 2018

From bedside to bench and back again: translational studies of mechanical unloading of the left ventricle to promote recovery after acute myocardial infarction.

F1000Res 2018 27;7. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Heart failure is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a primary cause of heart failure due in large part to residual myocardial damage despite timely reperfusion therapy. Since the 1970's, multiple preclinical laboratories have tested whether reducing myocardial oxygen demand with a mechanical support pump can reduce infarct size in AMI. Read More

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November 2018

Ovarian ageing and the impact on female fertility.

F1000Res 2018 22;7. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Monash Health, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Female fertility decreases with increasing age, a reflection of declining oocyte quantity and quality. The menopausal transition occurs when the oocyte quantity falls below a threshold level. The pattern of follicular depletion as well as the factors, timing and mechanisms surrounding both declining oocyte number and oocyte quality remain incompletely understood. Read More

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November 2018

Voltage-gated calcium channel α δ subunits: an assessment of proposed novel roles.

F1000Res 2018 21;7. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Voltage-gated calcium (Ca) channels are associated with β and αδ auxiliary subunits. This review will concentrate on the function of the αδ protein family, which has four members. The canonical role for αδ subunits is to convey a variety of properties on the Ca1 and Ca2 channels, increasing the density of these channels in the plasma membrane and also enhancing their function. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Recent advances in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

F1000Res 2018 21;7. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Over the last few years, certain areas in the management nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) that have an impact on the care of these patients have evolved, particularly with regard to liquid biopsies, minimally invasive surgery, and advances in chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Beyond its proven role in the diagnostics, surveillance, and treatment of NPC, liquid biopsy with plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA in the screening of high-risk populations for NPC is strongly supported by recent evidence. Surgery of the nasopharynx is reserved for locally recurrent NPC, and in recent years there have been great strides in minimally invasive techniques with survival rates similar to those of open techniques in treating NPC. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

RNA interactomics: recent advances and remaining challenges.

F1000Res 2018 20;7. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Computational Biology Group, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 70569, Germany.

Tight regulation of cellular processes is key to the development of complex organisms but also vital for simpler ones. During evolution, different regulatory systems have emerged, among them RNA-based regulation that is carried out mainly by intramolecular and intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions. However, methods for the transcriptome-wide detection of these interactions were long unavailable. Read More

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November 2018

Chondrosarcoma: biology, genetics, and epigenetics.

Authors:
Warren A Chow

F1000Res 2018 20;7. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Chondrosarcomas constitute a heterogeneous group of primary bone cancers characterized by hyaline cartilaginous neoplastic tissue. They are the second most common primary bone malignancy. The vast majority of chondrosarcomas are conventional chondrosarcomas, and most conventional chondrosarcomas are low- to intermediate-grade tumors (grade 1 or 2) which have indolent clinical behavior and low metastatic potential. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Transcripts and tumors: regulatory and metabolic programming during biotrophic phytopathogenesis.

F1000Res 2018 19;7. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute for Microbiology and Genetics, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, Georg-August-University-Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, D-37077, Germany.

Biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants must sense and adapt to the host environment to complete their life cycles. Recent transcriptome studies of the infection of maize by the biotrophic pathogen are providing molecular insights into an ordered program of changes in gene expression and the deployment of effectors as well as key features of nutrient acquisition. In particular, the transcriptome data provide a deeper appreciation of the complexity of the transcription factor network that controls the biotrophic program of invasion, proliferation, and sporulation. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Breaking point: the genesis and impact of structural variation in tumours.

F1000Res 2018 19;7. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, EH42XU, UK.

Somatic structural variants undoubtedly play important roles in driving tumourigenesis. This is evident despite the substantial technical challenges that remain in accurately detecting structural variants and their breakpoints in tumours and in spite of our incomplete understanding of the impact of structural variants on cellular function. Developments in these areas of research contribute to the ongoing discovery of structural variation with a clear impact on the evolution of the tumour and on the clinical importance to the patient. Read More

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November 2018

Vimentin on the move: new developments in cell migration.

F1000Res 2018 15;7. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

The vimentin gene ( ) encodes one of the 71 human intermediate filament (IF) proteins, which are the building blocks of highly ordered, dynamic, and cell type-specific fiber networks. Vimentin is a multi-functional 466 amino acid protein with a high degree of evolutionary conservation among vertebrates. mice, though viable, exhibit systemic defects related to development and wound repair, which may have implications for understanding human disease pathogenesis. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Recent advances in non-surgical management of cancer in the elderly.

F1000Res 2018 15;7. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792, USA.

This article summarizes the seminal publications from mid-2016 through 2017 in the area of medical care for older adults with cancer. Areas addressed include chemotherapy tolerance and efficacy in the aged, geriatric fitness assessments, and advancements in palliative and supportive care. The practice-changing finding from this past year's publications is that antipsychotics should not be used in the management of terminal delirium in older adults receiving palliative care. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Recent advances in imaging and understanding interstitial cystitis.

F1000Res 2018 9;7. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Urology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213, USA.

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating condition associated with intense pelvic pain and bladder storage symptoms. Since diagnosis is difficult, prevalence estimates vary with the methodology used. There is also a lack of proven imaging tools and biomarkers to assist in differentiation of IC/BPS from other urinary disorders (overactive bladder, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and prostatitis). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Recent advances in branching mechanisms underlying neuronal morphogenesis.

F1000Res 2018 12;7. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Proper neuronal wiring is central to all bodily functions, sensory perception, cognition, memory, and learning. Establishment of a functional neuronal circuit is a highly regulated and dynamic process involving axonal and dendritic branching and navigation toward appropriate targets and connection partners. This intricate circuitry includes axo-dendritic synapse formation, synaptic connections formed with effector cells, and extensive dendritic arborization that function to receive and transmit mechanical and chemical sensory inputs. Read More

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November 2018

Recent advances in understanding dominant spinocerebellar ataxias from clinical and genetic points of view.

F1000Res 2018 12;7. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne University, Paris, 75013, France.

Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are rare types of cerebellar ataxia with a dominant mode of inheritance. To date, 47 SCA subtypes have been identified, and the number of genes implicated in SCAs is continually increasing. Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion diseases ( /SCA1, /SCA2, /SCA3, /SCA6, /SCA7, /SCA17, and /DRPLA) are the most common group of SCAs. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Recent advances in managing brain metastasis.

F1000Res 2018 9;7. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami Cancer Institute, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL, USA.

Brain metastases are the most common malignancy encountered in the central nervous system (CNS), with up to 30-40% of cancer patients developing brain metastases at some point during the course of their disease. The management of brain metastasis is rapidly evolving and the roles of local therapies such as whole-brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and resection along with systemic therapies are in flux. An emphasis on the neurocognitive side effects associated with treatment has gained prominence. Read More

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November 2018

Moving things forward in Hodgkin lymphoma.

F1000Res 2018 13;7. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

German Hodgkin Study Group and Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, 50937, Germany.

Arising from the immune system and located primarily in lymphoid organs, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is one of the most common cancers in young adults. Risk-adapted first-line treatment usually consisting of multi-agent chemotherapy and often incorporating consolidative radiation therapy aims at long-term cure. Although this is achieved in the vast majority of patients, therapy-related side effects such as organ damage, second cancers, and fatigue constitute considerable sequelae and outweigh HL as the cause of mortality after successful first-line treatment. Read More

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November 2018

Metabolic interactions between and its host.

F1000Res 2018 30;7. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

FG16 - Mycotic and Parasitic Agents and Mycobacteria, Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany.

is an obligate intracellular parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa that infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans. can replicate in every nucleated host cell by orchestrating metabolic interactions to derive crucial nutrients. In this review, we summarize the current status of known metabolic interactions of with its host cell and discuss open questions and promising experimental approaches that will allow further dissection of the host-parasite interface and discovery of ways to efficiently target both tachyzoite and bradyzoite forms of , which are associated with acute and chronic infection, respectively. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Recent advances in understanding and preventing peanut and tree nut hypersensitivity.

F1000Res 2018 30;7. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Departments of Pediatric and Adolescent Dermatology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, USA.

Peanut allergy, the most persistent and deadly of the food allergies, has become more prevalent worldwide in recent decades. Numerous explanations have been offered for the rise in peanut allergy, which has been more pronounced in Western, industrialized nations. In infants who are at increased risk of peanut allergy, new evidence indicates that early introduction of peanuts can help prevent allergy development. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Advances in prostate cancer imaging.

F1000Res 2018 24;7. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Many exciting advances in medical imaging have been made in recent years that will alter the way we diagnose, stage, and treat patients with prostate cancer. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as the main modality for prostate cancer imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography may be strong alternatives in patients who cannot undergo MRI. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Does cardiac development provide heart research with novel therapeutic approaches?

F1000Res 2018 6;7. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Cellular, Molecular, and Physiological Mechanisms of Heart Failure, Paris-Cardiovascular Research Center (PARCC), European Georges Pompidou Hospital (HEGP), INSERM U970, F-75737 Paris Cedex 15, Paris, France.

Embryonic heart progenitors arise at specific spatiotemporal periods that contribute to the formation of distinct cardiac structures. In mammals, the embryonic and fetal heart is hypoxic by comparison to the adult heart. In parallel, the cellular metabolism of the cardiac tissue, including progenitors, undergoes a glycolytic to oxidative switch that contributes to cardiac maturation. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Making progress in a rare disease: emerging therapeutics in soft tissue sarcomas.

F1000Res 2018 2;7. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Sarcomas are rare tumors derived from mesenchymal connective tissues in the body. Because there are well over 50 histologic sarcoma subtypes, including malignant and non-malignant pathologies, clinical courses and therapeutic management are widely divergent. In general, therapeutic options across all soft tissue sarcomas are limited in number and are often generalized across multiple sarcoma histologies. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Clinical management of herpes simplex virus infections: past, present, and future.

F1000Res 2018 31;7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.

Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 is ubiquitous in the human population. Most commonly, virus replication is limited to the epithelia and establishes latency in enervating sensory neurons, reactivating periodically to produce localized recurrent lesions. However, these viruses can also cause severe disease such as recurrent keratitis leading potentially to blindness, as well as encephalitis, and systemic disease in neonates and immunocompromised patients. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Recent advances in understanding and managing myasthenia gravis.

F1000Res 2018 31;7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, The Ohio State Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular junction disorder marked clinically by fatigable muscle weakness and serologically by the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LPR4). Over the past few decades, the mortality of patients with MG has seen a dramatic decline secondary to evolving interventions in critical care and medical management. In the past 2 to 3 years, there have been several changes in standard of care for the treatment of MG. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Maternal immunisation: What have been the gains? Where are the gaps? What does the future hold?

F1000Res 2018 1;7. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Ritchie Centre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The vaccination of pregnant women has enormous potential to protect not only mothers from vaccine-preventable diseases but also their infants through the passive acquisition of protective antibodies before they are able to themselves acquire protection through active childhood immunisations. Maternal tetanus programmes have been in place since 1989, and as of March 2018, only 14 countries in the world were still to reach maternal neonatal tetanus elimination status. This has saved hundreds of thousands of lives. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Towards personalized medicine in Ménière's disease.

F1000Res 2018 15;7. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Clinique du Vertige, Centre Hospitalier Emile Mayrisch, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Ménière's disease (MD) represents a heterogeneous group of relatively rare disorders with three core symptoms: episodic vertigo, tinnitus, and sensorineural hearing loss involving 125 to 2,000 Hz frequencies. The majority of cases are considered sporadic, although familial aggregation has been recognized in European and Korean populations, and the search for familial MD genes has been elusive until the last few years. Detailed phenotyping and cluster analyses have found several clinical predictors for different subgroups of patients, which may indicate different mechanisms, including genetic and immune factors. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Publishing peer review materials.

F1000Res 2018 17;7:1655. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

PeerJ, London, UK.

Publishing peer review materials alongside research articles promises to make the peer review process more transparent as well as making it easier to recognise these contributions and give credit to peer reviewers. Traditionally, the peer review reports, editors letters and author responses are only shared between the small number of people in those roles prior to publication, but there is a growing interest in making some or all of these materials available. A small number of journals have been publishing peer review materials for some time, others have begun this practice more recently, and significantly more are now considering how they might begin. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Managing invasive species.

Authors:
Patrick C Tobin

F1000Res 2018 23;7. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Invasive species pose considerable harm to native ecosystems and biodiversity and frustrate and at times fascinate the invasive species management and scientific communities. Of the numerous non-native species established around the world, only a minority of them are invasive and noxious, whereas the majority are either benign or in fact beneficial. Agriculture in North America, for example, would look dramatically different if only native plants were grown as food crops and without the services of the European honey bee as a pollinator. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Recent advances in understanding the relationship between long- and short-term weight change and fertility.

Authors:
Audrey J Gaskins

F1000Res 2018 26;7. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

The impact of excess body weight on fertility is well recognized among both women attempting to conceive spontaneously and those attempting to conceive with medical assistance. Although many leading societies of reproductive medicine have proposed weight loss as a means to counteract the negative consequences of obesity on fertility, there is limited research on this topic. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the recent advances in the literature focused on how long- and short-term weight change affects fertility among women. Read More

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October 2018

Recent advances in understanding Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

F1000Res 2018 29;7. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID/NIH, Hamilton, Montana, 59840, USA.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a widely distributed hemorrhagic fever virus and the cause of hemorrhagic disease in Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, India and Asia. Recent emergence of CCHFV into Spain indicates that the geographic range of this virus is expanding and the presence of its tick vector in several countries without reported disease suggest that CCHFV will continue to spread. Research into CCHFV was historically limited by a lack of suitable animal models and tools to study viral pathogenesis. Read More

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October 2018
13 Reads

Helminth parasites and immune regulation.

F1000Res 2018 23;7. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Building 4, Room 211, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Helminth parasites are complex metazoans that belong to different taxonomic families but that collectively share the capacity to downregulate the host immune response directed toward themselves (parasite-specific immunoregulation). During long-standing chronic infection, these helminths appear able to suppress immune responses to bystander pathogens/antigens and atopic, autoimmune, and metabolic disorders. Helminth-induced immunoregulation occurs through the induction of regulatory T cells or Th2-type cells (or both). Read More

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October 2018

Epigenomic regulation of heart failure: integrating histone marks, long noncoding RNAs, and chromatin architecture.

F1000Res 2018 29;7. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Departments of Anesthesiology, Medicine, and Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Epigenetic processes are known to have powerful roles in organ development across biology. It has recently been found that some of the chromatin modulatory machinery essential for proper development plays a previously unappreciated role in the pathogenesis of cardiac disease in adults. Investigations using genetic and pharmacologic gain- and loss-of-function approaches have interrogated the function of distinct epigenetic regulators, while the increased deployment of the suite of next-generation sequencing technologies have fundamentally altered our understanding of the genomic targets of these chromatin modifiers. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Mask ventilation.

Authors:
Paul Baker

F1000Res 2018 23;7. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Effective mask ventilation is an essential skill for any practitioner engaged in airway management. Recent methods to objectively describe mask ventilation using waveform capnography help practitioners to monitor and communicate the effectiveness of mask ventilation. Gentle mask ventilation is now considered acceptable during rapid sequence induction/intubation after loss of consciousness, hence reducing the incidence of hypoxia prior to tracheal intubation. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Recent advances in lung transplantation.

Authors:
Keith C Meyer

F1000Res 2018 23;7. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

UW Lung Transplant & Advanced Pulmonary Disease Program, Section of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Lung transplantation can improve quality of life and prolong survival for individuals with end-stage lung disease, and many advances in the realms of both basic science and clinical research aspects of lung transplantation have emerged over the past few decades. However, many challenges must yet be overcome to increase post-transplant survival. These include successfully bridging patients to transplant, expanding the lung donor pool, inducing tolerance, and preventing a myriad of post-transplant complications that include primary graft dysfunction, forms of cellular and antibody-mediated rejection, chronic lung allograft dysfunction, and infections. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

What is the hologenome concept of evolution?

Authors:
J Jeffrey Morris

F1000Res 2018 19;7. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

All multicellular organisms are colonized by microbes, but a gestalt study of the composition of microbiome communities and their influence on the ecology and evolution of their macroscopic hosts has only recently become possible. One approach to thinking about the topic is to view the host-microbiome ecosystem as a "holobiont". Because natural selection acts on an organism's realized phenotype, and the phenotype of a holobiont is the result of the integrated activities of both the host and all of its microbiome inhabitants, it is reasonable to think that evolution can act at the level of the holobiont and cause changes in the "hologenome", or the collective genomic content of all the individual bionts within the holobiont. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

F1000Res 2018 22;7. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, B-2650 Edegem (Antwerp), Belgium.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease of the pleura and is largely related to asbestos exposure. Despite recent advancements in technologies and a greater understanding of the disease, the prognosis of MPM remains poor; the median overall survival rate is about 6 to 9 months in untreated patients. The main therapeutic strategies for MPM are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Recent advances in management of acalculous cholecystitis.

Authors:
Bryan Balmadrid

F1000Res 2018 18;7. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of Washington Harborview Medical Center Campus, Seattle, USA.

Acalculous cholecystitis is a life-threatening gallbladder infection that typically affects the critically ill. A late diagnosis can have devastating outcomes because of the high risk of gallbladder perforation if untreated. The diagnosis is not straightforward as Murphy's sign is difficult to illicit in the critically ill and many imaging findings are either insensitive or non-specific. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Recent advances in bronchoscopy.

Authors:
Elaine Dumoulin

F1000Res 2018 16;7. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

Bronchoscopy is a very common tool for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes in dealing with diseases of the lungs and the airways. Thankfully, a multitude of new technologies have made it more accessible for the use of physicians. This article is a review of the indication of bronchoscopy as it is being used today for a variety of chest pathologies. Read More

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October 2018

Cholesterol metabolism in innate and adaptive response.

F1000Res 2018 16;7. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California, 94158, USA.

It has been long recognized that cholesterol is a critical molecule in mammalian cell biology, primarily for its contribution to the plasma membrane's composition and its role in assuring proper transmembrane receptor signaling as part of lipid rafts. Efforts have also been made to characterize the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, cholesterol homeostasis, and cholesterol-derived metabolites in order to gain insights into their dysregulation during metabolic diseases. Despite the central role cholesterol metabolism plays in shaping human health, its regulation during immune activation, such as immune response to pathogens or autoimmune/autoinflammatory diseases, is poorly understood. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Recent advances in understanding and managing chronic constipation.

F1000Res 2018 15;7. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research Program and Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Constipation, a condition characterized by heterogeneous symptoms, is common in Western society. It is associated with reduced physical health, mental health, and social functioning. Because constipation is rarely due to a life-threatening disease (for example, colon cancer), current guidelines recommend empiric therapy. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Recent advances in understanding non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

F1000Res 2018 11;7. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC) and Center for Applied Biomedical Research (CRBA), Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna and S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a condition characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing foods in the absence of celiac disease and wheat allergy. The diagnosis is cumbersome and currently confirmed only by gluten withdrawal and double-blind placebo challenge protocols. There is great overlap in symptoms between NCGS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders, making a differential diagnosis difficult. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Small RNA trafficking at the forefront of plant-pathogen interactions.

F1000Res 2018 11;7. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Plants and pathogenic microbes are engaged in constant attacks and counterattacks at the interface of the interacting organisms. Much of the molecular warfare involves cross-kingdom trafficking of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites that act as toxins, inhibitors, lytic enzymes, and signaling molecules. How various molecules are transported across the boundaries of plants and pathogens has remained largely unknown until now. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Advances in the management of craniopharyngioma.

F1000Res 2018 11;7. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, 2015 North Jefferson Street, Jacksonville, FL 32206, USA.

Craniopharyngioma is a curable benign tumor, but owing to its intimate relationship to critical structures in the central brain-such as the optic apparatus, pituitary, hypothalamus, intracranial vasculature, brain stem, and temporal lobes-its management introduces the risk of long-term treatment morbidity. Today, the most common treatment approach is conservative subtotal resection followed by radiotherapy, and the goal is to limit long-term toxicity. Many recent advances in the treatment of craniopharyngioma are attributable to improved surgical techniques and radiotherapy technologies. Read More

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October 2018

Recent advances in understanding dendritic cell development, classification, and phenotype.

F1000Res 2018 26;7. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the induction of adaptive immune responses against infectious agents and in the generation of tolerance to self-antigens. In this mini-review, we summarize new evidence suggesting that the tissue of residence significantly shapes the last developmental steps of DCs into locally adapted cellular entities, enabling them to perform tissue-specific tasks while maintaining the core DC properties. We also discuss recent advances that have highlighted DCs' rather complex phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment, based on their physical characteristics, such as activation status, maturity, and polarization, illustrating a key role for DCs in the induction of anti-tumor immunity. Read More

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September 2018

Protecting the heart in cancer therapy.

F1000Res 2018 28;7. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Section of Heart Failure and Transplantation Medicine, Robert and Suzanne Tomsich Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, USA.

Recent advances in cancer prevention and management have led to an exponential increase of cancer survivors worldwide. Regrettably, cardiovascular disease has risen in the aftermath as one of the most devastating consequences of cancer therapies. In this work, we define cancer therapeutics-induced cardiotoxicity as the direct or indirect cardiovascular injury or injurious effect caused by cancer therapies. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Recent advances in understanding colorectal cancer.

F1000Res 2018 24;7. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

The achievements in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer during recent years are based on a better understanding of the disease and individualized regimen planning. In adjuvant treatment, the highly important IDEA (International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy) study has shown that treatment duration can safely be reduced in selected patient populations. In patients with pN1 and pT1-pT3 tumors, 3 months of treatment with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin is comparable with respect to 3-year survival rate to 6 months of treatment. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Recent advances in the management of anal cancer.

F1000Res 2018 28;7. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Surgery, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Anal cancer is a rare condition, although its incidence has been increasing over the past several decades, particularly in women. The majority of anal cancers are squamous cell cancers and are linked with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Recent work in HPV basic science has delineated the mechanism by which the virus leads to the development of anal cancer. Read More

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September 2018
12 Reads

Role of alarmin cytokines and microRNAs in the host-schistosome interaction.

Authors:
Xing He Weiqing Pan

F1000Res 2018 28;7. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Tropical diseases, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Schistosomiasis is a serious but neglected tropical infectious disease, afflicting more than 240 million people in 78 countries. Lack of an effective vaccine and obscuring disease mechanism could be the main hurdles to effectively control and eradicate this disease. A better understanding of the host-schistosome interaction is the key to clearing these hurdles. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads