1,447 results match your criteria Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors


Vasoformative Lesions in Mediastinal Mixed Germ Cell Tumors: an Interesting Account of Two Cases Spanning the Benign to Malignant Spectrum.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 18;9(4):624-628. Epub 2018 May 18.

1Department of Histopathology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Rajender Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are most commonly encountered in the anterior mediastinum. The presence of sarcomatous malignancies in these tumors is a rare phenomenon that adversely impacts patient prognosis because of poor response to conventional cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Even more unusual is the presence of florid benign somatic proliferations that overshadow the germ cell component, often resulting in misdiagnosis and inappropriate management. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Analysis of chromosome 12p over-representation and clinicopathological features in mediastinal teratomas.

Pathology 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Teratomas show diverse biologic behaviour and prognosis as well as variable histological features. Importantly, post-pubertal testicular teratomas composed of mature components have a potential for malignant behaviour, in contrast to ovarian dermoid cysts and pre-pubertal testicular teratomas which are considered almost always benign. On the other hand, the biological behaviour and histogenesis of extragonadal teratomas are still not fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Proboscis lateralis: A case report of a rare giant craniofacial teratoma in an infant.

Arch Plast Surg 2018 Nov 15;45(6):578-582. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Teratomas can occur in almost any region of the body and are the most common extragonadal germ cell childhood tumors. However, craniofacial teratomas are rare. Craniofacial teratomas can present unique features and cause significant functional and aesthetic concerns. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Incidence and prognosis factors of extragonadal choriocarcinoma in males: a population-based study.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 15;10:4565-4573. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China,

Background: Choriocarcinoma usually occurs in females and sometimes occurs in the testicles of males. Extragonadal choriocarcinoma in males was previously described in case reports, and our understanding of this type of cancer has remained limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence, treatment and prognostic factors of extragonadal choriocarcinoma in males. Read More

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October 2018

GnRH transactivates human AMH receptor gene via Egr1 and FOXO1 in gonadotrope cells.

Neuroendocrinology 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.


Background/objectives: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) signaling is critical for sexual differentiation and gonadal function. AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2) is expressed in extragonadal sites such as brain and pituitary and emerging evidence indicates that AMH biological action is much broader than initially thought. We recently reported that AMH signaling enhances FSH synthesis in pituitary gonadotrope cells. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Central intracrine DHEA synthesis in ageing-related neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: therapeutic potential?

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Oct 16;15(1):289. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.

It is a well-known fact that DHEA declines on ageing and that it is linked to ageing-related neurodegeneration, which is characterised by gradual cognitive decline. Although DHEA is also associated with inflammation in the periphery, the link between DHEA and neuroinflammation in this context is less clear. This review drew from different bodies of literature to provide a more comprehensive picture of peripheral vs central endocrine shifts with advanced age-specifically in terms of DHEA. Read More

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October 2018

Laparoscopic Management of Chylous Leakage Using a Direct Lymph Node Injection with Methylene Blue as a Leakage Point Location Strategy in a Patient with Retroperitoneal Extragonadal Seminoma.

J Endourol Case Rep 2018 20;4(1):149-151. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Urology, Fundació Puigvert, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The first-line treatment in cases of chylous leakage is conservative, and operation should be considered only in patients who fail to respond to this treatment. The main clinical concern is the difficulty of intraoperative localization of the site of leakage that can affect surgical outcome. A 33-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of abdominal pain and weight loss. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Clinicopathologic Features and Chromosome 12p Status of Pediatric Sacrococcygeal Teratomas: A Multi-institutional Analysis.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2018 Sep 3:1093526618798771. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

3 Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Chromosome 12p gains are typically present in postpubertal male patients with testicular malignant germ cell tumors, including most teratomas, and absent in pure ovarian teratomas, both mature and immature. We sought to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and chromosome 12p status of pediatric patients with sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs) using the institutional databases of 2 tertiary medical centers. Seven mature teratomas (3 pure, 2 with yolk sac tumor, 1 with medulloepithelioma, and 1 with ependymoma) and 3 immature teratomas (2 pure: grade 2 and grade 3 and 1 mixed: grade 3 with yolk sac tumor) were identified. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

"A narrow bridge home": The dorsal mesentery in primordial germ cell migration.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Aug 29. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:

Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in all vertebrates takes place in extragonadal sites. This requires migration of PGCs through embryonic tissues towards the genital ridges by both passive and active types of migration. Commonly, colonization in the genital ridges follows migration of the PGCs along the thin tissue of the dorsal mesentery. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Long-term survival of a patient with malignant transformation of extragonadal endometriosis treated solely with chemotherapy: A case report.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Dec 21;44(12):2186-2189. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan.

A 52-year-old woman presented to our hospital complaining of genital bleeding and was found to have a 50-mm vaginal tumor that involved the bladder, rectum, and small bowel and extended to the left pelvic side wall. Her history included a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and a total abdominal hysterectomy for fibroids and endometriosis. She had been prescribed estrogen replacement therapy (1. Read More

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December 2018
19 Reads

Expression and localization of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in the yak uterus during different stages of the oestrous cycle.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Dec 11;53(6):1539-1545. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Morphological changes of the uterus and alterations in its secretory activity under the influence of steroid hormones been well documented. The oestrous cycle is also associated with significant changes in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whose effects are mediated through its receptor (FSHR). Reports showed that in many mammals, FSHR was expressed in gonadal and extragonadal tissues including cervix, female reproductive tract, and pituitary gland. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Retroperitoneal extragonadal seminoma developed with acute lower inferior vena cava syndrome: A case report.

Urol Case Rep 2018 Sep 5;20:72-74. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Division of Urology, Department of Regenerative and Transplant Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

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September 2018
4 Reads

[Beta-hCG-producing thymic teratoma: an uncommon cause of peripheral precocious puberty].

Rev Chil Pediatr 2018 Jun;89(3):373-379

Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Dr. Hernán Henríquez Aravena, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Introduction: Among the causes of peripheral precocious puberty in men are the beta-human cho rionic gonadotropin (Β-HCG)-secreting tumors, such as hepatoblastomas, dysgerminomas, chorio carcinomas, and immature teratomas. In pediatrics, the mediastinal teratomas are rare, representing the 7-10% of extragonadal teratomas.

Objective: To describe the case of a patient with peripheral precocious puberty due to a Β-HCG -secreting thymic teratoma. Read More

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June 2018
12 Reads

Mixed extragonadal germ cell tumour of the prostate.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jul 10;2018. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.

Extragonadal germ cell tumours (EGGCTs) originated in prostate are extremely rare, with <20 cases described in the literature. We report a case of a patient with a primary prostatic mixed EGGCT. A 47-year-old man presenting severe low urinary tract symptoms and signs of prostatic enlargement, with no malignancy suspicion, underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. Read More

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July 2018
11 Reads

Extragonadal Effects of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Disease in Women during Menopausal Transition.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2018 Aug 5;29(8):571-580. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital; Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Diseases, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, China. Electronic address:

The risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases significantly in postmenopausal women. Until recently, the underlying mechanisms have been primarily attributed to estrogen decline following menopause. However, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels rise sharply during menopausal transition and are maintained at elevated levels for many years. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Evidence for expression and functionality of FSH and LH/hCG receptors in human endometrium.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Sep 4;35(9):1703-1712. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Mother-Infant Department, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and Clinica Eugin Modena, 41123, Modena, Italy.

Purpose: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) mediate intracellular functions by binding their specific protein G-coupled gonadotrophin receptor, respectively FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH/choriogonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR). Whereas the expression of FSHR and LHCGR in mammals was considered gonad-specific and cell-specific, studies identified gonadotrophin receptors in human female extragonadal reproductive tissues. This study aims to demonstrate that gonadotrophin receptors are expressed in endometrium and mediates intracellular functions. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Mature teratoma of the bladder in adolescence: a case report and literature review.

Res Rep Urol 2018 22;10:39-42. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Atma Jaya Catholic University, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Teratomas are tumors consisting of two or three germ layers, seen commonly during childhood. Teratomas have been reported to occur in various sites and organs. Bladder teratoma is a very rare extragonadal tumor, moreover in adults. Read More

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HSD3B1(1245A>C) variant regulates dueling abiraterone metabolite effects in prostate cancer.

J Clin Invest 2018 Aug 25;128(8):3333-3340. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: A common germline variant in HSD3B1(1245A>C) encodes for a hyperactive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (3βHSD1) missense that increases metabolic flux from extragonadal precursor steroids to DHT synthesis in prostate cancer. Enabling of extragonadal DHT synthesis by HSD3B1(1245C) predicts for more rapid clinical resistance to castration and sensitivity to extragonadal androgen synthesis inhibition. HSD3B1(1245C) thus appears to define a subgroup of patients who benefit from blocking extragonadal androgens. Read More

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August 2018
13 Reads

Retroperitoneal seminoma, a rare cause of testicular pain.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 14;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of General Surgery, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, London, UK.

Extragonadal retroperitoneal seminomas are a rare cause of testicular pain in males. We report the case of a 46-year-old man, who presented with right-sided testicular pain, clinically mimicking testicular torsion. The patient underwent a scrotal exploration, which revealed normal testes. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Devil within: an incidental and rare finding of an extragonandal retroperitoneal germ cell teratoma carcinoid tumour.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 14;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Waterford, Waterford, Ireland.

Extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms comprising approximately 2%-5% of all GCTs. Of these, approximately 30%-40% occurs as primary retroperitoneal GCTs. This case report details the presentation, diagnosis and management of a 53-year-old man presenting with an incidental finding of a primary extragonadal retroperitoneal teratoma with carcinoid transformation. Read More

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June 2018
13 Reads

Hematologic Malignancies Associated With Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors: 10 Years' Experience at Thailand's National Pediatric Tertiary Referral Center.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Aug;40(6):450-455

Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok.

Mediastinal germ cell tumor (MGCT), which accounts for 1% to 3% of extragonadal germ cell tumors, has unique manifestations; it is associated with several types of hematologic malignancy, particularly myeloid neoplasm. The aim of this study was to report the 10-year incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of MGCT at Thailand's national pediatric tertiary referral center. This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with MGCT at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital during 2005 to 2014. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads

AR Signaling in Prostate Cancer Regulates a Feed-Forward Mechanism of Androgen Synthesis by Way of HSD3B1 Upregulation.

Endocrinology 2018 Aug;159(8):2884-2890

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

3βHSD1 enzymatic activity is essential for synthesis of potent androgens from adrenal precursor steroids in prostate cancer. A germline variant in HSD3B1, the gene that encodes 3βHSD1, encodes for a stable enzyme, regulates adrenal androgen dependence, and is a predictive biomarker of poor clinical outcomes after gonadal testosterone deprivation therapy. However, little is known about HSD3B1 transcriptional regulation. Read More

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Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising in Endometriosis: A Case Report.

Mymensingh Med J 2018 Apr;27(2):420-423

Dr Khairun Nahar, Associate Professor, Department of Obs & Gynae, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail: khrnnhr@ yahoo.com.

Malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis was first described in 1925 by Sampson; later on it has been described in extragonadal regions by few authors also. Ovarian endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma are highly associated with endometriosis. Here we present a case of malignant transformation of ovarian endometrioma into endometrioid adenocarcinoma and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. Read More

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Follicle stimulating hormone receptor protein is expressed in ovine uterus during the estrous cycle and utero-placenta during early pregnancy: An immunohistochemical study.

Acta Histochem 2018 Jul 11;120(5):420-428. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, 58108, USA.

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a well characterized gonadotropin that controls primarily development and functions of ovarian follicles in mammalian species. FSH binds to a specific G protein-coupled receptor (FSHR) belonging to the glycoprotein hormone receptor family that plays an essential role in reproduction. Although the primary location of FSHR is in the gonads (mainly in ovarian follicles), FSHR protein and/or mRNA have also been detected in extragonadal female reproductive tissues including embryo, placenta, endometrium, cervix, ovarian cancer tissues, and/or endometriotic lesions in several species. Read More

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July 2018
5 Reads

Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome among refractory germ cell tumor patients.

Int J Urol 2018 Jul 11;25(7):678-683. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Urology, Kyoto Prefecture University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: To analyze cases of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosed after chemotherapy for refractory testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumor in our experience.

Methods: A total of 171 consecutive patients who were diagnosed and treated as refractory germ cell tumor and had records of detailed chemotherapy doses between April 1998 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Four testicular tumor patients (4/171, 2. Read More

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Postmenopausal endometriosis: drawing a clearer clinical picture.

Climacteric 2018 Jun 3;21(3):249-255. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

a Section of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , St. Luke's Medical Center-Quezon City , Quezon City , Philippines.

This review aims to draw a clearer clinical picture of postmenopausal endometriosis. Based on limited literature, postmenopausal endometriosis emerges as an infrequent entity but with a clinical picture significantly unlike that of premenopausal endometriosis. In contrast to the premenopausal disease, postmenopausal endometriosis occurs in a state of ovarian estrogen deficiency, appears to have a greater predisposition to malignant change, may have a greater tendency to spread to extragonadal organs and develop into constrictive and/or obstructive lesions, and is preferably treated surgically. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Is alpha-fetoprotein decline a prognostic factor of childhood non-seminomatous germ cell tumours? Results of the French TGM95 study.

Eur J Cancer 2018 May 28;95:11-19. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Villejuif, F-94805, France.

Purpose: In adults' non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NS-GCT), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) decline was identified as an important prognostic factor. We investigated its prognostic value in the French TGM95 study for childhood NS-GCT.

Patients And Methods: Three risk groups were defined: low risk (LR: localised and completely resected pS1, AFP<15000 ng/ml), with a 'wait-and-see' strategy; intermediate-risk (IR: localised incompletely resected, AFP<15000 ng/ml) with 3-5 vinblastine-bleomycine-cisplatin courses; high risk (HiR: AFP≥15000 ng/ml and/or metastatic) with 4-6 etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin courses. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Fshb Knockout Mouse Model, Two Decades Later and Into the Future.

Authors:
T Rajendra Kumar

Endocrinology 2018 05;159(5):1941-1949

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado at Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

In 1997, nearly 20 years ago, we reported the phenotypes of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β (Fshb) null mice. Since then, these mice have been useful for various physiological and genetic studies in reproductive and skeletal biology. In a 2009 review titled "FSHβ Knockout Mouse Model: A Decade Ago and Into the Future," I summarized the need for and what led to the development of an FSH-deficient mouse model and its applications, including delineation of the emerging extragonadal roles of FSH in bone cells by using this genetic model. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Extragonadal germ cell tumor of the posterior mediastinum in a child complicated with spinal cord compression: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2018 03 5;18(1):97. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) in children are rare neoplasms with diverse pathological findings according to the site and age of presentation. The most common symptoms in children with mediastinal GCTs, which are nonspecific, are dyspnea, chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, vena cava occlusion syndrome, and fatigue/weakness. Because of these nonspecific symptoms, it is difficult to suspect a mediastinal mass. Read More

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March 2018
12 Reads

Gonadotropins and their receptors: coevolution, genetic variants, receptor imaging, and functional antagonists.

Biol Reprod 2018 Jul;99(1):3-12

Program of Reproductive and Stem Cell Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Gonadotropins belong to the family of dimeric glycoprotein hormones and regulate gonadal physiology mediated by G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptors. These glycoprotein hormones are widely used in the clinic to promote ovarian follicle development and for treating some cases of male infertility. We traced the coevolution of dimeric gonadotropin hormones and their receptors, together with thyrotropin and its receptor. Read More

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July 2018
12 Reads

Klinefelter Syndrome: Integrating Genetics, Neuropsychology, and Endocrinology.

Endocr Rev 2018 08;39(4):389-423

Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Although first identified over 70 years ago, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) continues to pose substantial diagnostic challenges, as many patients are still misdiagnosed, or remain undiagnosed. In fact, as few as 25% of patients with KS are accurately diagnosed and most of these diagnoses are not made until adulthood. Classic characteristics of KS include small testes, infertility, hypergonadothropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment. Read More

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August 2018
9 Reads

Molecular regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis, secretion and action.

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 Apr 7;60(3):R131-R155. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Division of Reproductive SciencesUniversity of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSHβ-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common α-subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotrophs and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Klinefelter syndrome: more than hypogonadism.

Metabolism 2018 Sep 31;86:135-144. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

University Hospital of Muenster, Center of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, Domagkstraße 11, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequent chromosome disorder in males (1:650 newborn males), defined by 47,XXY karyotype. The classical phenotype is that of a tall male with relatively long legs, small, firm testes and gynecomastia. Azoospermia and infertility are almost inevitably present, but may be overcome by TESE and ICSI. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

PRDM14 is expressed in germ cell tumors with constitutive overexpression altering human germline differentiation and proliferation.

Stem Cell Res 2018 03 4;27:46-56. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors occurring in gonadal and extragonadal locations. GCTs are hypothesized to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs), which fail to differentiate. One recently identified susceptibility loci for human GCT is PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins 14 (PRDM14). Read More

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March 2018
25 Reads

Case report: Extragonadal mixed germ cell tumor in the thigh.

Urol Case Rep 2018 Jan 26;16:104-106. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

King Hussein Cancer Center, P.O. Box 1269, Al-Jubeiha, Amman, 11941, Jordan.

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January 2018
16 Reads

Extragonadal Actions of FSH: A Critical Need for Novel Genetic Models.

Authors:
T Rajendra Kumar

Endocrinology 2018 01;159(1):2-8

Division of Reproductive Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is critical for ovarian folliculogenesis and essential for female fertility. FSH binds to FSH receptors (FSHRs) and regulates estrogen production in ovarian granulosa cells to orchestrate female reproductive physiology. Ovarian senescence that occurs as a function of aging results in loss of estrogen production, and this is believed to be the major reason for bone loss in postmenopausal women. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

HSD3B1 status as a biomarker of androgen deprivation resistance and implications for prostate cancer.

Nat Rev Urol 2018 Mar 12;15(3):191-196. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Lerner College of Medicine, Education Institute, the Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, the Department of Urology, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, and the Department of Haematology and Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Patients with advanced prostate cancer who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) almost invariably develop castration-resistant disease. The mechanism of resistance is largely based on synthesis of intratumoral androgens from adrenal precursors, requiring enzymatic action of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ isomerase 1 (3β-HSD1), encoded by HSD3B1. A nucleotide polymorphism (1245A>C) in HSD3B1 results in a protein variant with increased steady-state levels and subsequently increased androgen synthesis from extragonadal precursors. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

Diagnosis and management of metastatic neoplasms with unknown primary.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2018 May 26;35(3):199-206. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Hematology / Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Department of Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine V, Hematology / Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

In cancer of unknown primary (CUP), metastases are clinically and histologically confirmed, but the primary tumor site remains elusive after extensive work-up. CUPs make up for 2-3% of all epithelial malignancies. The two prevailing histologies are adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas, whereas squamous cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas and rare histologies account for the remaining 10%. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

An Unusual Cause of Headache and Sudden Death of a Young Sailor-Postmortem Computed Tomography and Histological Findings of a Fatal Retroperitoneal Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumor.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Sep 22;63(5):1568-1572. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Anatomical Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore, 169856, Singapore.

A 26-year-old Caucasian sailor, with no past medical history aside from headache for the last 1 week, was found dead in his cabin. The body was stored in a refrigerator on board and disembarked for autopsy 3 days later. Autopsy showed a large, nodular, necrotic and hemorrhagic retroperitoneal mass, and smaller hemorrhagic nodules in the brain, lungs, liver, and left kidney, with the brain being markedly edematous. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Extragonadal primordial germ cells or placental progenitor cells?

Authors:
Karen M Downs

Reprod Biomed Online 2018 Jan 14;36(1):6-11. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1300 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of the gametes, are now claimed to segregate within the extra-embryonic tissues of three species of placental mammals. In this brief Commentary, I raise the question of whether the so-called PGCs are not PGCs at all, but rather, progenitor cells that build the fetal-placental interface in Placentalia. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

An Uncommon Presentation of a Metachronous Testicular Primary Nonseminoma and Seminoma Separated by Two Decades and a Testicular Cancer Literature Review.

Case Rep Oncol 2017 Sep-Dec;10(3):832-839. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Southwestern Regional Center, Tulsa, OK, USA.

Introduction: Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in men aged 15-40 years [Bols et al.: Philadelphia, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011]. Its incidence comprises 0. Read More

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September 2017
15 Reads

Primary adrenal teratoma: An unusual tumor - Challenges in diagnosis and surgical management.

J Postgrad Med 2018 Apr-Jun;64(2):112-114

Department of Endocrine Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

We report a rare case of a 25-year-old lady who presented with right hypochondriac pain associated with weakness for 3 months. Her hormonal evaluation was normal. Computed tomography scan revealed an adrenal mass for which a right open transperitoneal adrenalectomy was performed, and the lesion was diagnosed as mature teratoma on histopathological examination. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

Sex differences in behavioral and neurochemical effects of gonadectomy and aromatase inhibition in rats.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Jan 10;87:93-107. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Aromatase inhibitors, which are widely used for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers, have been associated with psychiatric side effects ranging from mania to depression. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in the behavioral and neurochemical effects of aromatase inhibition on male and female, sham-operated or gonadectomized adult rats. Three weeks after surgery, rats received chronic treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle and were then subjected to the open field test, which assesses general activity. Read More

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January 2018

HSD3B1 and Response to a Nonsteroidal CYP17A1 Inhibitor in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Apr;4(4):554-557

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Importance: The HSD3B1 (1245C) germline variant encodes for a gain-of-function missense in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzyme 1 (3βHSD1) that results in increased dihydrotestosterone synthesis from extragonadal precursors and is predictive of more rapid progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

Objective: To determine whether the HSD3B1 (1245C) genotype is predictive of clinical response to extragonadal androgen ablation with nonsteroidal 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) inhibition in men with metastatic CRPC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: An observational study of men with metastatic CRPC treated with ketoconazole between June 1998 and December 2012 was conducted at the University of California, San Francisco. Read More

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April 2018
6 Reads

Yolk sac primary tumor of mediastino: a rare case in a young adult.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2017 Oct-Dec;15(4):496-499. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Instituto de Assistência Médica ao Servidor Público Estadual, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato de Oliveira", São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms that mostly occur in the gonads, although they can also affect other body sites, especially the anterior mediastinum (50 to 70% of all extragonadal germ cell tumors). We report a case of a primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor, a rare and aggressive germ cell tumors subtype. This was a 38-year-old man who was admitted to Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual "Francisco Morato de Oliveira", complaining about dyspnea and dry cough for 1 year. Read More

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March 2018
29 Reads

Massive Hemoptysis: A Rare Presentation of Anterior Mediastinal Teratoma in an Adolescent.

Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2017 Apr-Jun;38(2):215-217

Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Germ cell tumors are predominantly found in the gonads, and the most common extragonadal site is anterior mediastinum. Usual symptoms are cough, dyspnea, and fever, chest pain due to mass effect or intrapulmonary invasion but hemoptysis is rare and may result from either communication with tracheobronchial tree or may result from bronchial bleeding due to irritation by tumor. As in our case, patient presenting with massive hemoptysis and shock are the rarest presentation of a benign teratoma. Read More

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September 2017
9 Reads

Primary Mediastinal Pure Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor (Germinoma) as a Rare Cause of Precocious Puberty in a 9-Year-Old Patient.

Urology 2017 Dec 6;110:216-219. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Division of Urology, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio and Pontificia Universidad Javeriana School of Medicine, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.

Less than 5%-7% of germ cell tumors are extragonadal, with the central nervous system being the most common location in children, followed by retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Only 10% of mediastinal tumors are malignant and one-third of these are pure seminomas (germinomas). We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with development of secondary sexual characteristics. Read More

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December 2017
16 Reads

Can FSH influence longevity?

Authors:
Andrzej Bartke

Aging Cell 2017 10 30;16(5):916-917. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, SIU School of Medicine, 801 N. Rutledge, P.O. Box 19628, Springfield, IL, 62704-9628, USA.

It was recently reported that the extragonadal actions of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) include regulation of brown and white adipose tissue function and thermogenesis. Based on these findings and on our evidence for reduced FSH levels and enhanced thermogenesis in long-lived growth hormone (GH)-deficient mice and GH-resistant mice, we suggest that FSH may have a role in the control of aging and longevity. We speculate that alterations in FSH secretion may represent one of the mechanisms of trade-offs between reproduction and aging. Read More

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October 2017
2 Reads

Split liver transplantation for retroperitoneal immature teratoma masquerading as hepatoblastoma.

Pediatr Transplant 2017 Nov 16;21(7). Epub 2017 Jul 16.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Extragonadal teratoma originating from the retroperitoneum represents less than 5% of all teratomas and accounts for less than 10% of all pediatric retroperitoneal neoplasms. To date, there has been no report of teratoma managed with LT. This study reports an infant aged 3 months with retroperitoneal immature teratoma involving the hepatic hilum, refractory to chemotherapy and treated with LT. Read More

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November 2017
9 Reads