1,144 results match your criteria Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors


Oleuropein Counteracts Both the Proliferation and Migration of Intra- and Extragonadal Seminoma Cells.

Nutrients 2022 May 31;14(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Catanzaro "Magna Græcia", 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Recent and growing literature has reported that oleuropein (OLE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and reduces the invasiveness properties of cancer cells; therefore, OLE may play a significant role in the development of new drugs for cancer treatment. These antineoplastic properties have been reported in many experimental cancer models, but the effect of OLE on seminoma cells is yet to be evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that OLE reduces cell viability in both intra- and extragonadal TCAM-2 and SEM-1 seminoma cells, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Germ cell tumors with neuroglial differentiation do not show molecular features akin to their central nervous system counterpart: experience from extra-gynecological sites.

Virchows Arch 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Teratomas with secondary somatic malignancy showing neuroglial differentiation (central nervous system (CNS)-type tumors) arising from a glial or neuroepithelial component is a very uncommon event and primarily described in the ovary. We aimed to describe the morphological spectrum and molecular features of CNS type of neuroepithelial tumors arising from the germ cell tumors (GCT) in the extra-gynecological sites. All cases of teratoma and mixed GCT arising from the non-gynecological sites over 7 years were screened for CNS type of neuroepithelial tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Giant malignant sacrococcygeal germ cell tumor in a newborn: A rare case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jul 7;17(7):2416-2423. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Radiology - "AORN Santobono Pausilipon", Pediatric Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Malignant germ cell tumors constitute about 3%-4% of all neoplasms occurring before the age of 15. They arise in the ovaries, the testes, and in several other locations, including the lower back, the chest, the brain, and the abdomen. In infants and young children, the sacrococcygeal region is the most common site for extragonadal germ cell tumors, and teratomas account for the vast majority of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Outcomes and prognostic variables of extracranial germ cell tumors in children and adolescents treated over a decade: A developing world perspective.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 07 13;69(7):e29765. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: The purpose of this single-center study was to analyze the outcomes of extracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) in children treated on a multimodality regimen.

Methods: Retrospective study of children (<18 years) with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of extracranial GCT over a period of 10 years (January 2009 to December 2018) treated on a uniform institution-based protocol consisting of both cisplatin- and carboplatin-based regimens. All completely excised teratomas and stage I gonadal tumors received no further therapy (low risk [LR]); stage IV ovarian, stage III-IV extragonadal GCTs received six cycles of chemotherapy (high risk [HR]), and the remaining received four cycles of chemotherapy (intermediate risk [IR]). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How to classify, diagnose, treat and follow-up extragonadal germ cell tumors? A systematic review of available evidence.

World J Urol 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Oncology, Hematology, BMT Plus Section Pneumology, University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: To present the current evidence and the development of studies in recent years on the management of extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCT).

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in Medline and the Cochrane Library. Studies within the search period (January 2010 to February 2021) that addressed the classification, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and follow-up of extragonadal tumors were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Elevated HCG and retroperitoneal adenopathy after clomiphene therapy for infertility.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 26;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

In the context of an elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) with enlarged retroperitoneal nodes and absent testicular tumours, clinicians will consider a diagnosis of extragonadal germ cell tumours. We report the case of a man in his thirties who while on treatment for subfertility with clomiphene citrate was noted to have enlarged retroperitoneal nodes and elevated HCG levels of 75 IU/L. Chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin originally planned was deferred when two separate retroperitoneal nodal biopsies returned as benign fibroadipose tissue and HCG levels spontaneously down-trended to 4 IU/L within 4 months of clomiphene citrate discontinuation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Severe thyrotoxicosis as initial presentation of gastric choriocarcinoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Apr 21;16(1):159. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Surgical and Molecular Pathology, American British Cowdray Medical Center, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Extragonadal choriocarcinoma is rare and can be associated with hyperthyroidism when producing very high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin.

Case Presentation: A 62-year-old Hispanic female presented with a 3-week history of shortness of breath, palpitations, extreme weakness, new-onset hot flashes, and right flank pain. Her physical examination was remarkable for tachycardia, hepatomegaly, hyperreflexia, and tremor; goiter was absent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Morphological spectrum and molecular features of somatic malignant transformation in germ cell tumours.

Histopathology 2022 Jul 5;81(1):84-98. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: Somatic malignant transformation (SMT) arising in germ cell tumours (GCTs) is an infrequent, but clinically relevant event. There is only limited knowledge on the morphological spectrum of SMT, and the therapeutic management of these patients is poorly defined. In this work we revisit two consecutive case series (n = 756) of GCTs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Primary immature teratoma of the thigh: a review.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

First Department of Propaedeutic Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Hippocration General Athens Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Teratomas are a subtype of germ cell tumors composed of a variety of somatic tissues derived from more than one of the three germinal layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm). They can be classified as mature tumors and immature tumors. Teratomas most commonly arise at the sacrococcygeal region and the gonads. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mediastinal germ cell tumours: where we are and where we are going-a narrative review.

Mediastinum 2022 25;6. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Service of medical oncology, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, EOC, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Objective: In this review, we summarize the current state of the art of primary mediastinal germ cell tumours (PMGCTs) and we highlight challenges and future research directions for this disease.

Background: PMGCTs account for 1-3% of all germ cell malignancies and for 15% of adult anterior mediastinal cancers. In 60-70% of cases PMGCTs are represented by nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (GCTs), and in 30-40% of cases by seminomas. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mediastinal germ cell tumors: a narrative review of their traits and aggressiveness features.

Mediastinum 2022 25;6. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Mediastinal extragonadal germ-cell tumors (MEGCTs) are rare neoplasms with a multifaceted clinical behavior. This paper is devoted to review their main characteristics, including histological patterns and different factors of aggressiveness in MEGCTs. Proper understanding of the latter can help to better stratify patients' prognoses and improve clinical management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Primary Pulmonary Choriocarcinoma Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Lobectomy: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Feb 5;14(2):e21931. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Pathology, Memorial Healthcare System, Hollywood, USA.

Primary pulmonary choriocarcinomas (PPC) are a rare form of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCT). They present as lung nodules and secrete beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG). This is a rare case of PPC that presented insidiously in a postmenopausal woman. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Pediatric Primary Yolk Sac Tumour of the Kidney: Recommendations for Pretreatment Diagnosis.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2022 Feb 21:1-8. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Although nephroblastomas are frequently treated without prior biopsy, there are the occasional other pediatric renal tumors that require different management. In the literature, there are around 30 primary renal germ cell tumors (GCT), including four cases of Yolk sac tumor (YST). We present another primary renal YST. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

Life-threatening massive bleeding in the pulmonary trunk adjacent to the right ventricular outflow tract during the resection of a large mediastinal germ cell tumor: proposed safety measures in the absence of cardiovascular surgeons: a case report.

Mediastinum 2021 25;5:19. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

This report presents an unusual case of life-threatening massive bleeding in the pulmonary trunk adjacent to the right ventricular outflow tract during resection of a large primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (PMNSGCT) in the absence of cardiovascular surgeons. The patient was a 21-year-old male whose large mediastinal tumor was diagnosed as an extragonadal PMNSGCT, which was a mixture of a yolk sac tumor and an immature teratoma. Generally, chemotherapy causes extensive peripheral tumor necrosis of PMNSGCTs, thus enabling their complete resection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of gonadal and extragonadal malignant cancers on sperm quality.

Transl Cancer Res 2021 Dec;10(12):5183-5190

Human Sperm Bank, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Many studies have reported that testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) give rise to a decrease in sperm production and may further lead to infertility. However, little is known regarding sperm production in extragonadal germ cell tumours (EGCTs). We have studied the differences in the characteristics and sperm quality of patients with testicular cancer and patients with EGCTs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Mixed germ cell tumor of sacrococcygeal region; A case report with literature review.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2022 Feb 15;74:103247. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Smart Health Tower, Madam Mitterrand Street, Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq.

Introduction: Mixed germ cell tumors are uncommon tumors that contain two or more types of malignant, primitive, or germ cell components. This study aims to report a rare case of extragonadal mixed germ cell tumor of the sacrococcygeal area.

Case Report: A 4-year-old female presented with lower back swelling for two weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

A sinonasal yolk sac tumor in an adult.

J Pathol Transl Med 2022 May 26;56(3):152-156. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Yolk sac tumors (YSTs), which are also called endodermal sinus tumors, are malignant tumors of germ cell origin. These tumors usually occur in the gonads, but 20% of cases have been reported at extragonadal sites. The head and neck is a rarely affected region that accounts for just 1% of all malignant tumors of germ cell origin. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis is not associated with decreased incidence of venous thromboembolism in testicular germ cell tumor patients receiving chemotherapy.

Neoplasma 2022 Mar 25;69(2):456-463. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

2nd Department of Oncology, Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE), commonly occurring in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs), is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic anticoagulation has been shown to decrease the risk of VTE in patients with malignancies. The objective was to evaluate the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis on the incidence of VTE and outcome in patients with GCT treated with first-line chemotherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Urachal yolk sac tumor penetrating the bladder as a diagnostic challenge: a case report and review of the literature.

Diagn Pathol 2022 Jan 14;17(1). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Charles University and University Hospital Pilsen, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a germ cell tumor. It is primarily located in the gonads but can also occur extragonadally (extragonadal yolk sac tumor - EGYST), most commonly in the pelvis, retroperitoneum or mediastinum. Only a few YSTs of the urachus have been described. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Gastric adenocarcinoma with germ cell tumor components: a rare case report.

J Int Med Res 2022 Jan;50(1):3000605211069202

Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) often occur in male testes and female ovaries. Extragonadal GCTs account for approximately 2% to 5% of all GCTs and mainly occur in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and pineal gland. In this study, we reported a rare case of gastric adenocarcinoma with GCT components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Pineal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing α-Fetoprotein Detected by 68Ga-FAPI PET/MRI.

Clin Nucl Med 2022 Jan;47(1):90-92

From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine & Minnan PET Center.

Abstract: Pineal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are a rare type of extragonadal YST. They make up a small fraction of all intracranial germ cell tumors and an even small fraction of pineal masses overall. This study reported a case of pineal YST with α-fetoprotein production revealed by 18F-FDG and 68Ga-FAPI PET/MRI. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Cervical Cystic Teratoma: An Unusual Cause of Airway Obstruction in the Pediatric Population.

Cureus 2021 Oct 31;13(10):e19166. Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Internal Medicine, Nishtar Medical University Hospital, Multan, PAK.

Cystic teratoma is a germ cell tumor, which usually involves the gonads. However, it can be located occasionally in other organs. The most common extragonadal sites for germ cell tumors include midline structures such as the retroperitoneum, mediastinum, pineal body, and supra-sellar space. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Giant liver teratoma with gliosis peritonei treated by right extended hepatectomy: Overview and case report.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Nov;25(4):544-550

Department of Surgical Oncology, Soft Tissue, Bone Tumors and Digestive Tract Tumors, Oncology Hospital, XXI Century National Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico City, Mexico.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are considered as extragonadal if there is no evidence of a primary tumor in the testes or ovaries. GCTs can be classified as seminomas, non-seminomatous, mature teratomas, and immature teratomas based upon histology. Mature teratomas are generally found in prepuberal children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Use of targeted therapy and immunotherapy for the treatment of yolk sac tumors in extragonadal pelvic sites: two case reports.

Gland Surg 2021 Oct;10(10):3045-3052

Department of Gynecology, Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

We present the clinicopathologic features and treatments of two cases of extragonadal yolk sac tumor (EGYST) detected in young females, including one in the myometrium admitted in 2013 and another in the serosal layer of the anterior wall of uterus admitted in 2019. The following details were recorded: patient age, clinical presentation, tumor location, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (where applicable), histologic patterns including Schiller-Duval (SD) bodies, other germ cell or somatic components, immunoperoxidase results, treatment, and outcome. The patients were aged 18 and 32 years old, both displayed the clinical manifestation of pain in the lower abdomen, tumor sizes were 10 and 8 cm, respectively, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was significantly increased (1,210-20,251. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of growing teratoma syndrome as a diagnostic pitfall of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

Diagn Cytopathol 2022 Feb 13;50(2):E71-E75. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, USA.

Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare clinical entity that can occur in patients with a history of treatment for germ cell tumors (GCTs) and normalized serum tumor markers. Owing to the assortment of tissue types found in teratomas that may exhibit atypical features, distinguishing GTS from metastatic cancer in extragonadal masses can be challenging. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) can be useful for the rapid diagnosis of metastatic masses and has been effective in distinguishing GCTs from one another. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2022

The Role of in Cisplatin Resistance in Mediastinal and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 29;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are considered to be highly curable; however, there are major differences in the outcomes related to histology and anatomical localization. GCTs originating from the testis are, overall, sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy, whereas GCTs originating from the mediastinum show a worse response, which remains largely unexplained. Here, we address the differences among GCTs from two different anatomical locations (testicular versus mediastinal/extragonadal), with a specific focus on the role of the P53 pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Beta-HCG secretion by a pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2021 21;34:101528. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Heamato-Oncology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta, EPE, Av. Torrado da Silva, 2805-267, Almada, Portugal.

Ectopic secretion of beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) in pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma is remarkably rare. Such unusual ectopic hormone production by lung cancer may be initially misinterpreted as extragonadal choriocarcinoma or germ cell tumor. We report a 56-year-old postmenopausal female, smoker, who presented a 5-month history of progressive dyspnea, dry paroxysmal cough, and significant weight loss. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Management of a Primary Retroperitoneal Yolk Sac Tumor.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Oct 27;22:e933258. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

BACKGROUND Existing literature has detailed occurrences of retroperitoneal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) as the result of metastasis from a primary gonadal site. However, primary retroperitoneal YSTs are extremely rare, thus remaining a challenge to diagnose and treat. We present a complex case of a large primary retroperitoneal YST in a man treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Yolk sac tumor of the uterus in a 2-year-old girl: A case report and literature review.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Apr 2;35(2):177-181. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Obstetric & Gynecologic Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) occurring in the uterus are extremely rare. To report a uterine YST case in a prepubertal girl and review literature on uterine YST to outline clinical management in diagnosis and treatment.

Case: We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with vaginal bleeding and a pelvic mass. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF