1,086 results match your criteria Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: Paraneoplastic Syndromes and the Role of Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

Cureus 2021 Apr 4;13(4):e14286. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, USA.

Choriocarcinoma syndrome is a rare phenomenon that occurs in male patients with testicular choriocarcinoma. Male patients who have a testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (TNSGCT) with at least partial choriocarcinoma histology, and metastases to the lungs and/or other extragonadal sites, as well as a markedly elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), have been prone to pulmonary bleeding, hypoxia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The respiratory complications occur immediately after chemotherapy is administered or, in some cases, spontaneously. Read More

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Radiotherapy as a Single Modality in Primary Seminoma of the Prostate.

Cureus 2021 Apr 2;13(4):e14264. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Medical Oncology, Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, CAN.

Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCTs) are uncommon, and those involving the prostate are rare. We report on a primary seminoma of the prostate in a 56-year-old male presenting with scrotal pain, urinary frequency and urgency, and erectile dysfunction. Digital rectal examination revealed a hard, markedly enlarged prostate projecting posteriorly into the rectum. Read More

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Case Reports: Management Challenges in Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors.

Front Pediatr 2021 15;9:659083. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Germ cell tumors in infants are most frequently extragonadal, benign, and amenable to surgical resection. An unusual feature of germ cell tumors is the potential coexistence of malignant with benign disease which makes it possible for patients with incompletely resected tumors to experience either a benign or malignant recurrence. A challenge to postoperative surveillance is the interpretation of serum alpha fetoprotein, a marker of malignancy, that is physiologically elevated during the first year of life. Read More

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Sacrococcygeal Teratoma : A Tumor at the Center of Embryogenesis.

Ji Hoon Phi

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is an extragonadal germ cell tumor (GCT) that develops in the fetal and neonatal periods. SCT is a type I GCT in which only teratoma and yolk sac tumors arise from extragonadal sites. SCT is the most common type I GCT and is believed to originate through epigenetic reprogramming of early primordial germ cells migrating from the yolk sac to the gonadal ridges. Read More

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Management of Germ Cell Tumors in Pediatric Patients.

Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2021 Apr 3;30(2):325-338. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, 705 Riley Hospital Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Germ cell tumors arise from primordial germ cells. Most develop in the gonads or along midline structures of the body. Genetic aberrations leading to disruption in the molecular signaling responsible for primordial germ cell migration early in development may provide rationale for why germ cell tumors originate in extragonadal locations. Read More

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Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors-The University of Western Ontario Experience.

Curr Oncol 2020 12 8;28(1):78-85. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Surgery, Urology Division, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada.

Extragonadal germ cell tumors account for 2-5.7% of germ cell tumors (GCTs). Of these, primary mediastinal GCTs (PMGCTs) are responsible for 16-36% of cases. Read More

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December 2020

Primary yolk sac tumor of pterygopalatine fossa with loss of vision: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24916

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Introduction: Primary yolk sac tumor (YST) is an infrequently-diagnosed malignant extragonadal germ cell tumors. It is likely to recur locally and may present with widespread metastases once diagnosed. Primary YST of the head is uncommon but can cause severe complications, such as loss of vision once the tumor mass invades the optic nerve. Read More

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February 2021

Late testicular relapse two decades after primary extragonadal germ cell tumor with uncommon metastases: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 5;15(1):59. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

The Department of Urology, Japan Community Health care Organization Kani Tono Hospital, 1221-5 Dota, Kani-shi, Gifu, 509-0206, Japan.

Background: Extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT) is a relatively rare condition, reportedly representing 3-7% of all germ cell tumors. We report a patient who had metachronous testicular tumor with uncommon metastases 20 years after primary retroperitoneal EGCT treatment, along with a corresponding literature review.

Case Presentation: A 49-year-old Japanese man visited our department in November 2017 with chief complaints of indolent right scrotum enlargement and a right inguinal mass. Read More

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February 2021

[Pathological features of primary extragonadal germ cell tumor of the prostate with small round blue cell morphology].

H L Gan Q F Wang

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;50(2):108-113

Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University; Institute of Pathology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

To investigate the clinicopathological features and clinical management of primary extragonadal germ cell tumor of the prostate. Two cases of primary extragonadal germ cell tumor in the prostate were collected at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, in January and September 2016, respectively. Their pathological features, clinical treatments and follow-up were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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February 2021

Primary Mature Teratoma of the Rectum: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Feb 1;22:e930272. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

BACKGROUND Teratomas are embryonal neoplasms that contain tissues derived from 1 or more of the 3 germ layers. They commonly are found in the sacrococcygeal-gonadal location, sometimes in midline locations such as the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and head and neck region. Primary rectal teratomas are extremely rare. Read More

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February 2021

Management of Germ Cell Tumours of the Testes in Adult Patients: German Clinical Practice Guideline, PART II - Recommendations for the Treatment of Advanced, Recurrent, and Refractory Disease and Extragonadal and Sex Cord/Stromal Tumours and for the Management of Follow-Up, Toxicity, Quality of Life, Palliative Care, and Supportive Therapy.

Urol Int 2021 22;105(3-4):181-191. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

II. Medical Clinic and Polyclinic, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: We developed the first German evidence- and consensus-based clinical guideline on diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of germ cell tumours (GCT) of the testes in adult patients. We present the guideline content in 2 separate publications. The present second part summarizes therecommendations for the treatment of advanced disease stages and for the management of follow-up and late effects. Read More

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January 2021

Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Commonly Expresses in Germ Cell Tumors: Evaluation on a Large Series from Multiple Centers.

Int J Gen Med 2021 14;14:119-129. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Aim: The concrete features of expression of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) are needed to be revealed in male and female germ cell tumors (GCTs).

Methods: TdT immunostaining was performed in 195 GCTs, and the tumor and/or tumorous components included seminomas, germ cell neoplasias in situ (GCNISs), dysgerminomas, embryonal carcinomas (ECs), extragonadal germinomas, yolk sac tumors (YSTs), teratomas, and spermatocytic tumors. Twenty-one sex cord-stromal tumors were also added. Read More

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January 2021

[A Case of Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor Treated by Induction Therapy with A Reduced Bep Regimen].

Hinyokika Kiyo 2020 Dec;66(12):449-452

The Department of Nephro-Urologic Surgery and Andrology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine.

A 21-year-old man with chief complaints of left hypochondriac and chest pain was shown to have multiple masses in the lung, a pleural effusion in the right cavum thoracis, a mediastinal mass, and lymphadenopathy detected by computed tomographic scan. He was diagnosed with an extragonadal germ cell tumor based on pathologic findings from lung biopsies and elevation of the serum total human chorionic gonadotropin. He underwent a reduced chemotherapy regimen consisting of bleomycin, cisplatin, and etoposide (reduced BEP) to lower the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a manifestation of choriocarcinoma syndrome, which occurs at induction chemotherapy with the full-dose BEP regimen. Read More

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December 2020

Low Survival in Poor Prognosis Metastatic Germ Cell Cancer in Belarus.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 Jan;7:63-71

Department of Urology, N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Centre, Minsk, Belarus.

Purpose: Since the development of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) risk classification in a 1997 study, high-income countries have reported a significant increase in survival for poor prognosis patients. There are scant data on IGCCCG risk-stratified survival from low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates in a contemporary cohort of Belarusian patients with advanced germ cell cancer (GCC) stratified by the IGCCCG prognostic classification and analyzed prognostic factors for survival. Read More

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January 2021

Yolk sac tumor of vagina: a rare cause of vaginal bleeding in adolescents - a case report.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 16;37:169. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Department, Mohamed VI University Hospital, Marrakech, Morocco.

Yolk sac tumor (YST) is one of the malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) that usually occurs in the ovaries and testes of young patients. Its occurrence in the vagina is extremely rare. We present a rare case of extragonadal YST occurring in the vaginal region. Read More

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January 2021

Mature cystic teratoma mimicking meningomyelocele.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.

Teratomas are benign germ cell tumors originating from at least two germ layers, mostly of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Mature teratomas are the most common subtype and develop from well-differentiated germ cells. Although the location is extragonadal in infants and young children, gonadal involvement occurs in adults. Read More

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January 2021

A Rare Case of Intra-Fourth-Ventricular Germinoma, Derived from the Medulla Oblongata.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2020 22;55(6):426-431. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Radiology, Hanoi Medical University, Ha Noi, Vietnam,

Introduction: Extragonadal germinomas rarely emerge from the brain stem; however, proper diagnosis and treatment can result in favorable prognosis. Unfortunately, the preoperative diagnosis of medulla oblongata germinoma is difficult due to insufficient clinical signs and symptoms that are specific to this diagnosis. Case Representation: We present a 12-year-old male patient with an intra-fourth-ventricular germinoma, derived from the medulla oblongata, with no abnormalities in the supratentorial region. Read More

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December 2020

Neurological and endocrinological manifestations of 49 children with intracranial pure germinoma at initial diagnosis in Taiwan.

Pediatr Neonatol 2021 01 20;62(1):106-112. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Intracranial pure germinoma is a rare extragonadal neoplasm. Affected patients may have motor impairment, visual disturbance, neurological signs, and endocrine disorder, depending on the size and location of the tumor. This study investigated and analyzed patients' demographic data and neuroimaging, clinical, laboratory, and endocrinological findings. Read More

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January 2021

Burned-out testicular germ cell tumour presenting as acute inferior vena cava syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Nov 17;13(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Radiology, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, Harrow, London, UK.

Germ cell tumours (GCT) are the most common testicular neoplasms, seen mainly in young adults. Rarely they can affect extragonadal tissues, either as primary tumours or as metastases, most commonly to retroperitoneal lymph nodes. A 'burned-out' testicular tumour is a metastatic GCT with a relatively occult primary testicular tumour, which has histologically spontaneously regressed. Read More

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November 2020

Immature teratoma arising from uterine corpus in an 11-year-old girl: Case report and review of the literature.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Jan 16;47(1):452-455. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hospital Affiliated 5 to Nantong University (Taizhou People's Hospital), Taizhou, China.

Teratomas are one of the most common germ cell tumors, and they usually occur in ovaries. Extragonadal teratomas are rare, especially immature ones. Only several cases of primary teratomas of the uterus have been reported since 1929. Read More

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January 2021

Primary colon adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinoma differentiation: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2020 Nov 16;14(1):220. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Ochsner Medical Center, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, LA, 70121, USA.

Background: Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy of trophoblastic tissue, typically of gestational etiology. Sporadic, nongestational cases are rarely found outside of the gonads. There are only 31 cases of primary choriocarcinoma of the colon reported in the literature. Read More

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November 2020

Malignant recurrence after mature Sacrococcygeal teratoma: A meta-analysis and review of the literature.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2020 Dec 23;156:103140. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a rare extragonadal germ cell tumour mostly diagnosed during infancy and early childhood. Neonatal SCTs are mostly mature, but can also contain immature and/or malignant components. Recurrence of an SCT alters prognosis, especially when it is malignant, of which its mechanism is not yet fully understood. Read More

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December 2020

Extragonadal Non-gestational Choriocarcinoma with Tonsillar Presentation.

Head Neck Pathol 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Pathology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, 5601 De Soto Avenue, Woodland Hills, CA, 91365, USA.

Extragonadal non-gestational choriocarcinoma is a rare but well-described phenomenon occurring in patients with midline germ cell tumors. Choriocarcinoma (ChC) is an aggressive neoplasm usually developing in women as a rare complication of pregnancy. In male patients ChC occurs in the testes, usually as a component of mixed germ cell tumors. Read More

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October 2020

microRNA-196a-5p inhibits testicular germ cell tumor progression via NR6A1/E-cadherin axis.

Cancer Med 2020 12 9;9(23):9107-9122. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Institute of Molecular Medicine and Oncology, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, P.R. China.

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are a diverse group of neoplasms that are derived from dysfunctional fetal germ cells and can also present in extragonadal sites. The genetic drivers underlying malignant transformation of TGCTs have not been fully elucidated so far. The aim of the present study is to clarify the functional role and regulatory mechanism of miR-196a-5p in TGCTs. Read More

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December 2020

Could Aberrant Migration Explain Metachronous Germ Cell Tumors?

Cancer Invest 2021 Feb 6;39(2):195-201. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Institut d'Hématologie et d'Oncologie Pédiatrique, Lyon, France.

Background: Extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to arise as a result of local transformation of primordial gonadal cells (PGCs) that become misplaced during embryogenesis. With the exception of bilateral testis tumors, metachronous GCT (i.e. Read More

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February 2021

Klinefelter syndrome and germ cell tumors: review of the literature.

Int J Pediatr Endocrinol 2020 30;2020:18. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, ZNA Queen Paola Children's Hospital, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.

Objective: The most common presentation of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is infertility and features of hypogonadism. Currently no consensus exists on the risk of malignancy in this syndrome. Several case reports show an incidence of extragonadal germ cells tumors (eGCT) of 1. Read More

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September 2020