6,244 results match your criteria Extraocular Muscles Anatomy

Intercalary staphyloma after strabismus surgery in a patient with Marfan syndrome: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jun 17;101(24):e29468. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Korea.

Rationale: A few cases of intercalary staphyloma have been reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, but we believe that this is the first case of intercalary staphyloma in Marfan syndrome developing after strabismus surgery.

Patient Concerns: A 9-year-old girl diagnosed with Marfan syndrome visited a strabismus clinic for treatment of esotropia. Both eyes were aphakic and had 60 prism diopter esotropia at distance and 55 prism diopter esotropia at near. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Corticodependent bilateral trochleitis.

Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) 2022 Jun 24;97(6):340-343. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Servicio de Oftalmología, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.

Trochleitis is usually a transient and non-disabling inflammation of the trochlea of superior oblique. The case is presented of a difficult to manage bilateral trochleitis in a 29-year-old woman. After an exhaustive aetiological study with neuro-imaging tests, as well as an analysis of autoimmunity and infection, no underlying cause was found. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intracranial extension of an intramuscular haemangioma of superior rectus: case report and literature review.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 May 23;22(1):232. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 245, Riyadh, 11411, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Intramuscular haemangiomas are rare, benign vascular tumours that represent < 1% of all haemangiomas. When involving the extraocular muscles, haemangiomas are extremely rare, with only nine cases reported in the literature; to date there are no reported cases of extraocular muscle haemangiomas extending into the brain.

Case Presentation: A 6-year-old boy with a two-week history of a painless swelling and erythema on the upper eyelid. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

18F-FES PET/CT Improves the Detection of Intraorbital Metastases in Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Two Representative Cases and Review of the Literature.

Tomography 2022 04 7;8(2):1060-1065. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, 200 W Arbor Dr., San Diego, CA 92103, USA.

Orbital metastases are a rare but life-altering complication in cancer. Most commonly seen in breast cancer, metastases to the optic nerves or extraocular muscles can have a devastating impact on visual acuity and quality of life. Hormone receptor status plays a central role in metastatic breast cancer treatment, with endocrine therapy often representing first-line therapy in hormone-receptor-positive cancers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chorioretinal Scars From Scleral Perforation During Prior Strabismus Surgery.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2022 04 21;140(4):e215711. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for differentiating active from inactive thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Added value from magnetization transfer imaging.

Eur J Radiol 2022 Jun 6;151:110295. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using magnetization transfer (MT) magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), and determine its added value for differentiating active from inactive TAO and predicting clinical activity score (CAS), compared with conventional fat-saturated T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging.

Methods: Orbital MT, fat-saturated T2-weighted, and diffusion-weighted imaging of 60 prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with TAO was analyzed. Simplified histogram parameters (mean, max, min) of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), signal intensity ratio (SIR), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at extraocular muscles were calculated for each orbit and compared between the active and inactive groups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Clinical characteristics and outcomes of myasthenia gravis patients with double positive antibodies against acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Apr;102(13):942-947

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Diseases, Guangzhou 510080, China.

To investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment characteristics and outcomes of myasthenia gravis (MG) dually positive for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab) and anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibody (MuSK-Ab). MG patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from August 2017 to November 2020 were retrospectively collected. Thirty-four MuSK-Ab positive MG (MuSK-MG) patients, 11 double-antibodies positive MG (DP-MG) patients, and 80 AChR-Ab positive MG (AChR-MG) patients were included and allocated to three different groups. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Utility of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Muscle Aplasia.

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2022 Mar-Apr;59(2):e20-e22. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Congenital absence of the extraocular muscles is a relatively rare entity that is diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and is usually associated with craniofacial syndromes, microcornea, microphthalmos, and coloboma. The authors describe anterior segment optical coherence tomography as a quick and valuable modality in this setting before subjecting the patient to magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Disseminated cysticercosis: a case report and review of treatment protocols.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 18;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of and is a significant health problem. Disseminated cysticercosis is an infrequent manifestation of the same. A woman in her 30s presented to us with a history of seizures, outward protrusion of both eyes and multiple soft-tissue swellings over the face and tongue for 3 years. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Study of an ocular ptosis in a 13th century illuminated manuscript].

P E Balcarce

Rev Neurol 2022 03;74(6):202-206

Hospital Naval Pedro Mallo, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Introduction: The finding of an eyelid ptosis in a manuscript of the xiii century raises the differential diagnosis of injury to the third cranial nerve. This nerve was not differentiated from the other oculomotors until the xvi century and only in the xix century a clinicopathological correlation was established for its paralysis.

Aim: Describe the characteristics and differential diagnoses of an eyelid ptosis illustrated in the Book of Divine Works (1173) by Hildegard of Bingen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Conservative management of orbital involvement in malignant tumors: is the paradigm evolving? A critical review.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Apr;30(2):125-129

ENT and Audiology and Phoniatric Unit, Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Emergency Medicine, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Review the recent literature regarding conservative management of orbital invasion in sinonasal cancers.

Recent Findings: Recent data seem to confirm the possibility to preserve the orbital content in a significant number of patients. MRI is the best available imaging tool for evaluating orbital invasion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The "Hand as Foot" teaching method in the anatomy of the extraocular muscles.

Asian J Surg 2022 04 16;45(4):1046-1047. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation Centre, Xiangshan Bay Maternity Hospital, No. 508 Xiangshan Bay road, Dandong street, Xiangshan County, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315000, PR China.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alterations of lower- and higher-order aberrations after unilateral horizontal rectus muscle surgery in children with intermittent exotropia: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2022 17;17(2):e0264037. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated changes in corneal lower- and higher-order aberrations that cause visual disturbance after lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in children.

Methods: Eighty-five eyes of 85 patients (44 boys; 8.64±2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Historical Terminology for Describing the Extraocular Muscles in the 16th Century.

Francesco Brigo

J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2022 Apr-Jun;72(2):111-112. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Neurology, Hospital of Merano (Sabes-asdaa), Merano-Meran, Italy.

The terms that we currently use to name extraocular muscles refer to their insertion and action. In antiquity, these muscles were referred to differently, using terms that have become obsolete and nowadays appear rather unusual to us. This article evaluates the different names of extraocular muscles reported in the (1593) by André du Laurens (1558-1609), which is the earliest anatomical book providing a nomenclature for these muscles both related and unrelated to their action. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tendinous annulus of Zinn for a common origin of the extraocular rectus muscles: a histological study of the orbital apex from donated elderly cadavers.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 14. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan.

The medial, inferior, lateral, and superior rectus muscles (MR, IR, LR, SR), levator palpebrae superioris (LPS), and superior oblique muscle (SO) seem to originate from the tendinous annulus of Zinn, ring-like fibrous tissue crossing the bony orbital fissure. We observed the histological annulus structure using semi-serial histological sections of the orbital apex from 30 elderly donated cadavers. Nearly frontal sections demonstrated a ring-like fibrous structure (a candidate annulus) connecting or embedding four rectus muscles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

3T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, conventional ultrasonography and ultrasound biomicroscopy of the normal canine eye.

BMC Vet Res 2022 Feb 10;18(1):67. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Ophthalmology Section, Equine Department, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Advances in MRI coil technology and increased availability of high-field MRI in veterinary medicine enable the acquisition of images of increasingly high spatial resolution while preserving signal-to-noise ratio.The purpose of the present study was to compare 3T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) with ultrasound (US) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the normal canine eye, to assess its potential to depict normal ocular anatomy.

Results: HR-MRI was compared with US and UBM in 10 eyes from 10 healthy beagle dogs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Idiopathic Orbital Myositis Revisited.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2022 01 9;24(1):20-26. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Orbital, Plastic and Lacrimal Clinic, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: To review current knowledge regarding idiopathic orbital myositis.

Recent Findings: Recent publications have focused on possible causes of orbital myositis and the process to reach a diagnosis of idiopathic orbital myositis. With inflamed and enlarged extraocular muscles, features to distinguish between competing diagnostic possibilities are based on imaging in the context of history and clinical signs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Anomalous insertion of the superior oblique tendon onto the superior rectus muscle causing congenital superior oblique palsy.

J AAPOS 2022 04 5;26(2):89-91. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Strabismus and Neuro-ophthalmology, Dr Shroff's Charity Eye Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Congenital superior oblique (SO) palsy is often associated with anomalies of its tendon, increased tendon laxity being the most common. Rarely, the tendon lies in an abnormal location nasal to the superior rectus (SR) muscle, either attaching to the sclera or to Tenon's capsule. We describe a case of a child who presented with abnormal head posture and exotropia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Conjunctival changes following Muller's muscle conjunctival resection.

Int Ophthalmol 2022 Jun 30;42(6):1689-1695. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9057, USA.

Purpose: To analyze the conjunctival changes, especially goblet cell populations, following Muller's muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) by histologically evaluating pre and post-MMCR specimens.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of conjunctival samples sent for histologic evaluation from two patient populations: those who had previously undergone a MMCR and required repeat surgery and controls who underwent a MMCR surgery in a previously unoperated eyelid. Specimens underwent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining to accentuate goblet cell identification and were evaluated by two ocular pathologists to quantify goblet cell populations and note other anatomical changes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of heavy eye syndrome.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2022 Mar 24;45(3):365-366. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Virgen-del-Rocío, Avenue Manuel-Siurot, 41013 Seville, Spain. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Statics of plant mechanics.

David A Robinson

Prog Brain Res 2022 7;267(1):43-73. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Late Professor of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

David A. Robinson took all that was known in his time about ocular anatomy, extraocular muscle force generation, and neural control of extraocular muscles, and integrated this information into a quantitative model of the static behavior of the ocular motor plant suitable for application to strabismus, the pathological misalignment of the eyes. Robinson's comprehensive mathematical descriptions of the essential details he knew to be the properties of the ocular motor plant highlighted the critical gaps in the state of knowledge that he very explicitly bridged by quantitative assumptions that later motivated focused research that ultimately revealed many missing pieces of the puzzle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Basic framework of the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

David A Robinson

Prog Brain Res 2022 7;267(1):131-153. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Late Professor of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Direct and indirect pathways mediating the vestibulo-ocular reflexes, considering contributions made by the vestibular commissure, cerebellum, and vestibular efferent neurons are reviewed. This background leads to a detailed treatment of three-dimensional aspects of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, comparing the planes of the labyrinthine semicircular canals with the pulling directions of the extraocular muscles. By applying matrix algebra and rotational vectors, Robinson provides insights into the comparative anatomy of the vestibular system in different species, how central circuits process raw vestibular signals in three dimensions, and how the directions of eye movement caused by brainstem and cerebellar lesions can be explained. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spontaneous Recovery of Traumatic Unilateral Superior Oblique Palsy and Ocular Factors for Predicting Prognosis.

Korean J Ophthalmol 2022 06 24;36(3):179-184. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Purpose: This study evaluated the prognosis of patients with traumatic unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP) and clinical factors associated with spontaneous resolution.

Methods: Medical records of patients with traumatic unilateral SOP who visited two hospitals (Yeungnam University Hospital and Daegu Catholic University Medical Center) between January 2015 and June 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. When traumatic unilateral SOP did not recover within at least 1 year of follow-up, no spontaneous resolution was considered. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Topographical anatomy of the annulus of Zinn.

Sci Rep 2022 01 20;12(1):1064. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

University Hospitals Sussex NHS Trust, The Sussex Eye Hospital, Eastern Road, Brighton, UK.

The anatomy and even existence of a common tendinous origin of the extraocular eye muscles, or annulus of Zinn, has widely been debated in anatomical literature. This study explored the anatomical origins of the recti muscles, their course into the orbit and the dural connections of the common tendinous origin with the skull base. Twenty orbits of ten adult human cadavers were dissected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

The unique rectus extraocular muscles of cetaceans: Homologies and possible functions.

J Anat 2022 06 19;240(6):1075-1094. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Each rectus extraocular muscle in cetaceans divides into two portions: a massive palpebral belly that inserts into the deep surface of the eyelids and a smaller scleral belly that inserts onto the eyeball. While the cetacean palpebral insertions have long been recognized, their homologies and functions remain unclear. To compare cetacean rectus EOM insertions with the global and orbital rectus EOM insertions of other mammals we dissected orbital contents of 20 odontocete species, 2 mysticete species and 18 non-cetacean species, both aquatic and terrestrial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The anatomical myofascial continuum between the neck and eyes.

Clin Anat 2022 Apr 1;35(3):340-346. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Interdisciplinary Center for Craniofacial and Orofacial Pain Research, Department of Exercise and Sports Science, Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

The posterior myofascial chain (PMC) or superficial back line encompasses a series of muscles interlinked by the deep fascia, extending from the foot to the fascial sheath of the eyeball. The deep cervical fascia of the neck, the epicranial aponeurosis of the head, and the fascial sheath of eyeball, form the proximal PMC. Although the literature has reported an anatomical myofascial continuum between the neck, head, and eyes, the anatomical descriptions vary substantially. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

"Hammock" suspending the superior ophthalmic vein: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

Surg Radiol Anat 2022 Mar 3;44(3):391-397. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, 2-1-1 Tomioka, Urayasu, Chiba, 279-0021, Japan.

Purpose: The present study aimed to explore the hammock-like structure suspending the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Following conventional MRI examination, 93 outpatients underwent thin-sliced, coronal T2-weighted and contrast imaging of the orbit.

Results: SOVs were consistently detected in all 93 patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Special features of superior oblique hypofunction due to tendon abnormalities.

Strabismus 2021 12 17;29(4):243-251. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, Los Angeles.

While most cases of superior oblique (SO) hypofunction represent contractile weakness due to denervation, sometimes the lesion is exclusively in the tendon. This study sought to distinguish the pattern of incomitant strabismus caused by deficiency of SO oculorotary force caused by tendon abnormalities versus that of neurogenic palsy. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 7 cases of unilateral SO tendon interruption or extirpation were compared with 11 cases of age matched unilateral SO palsy having intact tendons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Fixating with the Paretic Eye: Evidence of "Fixation Duress" on PET Imaging.

Ann Neurol 2022 01 12;91(1):160-161. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022