7,834 results match your criteria Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma


Sarcoidosis and Its Splenic Wonder: A Rare Case of Isolated Splenic Sarcoidosis.

Case Rep Med 2018 5;2018:4628439. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by presence of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. The pulmonary interstitium is most commonly affected but extrapulmonary involvement can occur in almost any other organ system. Such an involvement can occur with or without the presence of pulmonary involvement, but isolated extrapulmonary involvement has been noted only in around 10% of cases. Read More

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November 2018

The lung microenvironment: an important regulator of tumour growth and metastasis.

Nat Rev Cancer 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Lung cancer is a major global health problem, as it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Major advances in the identification of key mutational alterations have led to the development of molecularly targeted therapies, whose efficacy has been limited by emergence of resistance mechanisms. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies targeting angiogenesis and more recently immune checkpoints have reinvigorated enthusiasm in elucidating the prognostic and pathophysiological roles of the tumour microenvironment in lung cancer. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of risk factors and diagnostic methodology in serositis by M. tuberculosis

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):364-370. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Secretaría de Salud, Hospital General de México “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Unidad de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Tuberculosis is a public health problem, extrapulmonary presentations have increased, it is difficult to diagnose because of the low bacillary load.

Objective: To identify risk factors and to evaluate the efficiency of diagnostic methods in pleural, meningeal, peritoneal and pericardial tuberculosis.

Methods: Prospective study of cases and controls. Read More

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November 2018

Abdominal tuberculosis in renal transplant recipient. Presentation of a case and literature review

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):414-417. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez", Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Nefrológicas. Ciudad de México, México

Background: Kidney transplantation presents a susceptible point, and is related to infections; tuberculosis is a common and endemic etiology in a country like Mexico, where the most frequent presentation is the respiratory condition, the extrapulmonary is extremely rare and it is derived from immunosuppression conditions.

Case Report: 33-year-old man with kidney disease of undetermined etiology, kidney transplant in 2003 (donor mother) with adequate evolution; presented with chronic graft nephropathy, with baseline creatinine of 1.8 mg / dL, immunosuppression with prednisone 10 mg every 24 hours, mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg every 8 hours and ciclosporin 100 mg every 12 hours; surgical intervention was performed due to acute abdomen, appendectomy and omentectomy with histopathological finding of tuberculosis, Dotbal, antiproliferative in suspension was started and decrease of calcineurin inhibitor. Read More

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November 2018

Clinical differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome: a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data in Japan.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(10):5796-5803

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

Background: Although acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) reportedly shows various clinical phenotypes with different risk and prognostic factors, few studies have assessed the clinical features and prognosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS. The aim of the present study was to investigate clinical differences between pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS.

Methods: In total, 200 patients who met the Berlin criteria and were diagnosed with ARDS between October 2004 and September 2017 were included. Read More

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October 2018

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Coinfection in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Brazil: Clinical Profile and Outcomes.

Microbiol Insights 2018 27;11:1178636118813367. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Universidade Positivo Medical School, Curitiba, Brazil.

Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The toxicology of air pollution predicts its epidemiology.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Dec 5:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

a The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory , Environmental Protection Agency , Chapel Hill , NC , USA.

The epidemiologic investigation has successively delineated associations of air pollution exposure with non-malignant and malignant lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy outcomes, perinatal effects and other extra-pulmonary disease including diabetes. Defining these relationships between air pollution exposure and human health closely parallels results of an earlier epidemiologic investigation into cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), two other particle-related exposures. Humic-like substances (HULIS) have been identified as a chemical component common to cigarette smoke and air pollution particles. Read More

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December 2018
12 Reads

The Availability of Echinococcus IgG ELISA for Diagnosing Pulmonary Hydatid Cysts.

Eurasian J Med 2018 Oct;50(3):144-147

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.

Objective: In this study, we researched the availability of Echinococcus IgG ELISA in pulmonary hydatid cysts.

Materials And Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, 93 successive cases, which were studied in preoperative Echinococcus IgG and histopathologically found to have pulmonary hydatid cysts, were retrospectively analyzed. Age and sex of the cases and the cyst's location, number, size, spread to other organs outside the lungs, and its condition as intact or ruptured were reviewed. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Uncloaking an ancient adversary: Can pathogen biomarker elicitors play a role in confirming extrapulmonary TB and latent TB infection?

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2018 Dec 31;113:30-37. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Independent Researcher; P.O. Box 56224, Atlanta, GA 30343, USA. Electronic address:

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is diagnosed immunologically using the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). While widely used, immunodiagnostics can produce false negative or false positive results. Pathogen biomarkers provide an alternative, but direct detection in LTBI and extrapulmonary TB cases is challenging. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the capital of Iran.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 2;132:46-52. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Microbiology Research Center (MRC), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objectives: Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and determining if the association between a specific genotype and the site of infection is crucial. Accordingly, the current study aimed at comparing predominant M. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads
4.420 Impact Factor

Cellular Metabolism in Lung Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Physiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Center for Translational Medicine and Jane and Leonard Korman Lung Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA; email:

The lung is often overlooked as a metabolically active organ, yet biochemical studies have long demonstrated that glucose utilization surpasses that of many other organs, including the heart, kidney, and brain. For most cells in the lung, energy consumption is relegated to performing common cellular tasks, like mRNA transcription and protein translation. However, certain lung cell populations engage in more specialized types of energy-consuming behaviors, such as the beating of cilia or the production of surfactant. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis of TB: From conventional to modern molecular protocols.

Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2019 01 1;11:38-60. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Zoology, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (IGNTU), Amarkantak, 484887 (MP), India.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. TB is a curable infection if diagnosed correctly and timely. Late diagnosis and improper treatment may lead to relapse or its escalation to MDR / XDR-TB. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Isolated ovarian tuberculosis in an Immuno- competent woman in the post partum period: case report.

Authors:
Wondimu Gudu

J Ovarian Res 2018 Nov 22;11(1):97. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, P.O.Box 1271, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Pelvic tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It commonly involves the fallopian tubes and the uterus from a lympho-hematogeneous spread. The presentation of pelvic tuberculosis as an isolated ovarian abscess is extremely rare and is reported only twice. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2018 5;10:225-237. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.

Background: The double burden of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disproportionately affects Africa. Our objective was to summarize the prevalence of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for studies done on the prevalence of EPTB among PLWHA which published in English from 1990 to 2017. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and serum lipid levels: a meta-analysis.

Lipids Health Dis 2018 Nov 21;17(1):263. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a common extrapulmonary comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the reported relationship of COPD with dyslipidemia, an important component of metabolic syndrome, is ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between COPD and the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG). Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Extensive Paraspinal Tuberculosis Masquerading Malignant Tumor in an Elderly Male.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1202-1204

Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Paraspinal tuberculosis is an uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and in rare cases, these lesions can mimic malignant lesions. We report a case of an elderly man where imaging showed extensive left paraspinal lesion which was mimicking malignant neoplasm. The patient underwent L3-L4 unilateral partial laminotomy, there was grayish, relatively avascular lesion in the left paraspinal region, involving the left psoas muscle and going into the neural foramina, and a subtotal resection of the lesion could be performed. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis in pediatrics: 16 years of experience in a tertiary care pediatric hospital of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2018 Dec;116(6):430-436

Sección de Tisiologia, Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez, Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis accounts for 15-20 % of all clinical presentations of tuberculosis. Peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis is the second most common presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children, after pleural tuberculosis, in Argentina. We analyzed 92 patients with peripheral tuberculous lymphadenitis seen at the Department of Tisiology of Hospital de Niños "Dr. Read More

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December 2018

Intraluminal Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: A "New" Lesion.

Anesth Analg 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare disorder that leads to progressive narrowing of the extrapulmonary veins. PVS has been reported in both children and adults and in its worse iteration leads to pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death. Multiple etiologies of PVS have been described in children and adults. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Clinical and laboratory features of PCR-confirmed periocular tuberculosis in China.

Int J Ophthalmol 2018 18;11(11):1865-1869. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China.

Experts lack knowledge of periocular tuberculosis (TB) in China. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) shows advantages in diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. Our study aims to explore the clinical and laboratory features of PCR-confirmed periocular TB. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Pelvic hydatidosis: an exceptional location.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Nov 19;111. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Hospital Universitario Guadalajara.

Hydatid disease is a zoonosis, still endemic in some Spanish geographical areas. Extrahepatic-extrapulmonary lesions account for only 10%, with pelvic lesions being exceptional. We present two patients with pelvic hydatidosis, with or without concomitant liver injury. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[Extrapulmonary tuberculosis versus pulmonary tuberculosis: epidemiological, diagnosis and evolutive aspects].

Rev Pneumol Clin 2018 Dec 13;74(6):452-457. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Service de pneumo-phtisiologie, centre hospitalier et universitaire de Cocody, Abidjan, Côte-d'Ivoire. Electronic address:

Introduction: Tuberculosis remains a public health problem around the world. Several factors can influence its location. The objective of this research is to analyze the factors influencing the diagnostic and evolutive aspects of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (PET) compared to pulmonary tuberculosis (PT) at the anti-tuberculosis center of Adjame (Ivory Coast). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Mechanical ventilation enhances extrapulmonary sepsis-induced lung injury: role of WISP1-αvβ5 integrin pathway in TLR4-mediated inflammation and injury.

Crit Care 2018 Nov 16;22(1):302. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop St. UPMC MUH N467, Pittsburgh, 15213, PA, USA.

Background: High tidal volume ventilation of healthy lungs or exacerbation of existing acute lung injury (ALI) by more moderate mechanical ventilation (MTV) produces ventilator-induced lung injury. It is less clear whether extrapulmonary sepsis sensitizes the lung to MTV.

Methods: We used a two-hit model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) followed 12 h later by MTV (10 ml/kg; 6 h) to determine whether otherwise noninjurious MTV enhances CLP-induced ALI by contrasting wildtype and TLR4 mice with respect to: alveolar-capillary permeability, histopathology and intrapulmonary levels of WNT-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and integrin β5; plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1) and intrapulmonary neutrophil infiltration; and other inflammatory signaling via intrapulmonary activation of JNK, p38 and ERK. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration cytology in patients with known or suspected extra-pulmonary malignancies: A cytopathology based study.

Cytopathology 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Pathology and Pulmonary Medicine1, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Background: Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the primary modality for mediastinal lymph node staging in lung carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate its utility in extra-pulmonary malignancies (EPM).

Methods: Database search of EBUS-TBNA aspirations (2013-2017) done in patients with known/suspected EPMs and mediastinal lymphadenopathy/masses was performed. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads
1.481 Impact Factor

Liver Tuberculosis a case report.

Rozhl Chir 2018 ;97(8):394-398

Tuberculosis remains a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Pulmonary form of tuberculosis presents 80-90% of cases with prevalence declining worldwide. On the other hand, extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains at the same level. Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Cold abscess in the immunocompetent subject.

Tunis Med 2018 May;96(5):302-306

Introduction: Tuberculous cold abscesses are a rare and unusual form, accounting for 1% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB).

Aim: To describe clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of cold tuberculous abscesses.

Methods: Retrospective multicentre study of 26 patients followed for cold abscesses tuberculous in respiratory departments of AbderrahmenMami hospital between 2009 and 2017. Read More

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May 2018
4 Reads

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Jul-Sep;36(3):357-363

Department of Microbiology, T.N. Medical College and B Y L Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: The WHO endorsed Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin (MTB/RIF) assay, has been evaluated for pulmonary TB in a number of studies but very few have investigated it for extrapulmonary specimens. The present study evaluates the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB).

Aim And Objectives: The aim of the study is to determine sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of EPTB and RIF resistance in comparison to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and proportion method (PM), respectively. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Splenic tuberculosis: a comprehensive review of literature.

Authors:
Ashish Gupta

Pol Przegl Chir 2018 Aug;90(5):49-51

Department Of Surgery, Aiims Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Tuberculosis(TB) is one of the most common infections affecting the population in the developing countries. With the rising human immunodeficiency(HIV) infection its incidence is on a rise even in the developed countries. Pulmonary TB is the commonest form of infection, However, multiple extrapulmonary sites have also been reported. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Primary immunodeficiency diseases in lung disease: warning signs, diagnosis and management.

Respir Res 2018 Nov 12;19(1):219. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos, C. del Prof Martín Lagos, s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Pulmonary complications are common in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) and contribute to morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, their varied presentation and a general lack of awareness of PID in this setting make early diagnosis and treatment difficult. The aim of this study was to define the warning signs of PID in patients with respiratory manifestations, the necessary diagnostic tests, and the therapeutic management of both children and adults. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Solitary thin-walled cystic lung cancer with extensive extrapulmonary metastasis: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(43):e12950

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xuzhou Central Hospital of Southeast University, Xuzhou, China.

Rationale: Asymptomatic, isolated, and thin-walled cystic lung cancer with extensive extrapulmonary metastasis is rare, and the risk of pulmonary cyst developing into lung cancer is poorly understood. The efficacy of apatinib for end-stage pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma has not been clarified yet.

Patient Concerns: We herein report a rare case of primary lung cancer that appeared as an isolated thin-walled cystic lesion on computed tomography (CT) image, who was initially misdiagnosed as having pulmonary cyst empirically. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Immune activation and regulatory T cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected lymph nodes.

BMC Immunol 2018 Nov 8;19(1):33. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Laboratory of Cellular Immunology, National Institute of Hygiene, 27, Avenue Ibn Batouta, PB 769, 11400, Rabat, Morocco.

Background: Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in situ and peripheral blood immune response in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Towards the development of a cfDNA-based in-vitro diagnostic test for infectious diseases: A review of evidence for tuberculosis.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland

Detection of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) has transformed the field of oncology and prenatal diagnostics. Clinical application of cfDNA for disease diagnosis and monitoring, however, is relatively recent in the field of infectious disease. The potential of cfDNA as a non-invasive diagnostic and monitoring tool is especially promising for tuberculosis (TB) as it enables detection of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB from easily accessible urine and/or blood samples from any age group. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage and Pulmonary Vasculitides: Histopathologic Findings.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Aug 7;39(4):425-433. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

Vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which inflammation of blood vessel walls is present at least some time during the course of the disease. Vasculitides can affect any caliber or type of vessel in many anatomic sites; however, the disease can alter more than just vasculature. Given the diversity of vasculitides, in 2012, a revised classification system was proposed to categorize vasculitides by the type of vessel involved including size, function, and structural attributes. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

Small Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx.

Cureus 2018 Jul 16;10(7):e2987. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, CAN.

Small cell carcinoma is rarely found to originate from the hypopharynx and there exists no treatment guidelines due to the small number of cases. Here, we present a case of a female patient with metastatic small cell carcinoma originating from the posterior hypopharynx with lymph node involvement. Her treatment consisted of chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin as well as radiation therapy. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Nocardia isolates from a tertiary care centre diagnostic laboratory in Pakistan.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Dec 6;15:219-221. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that can present as cutaneous, pulmonary and/or disseminated disease depending on the host immunity. Treatment choices include trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole; SXT) and imipenem along with some other antibiotics. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommends the broth microdilution (BMD) method to determine antimicrobial susceptibility, however there is a lack of susceptibility data using this method in Pakistan. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Expanding the phenotype of COPA syndrome: a kindred with typical and atypical features.

J Med Genet 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Copa syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with abnormal intracellular vesicle trafficking. The objective of this work is to expand the knowledge about this disorder by delineating phenotypic features of an unreported COPA family.

Methods And Results: A heterozygous missense variant (c. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Lymph nodes are sites of prolonged bacterial persistence during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Nov 1;14(11):e1007337. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Tuberculosis is commonly considered a chronic lung disease, however, extrapulmonary infection can occur in any organ. Even though lymph nodes (LN) are among the most common sites of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and thoracic LNs are frequently infected in humans, bacterial dynamics and the effect of Mtb infection in LN structure and function is relatively unstudied. We surveyed thoracic LNs from Mtb-infected cynomolgus and rhesus macaques analyzing PET CT scans, bacterial burden, LN structure and immune function. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Utility of para-aminosalicylic acid in drug-resistant tuberculosis: Should it be classified as Group D3 or Group C?

Lung India 2018 Nov-Dec;35(6):488-493

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, T. N. Medical College, B. Y. L. Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: The World Health Organization drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) 2016 guidelines reclassified para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) as Group D3 "add-on" drug. We studied our DR-TB data wherein PAS was widely and preferably used as a substitute in the standardized regimen in varied situations and report its utility in DR-TB.

Methodology: This retrospective observational study enrolled both pulmonary and extrapulmonary DR-TB patients receiving PAS in the programmatic management of DR-TB from March 2012 to June 2013. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Two patients with FOXF1 mutations with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins and other malformations: Two different presentations and outcomes.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) describes a group of developmental disorders affecting the lungs with its pulmonary vasculature. Mutations in the FOXF1 gene have been reported in most cases, and extrapulmonary findings were described. We present two patients with ACDMPV and FOXF1 mutations that illustrate the variability in presentation and outcome of their disease. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Tuberculosis and diabetes: bidirectional association in a UK primary care data set.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Population Health Research Institute, St George's, University of London, London, UK.

Background: Many studies have found an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among those with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, evidence on whether the association is bidirectional remains sparse. This study investigates DM rates among those with and without prior tuberculosis (TB) disease as well as the reverse. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Phytoconstituent based dry powder inhalers as biomedicine for the management of pulmonary diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 24;108:828-837. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune 38, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Pulmonary disease represents a major global health issue. They are commonly treated by various synthetic molecules. But, frequent high-dose of oral and injectable drugs may lead to severe side effects and this juncture demands inhaled formulations that facilitate effective drug delivery to the lower airways with negligible side effects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Poor treatment outcomes and its determinants among tuberculosis patients in selected health facilities in East Wollega, Western Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2018 26;13(10):e0206227. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Although it is a preventable and treatable disease, tuberculosis remains a major medical and public health problem throughout the world. The control and elimination of tuberculosis is currently challenged by the development and spread of antituberculosis drug resistance. The resistance is often correlated to the absence of properly implemented control measures that lead to poor treatment outcomes. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Tuberculous Pachymeningitis Presenting as a Diffused Dural Thickening in a Patient with Chronic Headache and Recurrent Neurological Abnormalities for More than a Decade: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 1;2018:3012034. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Consultant Physician, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Background: Tuberculous pachymeningitis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis usually suspected from the detection of thickening of the dura in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Progressive nature of the disease can lead to chronic headache with focal neurological signs due to compression from the thickened dura.

Case Report: We report a 40-year-old female who presented with chronic headache over a decade associated with recurrent neurological abnormalities including optic neuritis, hemisensory loss, migraine, facial nerve palsy, and recurrent vertigo. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the foot and ankle-A literature review.

Foot (Edinb) 2018 Dec 25;37:105-112. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Trauma and Orthopaedics Department, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Foot osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon. Late diagnosis and sub-optimal management can lead to significant morbidity, deformity and even death. Preservation of life, limb and function can be achieved with prompt diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

The Clinical Biology of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Protein Its Role and Function in Extrapulmonary Disease.

Authors:
Theodore G Liou

Chest 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Center for Quantitative Biology, The Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center and the Division of Respiratory, Critical Care and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:

Normal cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein has multiple functions in health and disease. Many mutations in the CFTR gene produce abnormal or absent protein. CFTR protein dysfunction underlies the classic CF phenotype of progressive pulmonary and GI pathology but may underlie diseases not usually associated with CF. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Role of cytology and immunochemistry in diagnosis of metastatic malignancies in the lung: A critical appraisal.

Diagn Cytopathol 2018 Nov 24;46(11):936-944. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Background: Lung is one of the most common sites for primary and metastatic malignancies and a challenging site to diagnose primary versus a metastatic origin of the tumor on cytology. Pathologic diagnosis of the site of origin of cancer has major implications in the management and staging purposes and may have to be followed by testing for predictive/prognostic markers. The clinical history of a known extrapulmonary primary and the radiologic findings of multiple nodules in the lung are useful in arriving at the right diagnosis but is not always available. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

A novel aptamer-based test for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

Anal Biochem 2019 Jan 22;564-565:80-87. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, 110029, India; Center for Bio-design and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, 3rd Milestone, Faridabad, Gurgaon Expressway, PO box #04, Faridabad, 121001, India. Electronic address:

Pleural tuberculosis (pTB) is diagnosed by using a composite reference standard (CRS) since microbiological methods are grossly inadequate and an accurate diagnostic test remains an unmet need. The present study aimed to evaluate the utility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen and DNA-based tests for pTB diagnosis. Patients were classified as 'Definite TB', 'Probable TB' and 'Non-TB' disease according to the CRS. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

The End of the Binary Era: Revisiting the Spectrum of Tuberculosis.

J Immunol 2018 Nov;201(9):2541-2548

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Human infection was thought to result in either active symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) or latent asymptomatic infection. It is now clear that this binary classification is insufficient to describe the myriad of infection outcomes. In active TB, symptomatic disease can be mild to severe, with a range of lung and thoracic lymph node involvement or extrapulmonary manifestations. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Deciphering function of the pulmonary arterial sphincters in loggerhead sea turtles ().

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 4;221(Pt 23). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Fundación Oceanografic de la Comunidad Valenciana, Gran Vía Marques del Turia 19, 46005 Valencia, Spain.

To provide new insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying gas emboli (GE) in bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (), we investigated the vasoactive characteristics of the pulmonary and systemic arteries, and the lung parenchyma (LP). Tissues were opportunistically excised from recently dead animals for studies of vasoactive responses to four different neurotransmitters: acetylcholine (ACh; parasympathetic), serotonin (5HT), adrenaline (Adr; sympathetic) and histamine. The significant amount of smooth muscle in the LP contracted in response to ACh, Adr and histamine. Read More

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December 2018
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[Clinical analysis of 3 cases of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Oct;41(10):783-786

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

To improve the clinical recognition of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(EGPA) in clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. The clinical manifestations, pathological characteristic, imaging manifestations, diagnosis and the therapy of three patients with EGPA were presented. These 3 patients had asthma-like symptoms and extrapulmonary manifestations of systemic vasculitis. Read More

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October 2018
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