242 results match your criteria F1000 medicine reports[Journal]


Polyclonal free light chains: a biomarker of inflammatory disease or treatment target?

F1000 Med Rep 2013 1;5. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

Lung Function and Sleep Department, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB.

Free light chains are proteins produced by B lymphocytes during the process of antibody synthesis. Their production, as a reflection of B cell activation, can give insight into the activity of the adaptive immune system. In recent years, an automated immunoassay that provides quantitative measurement of free light chains in the serum has been developed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M5-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564472PMC
February 2013
11 Reads

Advances in lens implant technology.

F1000 Med Rep 2013 1;5. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich Germany.

Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of implants customized for each patient's individual requirements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M5-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564471PMC
February 2013
9 Reads

Stronger evidence is needed before accepting that cannabis plays an important role in the aetiology of schizophrenia in the population.

F1000 Med Rep 2013 11;5. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 1TU ; MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology Oakfield House 15-23 Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS8 2BN.

Schizophrenia is a debilitating but poorly understood condition with very few known modifiable risk factors. Cannabis use can acutely induce psychotic experiences, but its causal relationship to schizophrenia is less well understood. Longitudinal cohort studies suggest that the association between cannabis and psychotic outcomes is not due to chance or reverse causation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M5-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544397PMC
January 2013
14 Reads

Cannabis and psychosis: what causes what?

Authors:
David J Castle

F1000 Med Rep 2013 11;5. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Chair of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital and The University of Melbourne PO Box 2900 Fitzroy Victoria 3065, Australia.

Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cannabinoids also produce some psychophysiological deficits also known to be present in schizophrenia. It is also clear that, in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/prime/reports/m/5/1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M5-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544398PMC
January 2013
8 Reads

Prevention of atopic dermatitis.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 3;4:24. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham King's Meadow Campus, Lenton Lane, Nottingham, NG7 2NR, UK ; Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Dermatology Department Queen's Medical Centre Campus, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2RB, UK.

Atopic dermatitis now affects one in five children, and may progress to asthma and hay fever. In the absence of effective treatments that influence disease progression, prevention is a highly desirable goal. The evidence for most existing disease prevention strategies, such as avoidance of allergens and dietary interventions, has been unconvincing and inconsistent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515944PMC
December 2012
6 Reads

Lung inflammation in COPD: why does it matter?

F1000 Med Rep 2012 3;4:23. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

UBC James Hogg Research Center, St. Paul's Hospital Vancouver, BC, Canada ; Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital Goyang, South Korea.

COPD is characterized by lung inflammation, which intensifies with disease progression. Recent studies suggest that COPD has multiple phenotypes, each with a distinct molecular pathway. Proteolytic enzymes may have a prominent role in the emphysematous phenotype, while nitric oxide pathways may be more relevant for pulmonary vessel remodelling in COPD. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/prime/reports/m/4/23
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516832PMC
December 2012
8 Reads

Neuromodulation for treatment-resistant depression.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:22. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

Departments of Psychiatry and Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center 5D, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon NH 03756, USA.

Treatment-resistant depression affects at least 1-3% of the US population. This article reviews the current state of focal neuromodulation therapies for treatment-resistant depression, focusing on those treatments published clinical data. These include transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506219PMC
November 2012
6 Reads

Vaginal mesh - the controversy.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:21. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

Section of Female Urology and Voiding Dysfunction, Ochsner Clinic Foundation New Orleans, Louisiana.

Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition that can cause significant symptoms that affect a woman's quality of life. It is the result of defects in the supporting structures of the vagina and, depending on the location and size, can alter the functions of the organs contained within the female pelvis. Approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention for their prolapse or for incontinence in their lifetime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506218PMC
November 2012
8 Reads

The CNS and bladder dysfunction.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4:20. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 15213.

The brain's role in the development and maintenance of bladder control is critical, although its precise role in patient-reported complaints such as urgency and urine leakage is unknown. Functional brain imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of brain activity during the micturition cycle, showing multiple neuronal circuits involved as parts of a 'brain-bladder control network.' Yet, new advances need to be made in order to incorporate this knowledge into existing models of neuroanatomy and of clinical syndromes of bladder dysfunction and related clinical practice. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/4/20
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470460PMC
October 2012
8 Reads

Quick fix or long-term cure? Pros and cons of bariatric surgery.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4:19. Epub 2012 Oct 2.

Division of General Surgery Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 East Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ, USA 85259.

The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/4/19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470459PMC
October 2012
17 Reads

New therapeutic approaches for malignant glioma: in search of the Rosetta stone.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 5;4:18. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

The Brain Tumor Center, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine 5841 South Maryland Ave, M/C 3026, Chicago, IL 60637.

Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous, diffuse and highly infiltrating by nature. Despite wide surgical resection and improvements in radio- and chemotherapies, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme remains extremely poor, with a median survival time of only 14.5 months from diagnosis to death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438652PMC
October 2012
8 Reads

Sight restoration.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 5;4:17. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

46-4077, MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139.

Cases of sight onset after extended periods of congenital blindness provide windows into visual development and brain plasticity. Such cases are extremely rare in the developed world. Here, we make the argument that in meeting a public health challenge in the developing world, that of providing treatment to curably blind children, we have the opportunity to have a beneficial impact on science and society simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3438651PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

Active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer.

Authors:
Laurence Klotz

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:16. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave MG 408, Toronto Ontario M4N3M5.

Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with "curative-intent" treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at increased risk for disease progression. This is a response to the clearly documented risks of over diagnosis and overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer, which in most cases poses little or no threat to the patient. It is based upon the prolonged natural history of prostate cancer and is an attempt to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and a lost opportunity for cure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412317PMC
October 2012
3 Reads

Surrogate insulin-producing cells.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:15. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International 26 Broadway, 14th Floor, New York, NY, 10005 USA.

Diabetes, a large and growing worldwide health concern, affects the functional mass of the pancreatic beta cell, which in turn affects the glucose regulation of the body. Successful transplantation of cadaveric islets and pancreata for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes has provided proof-of-concept for the development of commercial cell therapy approaches to treat diabetes. Three broad issues must be addressed before surrogate insulin-producing cells can become a reality: the development of a surrogate beta-cell source, immunoprotection, and translation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412316PMC
October 2012
10 Reads

The future of genomics in pathology.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4:14. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

The recent advances in technology and the promise of cheap and fast whole genomic data offer the possibility to revolutionise the discipline of pathology. This should allow pathologists in the near future to diagnose disease rapidly and early to change its course, and to tailor treatment programs to the individual. This review outlines some of these technical advances and the changes needed to make this revolution a reality. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/4/14
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3391753PMC
October 2012
6 Reads

Stressing the heart of the matter: re-thinking the mechanisms underlying therapeutic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4:13. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Despite their clear therapeutic effects in coronary heart disease, use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to treat other types of cardiovascular disease remains controversial, and serious obstacles exist in implementing them as a reliable and consistent drug therapy. The foremost of these is that a molecular mechanism and relevant dosages have not been firmly established in other forms of cardiovascular disease. In this brief review, we highlight the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms behind n-3 PUFA action in the cardiovascular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3391752PMC
October 2012
4 Reads

New drugs to treat tuberculosis.

Authors:
Susan Swindells

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:12. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, 988106 Nebraska Medical Center Omaha, NE 68198-8106 USA.

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a leading cause of death for more than a century. While effective therapies exist, treatment is long and cumbersome. Tuberculosis control is complicated by the overlapping problems created by global inadequacy of public health infrastructures, the interaction of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics, and the emergence of drug-resistant TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370665PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

Advances in dermoscopy for detecting melanocytic lesions.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4:11. Epub 2012 Jun 1.

Over the last 30 years dermatological approaches to diagnosis and management of melanocytic lesions have been revolutionized by the introduction of dermoscopy. Continuous improvements are being made in applying the technique, mostly in melanoma diagnosis, follow-up of melanocytic lesions and nevogenesis. Identification of new dermoscopic criteria, such as the dermoscopic island and the blue-black color for thin and nodular melanoma, respectively, further add two new weapons in the dermoscopical armamentarium for diagnosis of otherwise featureless melanoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370664PMC
October 2012
8 Reads

Molecular beacons in diagnostics.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4:10. Epub 2012 May 2.

Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357010PMC
October 2012
17 Reads

Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism.

Authors:
Victor F Tapson

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4. Epub 2012 May 2.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Director, Center for Pulmonary Vascular Disease, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 USA.

Over the past two decades, considerable progress in technology and clinical research methods have led to advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute venous thromboembolism. Despite this, however, the diagnosis is still often missed and preventive methods are often ignored. Published guidelines are useful, but are limited by the existing evidence base so that controversies remain with regard to topics such as duration of anticoagulation, indications for placement and removal of inferior vena caval filters, and when and how to administer thrombolytic therapy. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/4/9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357009PMC
October 2012
5 Reads

Telomeres in disease.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Telomeres and telomere repair are basic molecular features of cells possessing linear DNA chromosomes and defects in them result in various diseases. This review examines recent advances in understanding these diseases, particularly at a molecular level, and in relating telomere dysfunction to clinical diseases. We also discuss the potential role of telomere elongation as a therapy in diseases, and more controversially, the prevention/reversal of aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3318193PMC
October 2012
8 Reads

Helicobacter pylori: Eradication or Preservation.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 2;4. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Membrane Biology Laboratory, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System West LA Medical Center, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, Building 113, Room 324, Los Angeles, CA 90073 USA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA.

Helicobacter pylori infects about 50% of the world's population and inevitably results in the development of gastritis. Of those infected, about 10% develop peptic ulcer disease and roughly 1% develop gastric cancer. Conversely, some take the view that H. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/4/7/pdf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3318258PMC
October 2012
7 Reads

Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Schizophrenia is one of the major and potentially severe mental illnesses. Even with best practices, there are limitations to the effectiveness of treatments that include medications for this disorder. Relapse rates are high and often those with the illness remain symptomatic and functionally impaired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292287PMC
October 2012
7 Reads

Kinase inhibitors in the treatment of immune-mediated disease.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Protein kinases are fundamental components of diverse signaling pathways, including immune cells. Their essential functions have made them effective therapeutic targets. Initially, the expectation was that a high degree of selectivity would be critical; however, with time, the use of "multikinase" inhibitors has expanded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3297200PMC
October 2012
7 Reads

Reduced vancomycin susceptibility among clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates ('the MIC Creep'): implications for therapy.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as the most common hospital-acquired pathogen and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with other strains. Vancomycin has been the cornerstone of treatment of patients with serious MRSA infections for some decades and while more than 99% of clinical S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270590PMC
October 2012
8 Reads

Emerging technologies in endoscopic imaging.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 1;4. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, 235 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BU United Kingdom.

Endoscopic imaging is in part responsible for the recent drop in deaths from gastrointestinal cancers and also for detecting pre-cancerous and non-cancerous conditions and allowing them to be treated effectively, although techniques are far from perfect. Endoscopic imaging has evolved considerably from fiber optic systems 50 years ago to high resolution and high definition systems used at present. Moreover, image enhancement using filters and processors has led to the technique of 'electronic chromoendoscopy' to visualize mucosal blood vessels and surface pit patterns clearly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270587PMC
October 2012
4 Reads

Mesenchymal stem cells - a promising therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 3;4. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) constitutes a spectrum of severe acute respiratory failure in response to a variety of inciting stimuli that is the leading cause of death and disability in the critically ill. Despite decades of research, there are no therapies for ARDS, and management remains supportive. A growing understanding of the complexity of the pathophysiology of ARDS, coupled with advances in stem cell biology, has lead to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for ARDS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3251316PMC
October 2012
9 Reads

VEGF: Potential therapy for renal regeneration.

F1000 Med Rep 2012 3;4. Epub 2012 Jan 3.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. A number of studies have focused on its role in health and disease and discussed the possibility of VEGF as both a therapeutic tool and target based on its specific actions on vascular proliferation and cell survival. On one side, anti-VEGF therapies are at the fore-front of treatment of many solid tumors, but blockade of VEGF carries collateral effects such as hypertension and renal damage largely due to abnormalities in the microvasculature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M4-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3251310PMC
October 2012
6 Reads

Alzheimer's - Looking beyond plaques.

Authors:
W Sue T Griffin

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:24. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Neurobiology, Physiology, and Psychiatry, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Geriatrics, Education Clinical Center, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 USA.

Mounting evidence shows that inflammation plays a critical role in causing Alzheimer's disease. Over the last few decades we have gone from a situation where inflammation was generally believed to have no role in the disease to the current picture where chronic activation of IL-1 inflammation has been shown to account for many of the hallmarks of the disease. This review is a personal account of the quest to prove that inflammation plays a critical role in causing Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229272PMC
October 2012
4 Reads

Cancer, stem cells and cancer stem cells: old ideas, new developments.

Authors:
Saghi Ghaffari

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:23. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine New York, NY 10029.

It has been suggested that, at least in some forms of cancer, a sub-population of slow-cycling, therapy-resistant cancer stem cells exists that has the ability to reconstitute the tumor in its entirety. If true, this model implies that conventional therapies based on targeting highly cycling cells within the tumor will leave the slow-cycling stem cell population intact, giving them the opportunity to reinitiate the tumor at a later date. This review discusses the evidence for this model and the likely implications for cancer treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229205PMC
October 2012
3 Reads

The new face of ovarian cancer modeling: better prospects for detection and treatment.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:22. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, Center for Molecular Oncologic Pathology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 USA.

Ovarian cancer has a disproportionately high mortality rate because patients typically present with late-stage metastatic disease. The vast majority of these deaths are from high-grade serous carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that many of these tumors arise from the fallopian tube and subsequently metastasize to the ovary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206707PMC
November 2011
16 Reads
10 Citations

ALK and NSCLC: Targeted therapy with ALK inhibitors.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:21. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå S-901 87 Sweden.

For many years treatment for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has employed chemotherapy regimens for patient care, with limited effect. Five-year survival rates for these patients are not encouraging. However, for a subgroup of these patients, there have been radical changes over recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206708PMC
November 2011
3 Reads

Anti-addiction vaccines.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 3;3:20. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186043PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Resolvins and inflammatory pain.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 3;3:19. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

Resolvins are a group of molecules derived from omega-3 fatty acids. They are part of a biochemical program that allows inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis once the need for the inflammatory response is over. Resolvins act in very low dose ranges in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186038PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Illuminating the deleterious effects of light at night.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:18. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.

Technological advances, while providing many benefits, often create circumstances that differ from the conditions in which we evolved. With the wide-spread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20(th) century, humans became exposed to bright and unnatural light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Electrical lighting has led to the wide-scale practice of 24-hour shift-work and has meant that what were once just "daytime" activities now run throughout the night; in many ways Western society now functions on a 24-hour schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169904PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Advancements in adeno-associated viral gene therapy approaches: exploring a new horizon.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:17. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Gene therapy is a promising new therapeutic strategy that has been explored in a wide variety of diseases, ranging from cancer to hemophilia, and ocular disorders to autoimmune diseases, among others. Proof of concept of gene transfer approaches has been shown in over 100 studies of animal models of disease, although only a few are under development for clinical application. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have not approved any viral human gene therapy products for sale so far, but the amount of gene-related research and development occurring in the United States and Europe continues to grow at a fast rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3169911PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

The challenge of developing universal vaccines.

Authors:
Rino Rappuoli

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:16. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena Italy.

Antigenic variability of immunodominant antigens is a common mechanism used by pathogens to escape the immune response. Frequently, the proposed solution is a universal vaccine based on conserved antigens present on all strains of the pathogen. Indeed, a lot of progress has been made in the development of vaccines that induce broad immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155208PMC
November 2011
8 Reads

Pathobiology of acute pancreatitis: focus on intracellular calcium and calmodulin.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:15. Epub 2011 Aug 1.

MRC Group, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University Biomedical Sciences Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3AX UK.

The exocrine pancreas synthesizes all the enzymes needed for intestinal breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in our diet. Unfortunately, the proteases needed for the digestion of the meat we eat can, if inappropriately activated inside the acinar cells, also digest the pancreas itself as well as the surrounding tissues, which is what happens in the sometimes fatal human disease acute pancreatitis. The disease is currently untreatable, but significant progress has recently been made in understanding the fundamental processes initiating the pathological changes underlying pancreatic autodigestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155209PMC
November 2011
4 Reads
6 Citations

Emerging fungal infections in immunocompromised patients.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:14. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

Invasive fungal infections are infections of importance and are increasing in incidence in immunocompromised hosts such as patients who have had hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants. Despite our expanded antifungal armamentarium, these infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Indeed, certain trends have emerged in these invasive fungal infections: a rise in the incidence of invasive mold infections, an increase in the non-albicans strains of Candida spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155160PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Vaccines for invasive fungal infections.

Authors:
Brad Spellberg

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:13. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center 1124 West Carson Street, Liu Vaccine Center, Torrance, CA 90502 USA.

Morbidity and mortality from invasive fungal infections remain unacceptably high despite availability of new antifungal agents, underscoring the need for more effective preventative strategies. Due to our enhanced understanding of the host defense and pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to invasive fungal infections, it should be feasible to develop vaccines targeting these infections. A common immunological theme across many vaccine candidates for invasive fungal infections has been the need to activate a cell-based, pro-inflammatory, Th1 or Th17 immune response to improve phagocytic killing of the fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155210PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Alloantigen-based AIDS vaccine: revisiting a "rightfully" discarded promising strategy.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:12. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

This report revisits the accidental discovery that protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the early successful experimental AIDS vaccine studies in Rhesus macaques was due to antibodies directed against human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). The inactivated virus vaccine approach was discarded because protection was due to the host's immune reaction against the HLA acquired by SIV from the human cell lines in which it was grown, rather than against antigenic determinants of SIV itself. Subsequent studies have revealed that immune recognition of HLA on uninfected leukocytes also induces other factors that inhibit infection by both SIV and the human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155155PMC
November 2011
4 Reads

Innate inflammation and cancer: Is it time for cancer prevention?

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3:11. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute NIH, Building 560, Room 31-93, Frederick, MD 21702-1201 USA.

Recently, studies have been reported indicating that daily aspirin treatment for a period of 5 years or longer has a significant protective effect against death by colorectal carcinoma (as has previously been shown) and also against death by other solid cancers, both gastrointestinal and otherwise. These studies have reignited interest in the possibility of using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and the possibility that the numerous recent studies identifying the molecular mechanisms of the link between inflammation and cancer may allow the identification of better drugs for cancer prevention. Cancer often originates in tissues that are chronically inflamed, either in response to infections or noninfectious inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155181PMC
November 2011
3 Reads

Molecular insights into Parkinson's disease.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University 525 East 68th Street, A-501, New York, NY 10065 USA.

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons leading to motor abnormalities and autonomic dysfunctions. Despite intensive research, the etiology of Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood leaving us with no effective therapeutic options. However, the recent identification of genes linked to heritable forms of Parkinson's disease has revolutionized research in the field and has begun to provide new clues to disease pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096887PMC
July 2011
6 Reads

Clostridium difficile--a moving target.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

Clostridium difficile has been recognized as a pathogen in humans for over 40 years, but in the past decade the incidence has increased and, more importantly, the clinical presentation and consequences have become more serious, with increased morbidity and mortality. The emergence of a new, more pathogenic strain, BI/NAP1/027, has driven these shifts. Treatment of this disease has been with two antibiotics, metronidazole and vancomycin, but increasing recurrence, not uncommon with C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096886PMC
July 2011
7 Reads

MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 3;3:10. Epub 2011 May 3.

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of heart attacks-and the assessment of damage-are critical for improving coronary care. Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, easily measured, and relatively stable in blood plasma. If they prove indicative of disease states, miRNAs measured from peripheral blood may be a particularly attractive source for routine clinical assessments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096884PMC
July 2011
11 Reads

The role of blood flow in determining the sites of atherosclerotic plaques.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3. Epub 2011 Mar 1.

BHF Cardiovascular Sciences Unit, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London 2nd Floor, B-Block Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN UK.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells along the inner walls of arteries, and is an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic lesions develop predominantly at branches, bends, and bifurcations in the arterial tree because these sites are exposed to low or disturbed blood flow, which exerts low/oscillatory shear stress on the vessel wall. This mechanical environment alters endothelial cell physiology by enhancing inflammatory activation. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/3/5/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096883PMC
July 2011
8 Reads

Natural killer cell-based therapies.

F1000 Med Rep 2011 3;3. Epub 2011 May 3.

Allotransplantation of natural killer (NK) cells has been shown to be a key factor in the control and cure of at least some hematologic diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia or pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia. These results support the idea that stimulation of NK cells could be an important therapeutic tool in many diseases, and several such approaches are now in clinical trials, sometimes with conflicting results. In parallel, recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing NK-cell maturation and activity show that NK-cell effector functions are controlled by complex mechanisms that must be taken into account for optimal design of therapeutic protocols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096881PMC
July 2011
5 Reads

Next generation therapies change the landscape in melanoma.

Authors:
Keith T Flaherty

F1000 Med Rep 2011 1;3. Epub 2011 Apr 1.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 USA.

Melanoma is among the leading causes of years of life lost due to cancer. Current chemotherapy and cytokine-based immunotherapy approaches benefit only a small percentage of patients with advanced disease. However, the recent discovery of mutations in the gene encoding the serine-threonine kinase B-RAF (BRAF) raises the possibility that oncogene-targeted therapy may provide a new point of vulnerability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096880PMC
July 2011
3 Reads

Is deep brain stimulation a prospective "cure" for addiction?

F1000 Med Rep 2011 Feb 1;3. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Deep brain stimulation has been put forward as a potential "cure" for intractable drug addiction. This is largely based on preclinical studies in animal models of addiction and small case series of positive, but short-term, effects on addictive behaviour in highly selected individuals. The history of neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders suggests that we should be cautious in prematurely advocating invasive neurosurgical procedures on the basis of such limited evidence. Read More

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http://www.f1000.com/reports/m/3/4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042315PMC
February 2011
6 Reads

Screening for pancreatic cancer: what can cyst fluid analysis tell us?

Authors:
Walter G Park

F1000 Med Rep 2011 Feb 1;3. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine 300 Pasteur Drive, H0262, MC: 5244, Stanford, CA, 94305 USA.

Pancreatic cysts are increasingly recognized as a dilemma in clinical practice because of their uncertain risk of malignancy. Because diagnosis by cytology is insensitive, current guidelines suggest using radiographic and clinical criteria to determine the appropriateness of surgery or surveillance, although this is far from perfect. Several cyst fluid biomarkers have been reported to aid diagnosis, and to date, carcinoembryonic antigen is the most accurate in detecting potentially cancerous mucinous cysts, but not in detecting malignant cysts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3410/M3-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042313PMC
February 2011
5 Reads