420 results match your criteria Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics [Journal]


Evaluation and management of pulmonary nodules: state-of-the-art and future perspectives.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov;7(6):629-44

University of Michigan Health System, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology , Ann Arbor, MI , USA

Introduction: The imaging evaluation of pulmonary nodules, often incidentally detected on imaging examinations performed for other clinical reasons, is a frequently encountered clinical circumstance. With advances in imaging modalities, both the detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules continue to evolve and improve.

Areas Covered: This article will review the imaging modalities used to detect and diagnose benign and malignant pulmonary nodules, with a focus on computed tomography (CT), which continues to be the mainstay for evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.858117DOI Listing
November 2013
12 Reads

Biomarkers in IgA nephropathy: relationship to pathogenetic hits.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov;7(6):615-27

Children's Foundation Research Institute at Le Bonheur Children's Hospital , 50 North Dunlap, Room 520 Research Tower, Memphis, TN 38103-2893 , USA +1 901 287 5366 ; +1 901 287 6337 ;

Introduction: IgA nephropathy, the most prevalent glomerular disease in the world, requires a renal biopsy for diagnosis. Reliable biomarkers are needed for the non-invasive diagnosis of this disease and to more fully delineate its natural history and risk for progression.

Areas Covered: In this review, the authors examine serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) and glycan-specific IgG and IgA autoantibodies that are integral to pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.856878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4557957PMC
November 2013
31 Reads

The molecular landscape of diffuse glioma and prospects for biomarker development.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 28;7(6):573-87. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology and Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program , 1275 York Avenue, NY 10065 , USA.

Introduction: High-throughput molecular profiling is transforming long-standing conceptions of diffuse gliomas, the most common primary brain tumors. Indeed, comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses have not only provided striking mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas but also greatly enriched the pool of potential biomarkers for prognostic and predictive patient stratification.

Areas Covered: This article summarizes significant recent developments in the molecular characterization of diffuse gliomas, focusing on implications for biomarker development and application. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/17530059.2013.84
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.846321DOI Listing
November 2013
7 Reads

Difficulties and barriers in diagnosing Fabry disease: what can be learnt from the literature?

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 16;7(6):589-99. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Royal Free Hospital and University College London Medical School, Lysosomal Storage Disorders Unit , London NW3 2QG , UK.

Introduction: Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha galactosidase A. Clinical features include neuropathic pain, rash, proteinuria renal failure, stroke and cardiomyopathy accompanied by a reduced life expectancy. Patients report an average delay of > 10 years between symptom onset and diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.846322DOI Listing
November 2013
7 Reads

Promising biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 8;7(6):601-13. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Rheumatology , 164 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-380 , Korea.

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with heterogeneous manifestations. Of particular importance for clinicians are the precise assessment of disease activity and the ability to make appropriate therapeutic decisions. Therefore, interest has increased in biomarkers that can be measured as indicators of pathogenic processes, disease activity and response to management. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/17530059.2013.84
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.846323DOI Listing
November 2013
20 Reads

Challenges of COPD diagnosis.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 8;7(6):543-56. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

University of Aberdeen, Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences , Aberdeen , Scotland +44 1223 96 9808 ;

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide and this burden is predicted to increase unless exposure to risk factors is addressed. Diagnosis of COPD is a challenge: COPD is underdiagnosed and frequently misdiagnosed for asthma or other respiratory conditions. Although spirometry is only one parameter for establishing a clinical diagnosis of COPD, lack of routine spirometry is a key cause of COPD misdiagnosis. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/17530059.2013.84
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.842552DOI Listing
November 2013
6 Reads

Novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in esophageal cancer.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 4;7(6):557-71. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

University of Cologne, Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery , Kerpener Str. 62, Cologne, 50937 , Germany +49 221 4786273 ; +49 221 4785076 ;

Introduction: This article provides an overview of actual biomarkers with an impact on improvement of diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer patients.

Areas Covered: Recent literature has been analyzed and provides information regarding the potential role of molecular markers as a diagnostic or prognostic factor in esophageal cancer.

Expert Opinion: Until now, the role of molecular markers is far from being firmly established for routine use and is not without obstacles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.843526DOI Listing
November 2013
7 Reads

The precision study: examining the inter- and intra-assay variability of replicate measurements of BGStar, iBGStar and 12 other blood glucose monitors.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 3;7(6):511-6. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

IKFE - Institute for Clinical Research and Development , Parcusstr. 8, D-55116 Mainz , Germany +49 6131 5763610 +49 6131 5763611

Objective: Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a key element in diabetes management. Accurate and precise performance of blood glucose monitors (BGMs) ensures that valid values are obtained to guide treatment decisions by patients and physicians. BGStar and iBGStar are hand-held BGMs that use dynamic electrochemistry to correct for potential interferences and thereby minimize system errors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.839984DOI Listing
November 2013
114 Reads

Review of latent and lytic phase biomarkers in Kaposi's sarcoma.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 26;7(6):531-42. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Pathology , Suite 201, 5150 Centre Street, Pittsburgh , USA +1 412 794 4195 ; +1 412 794 3195 ;

Introduction: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm with distinct clinical-epidemiological subtypes and varied clinical presentations. While the association of KS with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8, KSHV) infection is well known, additional factors are needed for tumorigenesis. The precise sequence of events involved in KS development, progression and regression continues to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.842227DOI Listing
November 2013
6 Reads

Diagnosis of skeletal muscle channelopathies.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 26;7(6):517-29. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

UCL, Institute of Neurology, MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases , Queen Square, London, WC1N3BG UK ,

Introduction: Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare disorders of muscle membrane excitability. Their episodic nature may result in diagnostic difficulty and delays in diagnosis. Advances in diagnostic clinical electrophysiology combined with DNA-based diagnosis have improved diagnostic accuracy and efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.839656DOI Listing
November 2013
10 Reads

Simtomax, a novel point of care test for coeliac disease.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Nov 24;7(6):645-51. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Regional Gastroenterology & Liver Unit, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals Trust , Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2JF , UK.

Introduction: Coeliac disease is an autoimmune condition resulting from an abnormal reaction to dietary gluten leading to small bowel villous atrophy. International prevalence studies suggest that coeliac disease affects 1% of the adult population. However, despite its high prevalence, large numbers of patients go undiagnosed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.836179DOI Listing
November 2013
26 Reads

Novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in biliary tract cancer.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep;7(5):487-99

University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, 4th Floor, 74 Huntley Street, London, WC1E6AU, UK.

Introduction: The worldwide incidence of biliary tract carcinoma (BTC, tumours of the bile ducts and gall-bladder) continues to rise, with the only potentially curative treatment remaining surgical resection or transplantation, possible in only a minority of patients. Late presentation and a paucity of effective treatments mandate the development of techniques for early lesion detection.

Areas Covered: This article reviews currently available biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of BTC, as well as recently published studies describing novel serum, bile and urinary biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.826646DOI Listing
September 2013
6 Reads

Diagnosis of acromegaly: state of the art.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 31;7(5):443-53. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Desk F20, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Introduction: Biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly relies on measurement of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH). An elevated IGF-1 level above the age- and gender-specific normal range and nonsuppression of GH to oral glucose load to a nadir < 0.4 ng/ml in sensitive assays are currently considered diagnostic of acromegaly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.820181DOI Listing
September 2013
8 Reads

Comparison of volunteers' experience of using, and accuracy of reading, different types of home pregnancy test formats.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 19;7(5):435-41. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

SPD Development Co., Ltd , Priory Business Park, Bedford, MK44 3UP, UK.

Background: Women suspecting pregnancy need an accurate result when they conduct a home pregnancy test. A variety of tests are available from simple professional style strips to midstream tests with a digitally displayed result. However, it is not known whether all these formats can be used and read correctly by untrained women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.830103DOI Listing
September 2013
8 Reads

Low-dose CT in clinical diagnostics.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 13;7(5):501-10. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology , 55 Fruit St White 270, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) has become key for patient management due to its outstanding capabilities for detecting disease processes and assessing treatment response, which has led to expansion in CT imaging for diagnostic and image-guided therapeutic interventions. Despite these benefits, the growing use of CT has raised concerns as radiation risks associated with radiation exposure.

Areas Covered: The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with fundamental concepts of dose metrics for assessing radiation exposure and weighting radiation-associated risks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.826647DOI Listing
September 2013
7 Reads

Advances in personalized therapy for lung cancer.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 12;7(5):475-85. Epub 2013 Aug 12.

University of Rochester, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, The Department of Medicine, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 704, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Introduction: Personalized medicine based on tumor characteristics is transforming the management of lung cancer. This review provides an overview of clinically approved strategies to personalize treatment for lung cancer as well as evolving strategies in various stages of clinical development.

Areas Covered: Selecting therapy based on various tumor characteristics such as histology and presence of specific molecular alterations will be covered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.826645DOI Listing
September 2013
7 Reads

Diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 9;7(5):463-74. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

University Heart Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of General and Interventional Cardiology , Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Introduction: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a common syndrome, accounting for about 50% of all patients with heart failure (HF). Morbidity and mortality are similar to patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), yet no effective treatment has been identified in randomized clinical trials.

Areas Covered: This article provides an overview of the available literature regarding diagnosing established HFPEF and potential new therapeutic targets for the early diagnosis of HFPEF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.825246DOI Listing
September 2013
5 Reads

Scrutinizing skinfield melanin patterns in young Caucasian women.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 7;7(5):455-62. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Liège University, Liège University Hospital, Department of Dermatopathology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging, Unilab Lg, Liège, Belgium.

Introduction: When using adequate wavelength illumination and high resolution recordings, Caucasian skin color appears uneven. The patterns of faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM) are diverse and possibly related to the risk of skin cancer development.

Areas Covered: The current peer-reviewed publications about objective methods quantifying FMM are revisited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.823155DOI Listing
September 2013
64 Reads

The prostate-specific antigen test.

Authors:
Monique J Roobol

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 23;7(5):423-6. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Urology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Before the 1980s, prostate cancer (PC) was considered a deadly disease. The mortality-incidence ratio showed that 1 out of each 2 - 3 PC patients died of this disease. On the other hand, autopsy studies have shown that latent PC is common in middle-aged men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.821980DOI Listing
September 2013
4 Reads

Biomarkers for personalised treatment in psychiatric diseases.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 22;7(5):417-22. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Biomarker research of psychiatric disorders is delayed by symptom pattern-related diagnostic categories that are only distantly associated with biological mechanisms. In neuropsychiatric disorders that have high heritability (schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer's disease), genomic research led to significant genome-wide association study (GWAS) results by increasing the number of subjects in case-control studies, and thus provided new hypotheses regarding the aetiology of these disorders and possible targets for research of new treatment approaches. In contrast, in moderately heritable psychiatric disorders (anxiety disorders, unipolar major depression), the development of symptoms, in addition to risk genes, is more dependent on the presence of specific environmental risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.821979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786517PMC
September 2013
4 Reads

Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species in anticoagulated blood of healthy sheep.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Sep 27;7(5):427-33. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Charles Darwin University, School of Psychological & Clinical Sciences, Darwin 0909, Australia.

Background: Little or no study has been done to compare the indices of 'nitrosative' and 'oxidative' stresses, especially in terms of correlation and the possible differential effects of the chelating agents.

Objective: This preliminary study investigated possible correlations between the indices of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood, effect of anticoagulated-blood tubes, and impact of blood-clotting pathways.

Methods: Thirty blood samples from sheep were collected into ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate tubes at the Berrima Veterinary Laboratory using their standard protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.808187DOI Listing
September 2013
6 Reads

Prognostic markers for acute heart failure.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul;7(4):379-92

University of Murcia, Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital and School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Murcia, Spain Ctra. Madrid-Cartagena s/n, 30120, Murcia, España.

Introduction: Acute heart failure (AHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients over 65 years, representing a heterogenic syndrome and a major burden, as it is associated with elevated health expenditures and high rates of mortality and readmission.

Areas Covered: This article provides a review of individual markers for risk stratification, including clinical, cardiorenal, hemodynamic, neurohormonal and cardiac biomarkers. In addition, aspects as complementary value, monitoring, risk models and events prediction are analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.814638DOI Listing
July 2013
9 Reads

MRI biomarkers for evaluation of treatment efficacy in preclinical diabetic retinopathy.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 21;7(4):393-403. Epub 2013 Jun 21.

Wayne State University, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Detroit, MI, USA.

Introduction: One sober consequence of the current epidemic of diabetes mellitus is that an increasing number of people world-wide will partially or completely lose their sight to diabetic retinopathy. Clinically, the sight-threatening complications of diabetes are diagnosed and treated based on visible retinal lesions (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.814639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912437PMC
July 2013
6 Reads

Fibroblast growth factor 21: a novel biomarker for human muscle-manifesting mitochondrial disorders.

Authors:
Anu Suomalainen

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 20;7(4):313-7. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

University of Helsinki, Research Programs Unit, Molecular Neurology, Biomedicum-Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, Helsinki 00290, Finland.

Introduction: Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders is challenging, because of their highly variable clinical manifestations and age-of-onset and the shortage of specific diagnostic tools. Recent molecular studies have found that serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has potential to be a biomarker for muscle-manifesting mitochondrial disease, as well as for follow-up of disease progression and effect of intervention.

Areas Covered: Serum FGF21 as a biomarker is compared to conventional serum diagnostic tools for mitochondrial disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.812070DOI Listing
July 2013
27 Reads

Molecular biomarkers in cervical cancer diagnosis: a critical appraisal.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 19;7(4):365-77. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Maastricht University Medical Centre, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, PO Box 616, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: It is expected that in the near future high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing will be implemented as the primary cervical cancer screening method in some countries. However, only a fraction of hr-HPV positive women will have a clinically relevant lesion. As a result, there is an urgent need for additional biomarkers that can detect these lesions and that can at the same time be applied to cytological specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.808621DOI Listing
July 2013
19 Reads

The clinical and laboratory diagnosis of acute meningitis and acute encephalitis.

Authors:
Burke A Cunha

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 30;7(4):343-64. Epub 2013 May 30.

Winthrop-University Hospital, Infectious Disease Division, Mineola, NY, USA.

Introduction: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is a life-threatening infectious disease requiring prompt antimicrobial therapy. ABM must be differentiated from systemic disorders with CNS manifestations that may mimic ABM. ABM should also be differentiated from acute meningoencephalitis (AME) and acute viral encephalitis (AVE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.804508DOI Listing
July 2013
5 Reads

Diagnosis of thyroid cancer: state of art.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 23;7(4):331-42. Epub 2013 May 23.

National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Endocrine Oncology Branch, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer in the USA and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and cytologic analysis is the most cost-effective approach to distinguish between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. However, up to 30% of thyroid FNA biopsy results are inconclusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.800481DOI Listing
July 2013
7 Reads

Circulating markers for prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 6;7(4):319-29. Epub 2013 May 6.

National University Health System, Department of Pharmacology, Singapore.

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal liver malignancy with an exceptionally high incidence in Asia and Africa. The number of new cases in America and Europe is rapidly increasing, making HCC a worldwide health problem. Patients with early HCC can be treated by potentially curative interventions such as tumor resection, liver transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation, but unfortunately a considerable portion of them would develop tumor recurrence, which in many cases cannot be detected early. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.795146DOI Listing
July 2013
6 Reads

Use of ultrasound-assisted arthroscopy in rheumatology: an experience in 11 patients with different rheumatic diseases.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 24;7(4):309-12. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

The 'real time' capability of ultrasound (US) allows dynamic assessment of joint and tendon movements, which can often aid in the detection of structural abnormalities. The simultaneous use of arthroscopy (AS) and US is therefore a logical progression. Here the results of a series of 11 patients with different rheumatic diseases in whom a combined use of US and AS was adopted are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.794136DOI Listing
July 2013
8 Reads

Challenges in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants and children.

Authors:
Yvan Vandenplas

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 May 12;7(3):289-98. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

Free University of Brussels, Department of Pediatrics, UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Introduction: The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is challenging. The wide variation in symptoms is a major reason for the controversies. Since the expression of GERD varies from nonerosive reflux disease over Barrett's esophagus to chronic respiratory disease, it is clear that not one investigation technique will provide an answer in all situations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.789857DOI Listing
May 2013
12 Reads

Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: what is the clinical impact?

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 May 9;7(3):227-9. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

Evidence for a causal role for vitamin D in multiple sclerosis (MS) is being gathered. Epidemiological, molecular and animal model studies have paved the way in our understanding of the effects of vitamin D in demyelinating disease. Several clinical trials have been completed and more are under way to understand the full extent and value of vitamin D supplementation on disease progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.786040DOI Listing
May 2013
4 Reads

Current and future options for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 May 4;7(3):275-87. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Unidad Médico-Quirúrgica de Enfermedades Respiratorias (UMQUER), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain.

Introduction: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a frequent problem faced by clinicians, but tumor pleural involvement can be seen without effusion.

Areas Covered: Imaging, pleural fluid analysis, biomarkers for MPE, needle pleural biopsy and thoracoscopy. To prepare this review, we performed a search using keywords: 'diagnosis' + 'malignant' + 'pleural' + 'effusion' (all fields) in PubMed, and found 4106 articles overall (until 16 January 2013, 881 in the last 5 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.786038DOI Listing
May 2013
5 Reads

The diagnostic evaluation of MelaFind multi-spectral objective computer vision system.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jul 31;7(4):405-11. Epub 2013 Mar 31.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Introduction: Over 75,000 people in the United States were diagnosed with melanoma in 2012. The incidence of melanoma continues to increase over time and early detection is currently the most promising strategy to decrease melanoma-related morbidity and mortality. Currently, most physicians perform skin cancer screenings with the unaided eye. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.785520DOI Listing
July 2013
5 Reads

Challenges in immunodiagnostic tests for leprosy.

Authors:
Annemieke Geluk

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 May 28;7(3):265-74. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Despite the effectiveness of multidrug therapy, leprosy still represents a significant global health problem: transmission of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is not sufficiently reduced as witnessed by unwavering new case rates in leprosy-endemic countries. Early detection of M. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.786039DOI Listing
May 2013
5 Reads

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as diagnostic and prognostic tool for cardiovascular disease and heart failure.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 25;7(2):209-20. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA.

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been a burden on the healthcare system for decades and has increased the need for earlier diagnosis, better risk stratification and cost- effective treatment to reduce the rates of hospitalization. Biomarker research has broadened our knowledge base, shedding more light on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms associated with the development of heart disorders. Recent technological advances have made it possible to use noninvasive and cost-effective biomarkers for identifying patients who are at risk of developing coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.763795DOI Listing
March 2013
7 Reads

Critical assessment of diabetic xerosis.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 17;7(2):201-7. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

University Hospital of Liége, Department of Dermatopathology, Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC), Liège, Belgium.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is commonly responsible for skin changes including discrete to mild xerosis.

Areas Covered: This review focuses on some selected relevant bioinstrumental methods assessing diabetes xerosis. Peer-reviewed articles on objective non-invasive methods were scrutinized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.728585DOI Listing
March 2013
43 Reads

Efficacy of methods used for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 3;7(2):189-200. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

University of the Western Cape, Department of Medical Biosciences, Life Sciences Building, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and infertility. Diagnosis of BV should be rapid, reliable and safe. This is especially vital in pregnant women where intervention may be necessary for the well-being of both the mother and the foetus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.753876DOI Listing
March 2013
6 Reads

Accuracy and limitations of diagnostic methods for avascular necrosis of the hip.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 18;7(2):179-87. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Crete, Greece.

Introduction: Femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAVN) is the result of irreversible anoxia of the subchondral bone. The death of bone cells can cause articular collapse and pain, and in turn usually leads to degenerative arthritis. FHAVN is a common disorder, affecting mainly young male adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.757592DOI Listing
March 2013
5 Reads

Molecular diagnosis of hemochromatosis.

Authors:
Alberto Piperno

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 23;7(2):161-77. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

University of Milano-Bicocca, Centre for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemochromatosis and Iron Disorders, S.Gerardo Hospital, Department of Health Sciences, Monza, Italy.

Introduction: The discovery of hemochromatosis genes and the availability of molecular-genetic tests considerably modified the knowledge of the disease relative to physiopathology, penetrance, and expression, and had major impact in the diagnostic settings.

Areas Covered: Hemochromatosis is a heterogenous disorder at both genetic and phenotypic level. The review discusses criteria to define patients' iron phenotype and to use molecular tests to diagnose HFE-related and non-HFE hemochromatosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.763794DOI Listing
March 2013
6 Reads

Novel biomarkers for bipolar disorder.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 16;7(2):147-59. Epub 2012 Dec 16.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Introduction: Bipolar disorder is diagnosed on the basis of patient and/or family reports and behavioral observation. Traditionally regarded as an affective disorder involving behavioral changes, bipolar disorder has been reconceptualized as a multisystem disease associated with mood, cognitive, metabolic, autonomic and sleep/wake dysfunctions. Accordingly, recent studies have focused on the identification of biomarkers related to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development, clinical presentation and course of bipolar disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.734807DOI Listing
March 2013
4 Reads

Novel biomarkers for the prediction of metastasis in colorectal cancer.

Authors:
Inti Zlobec

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 14;7(2):137-46. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

University of Bern, Institute of Pathology L414, Translational Research Unit (TRU), Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: In patients with metastatic colorectal cancers, multimodal management and the use of biological agents such as monoclonal antibodies have had major positive effects on survival. The ability to predict which patients may be at 'high risk' of distant metastasis could have major implications on patient management. Histomorphological, immunohistochemical or molecular biomarkers are currently being investigated in order to test their potential value as predictors of metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.753054DOI Listing
March 2013
9 Reads

Analytical performance validation of a coronary heart disease risk assessment multi-analyte proteomic test.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 11;7(2):127-36. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Aviir, Inc., Irvine, CA 92618, USA.

Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains prevalent despite efforts to improve CHD risk assessment. The authors developed a multi-analyte immunoassay-based CHD risk assessment (CHDRA) algorithm, clinically validated in a multicenter study, to improve CHDRA in intermediate risk individuals.

Objective: Clinical laboratory validation of the CHDRA biomarker assays' analytical performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.753055DOI Listing
March 2013
24 Reads

Scleroderma: skin stiffness assessment using the stress-strain relationship under progressive suction.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Mar 14;7(2):119-25. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

University of Liège, Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC), Liège, Belgium.

Introduction: A few non-invasive biometrological methods are available for monitoring skin stiffening in systemic scleroderma. Among them, the Cutometer® is used for years by several clinical teams.

Objectives: To revisit the microscopic structure of the dermal fibrous networks in scleroderma and the relationship with changes in viscoelasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.753877DOI Listing
March 2013
6 Reads

Leptin in heart failure.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 5;7(1):113-7. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Heart Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: In the study of heart failure (HF), biomarkers have served as an important tool for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic assessment. Their main categories in the area of HF are markers of ventricular dysfunction, inflammation, metabolism, neurohormones, oxidative stress, myocardial injury and extracellular matrix remodeling.

Areas Covered: Leptin contributes to the modulation of metabolism, respiratory control and inflammation, which are factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.735229DOI Listing
January 2013
5 Reads

New development in the diagnosis of dengue infections.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 23;7(1):99-112. Epub 2012 Aug 23.

University Malaya, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Dengue is of major concern around the world. Having no pathognomonic features that reliably distinguish it from other febrile illnesses, laboratory diagnosis is important for confirmation. Ideally, a dengue diagnostic test should be sensitive, specific and applicable from the onset of disease to 10 days post-infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2012.718759DOI Listing
January 2013
6 Reads

Recent advances in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected adults.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 18;7(1):85-97. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Keio University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults. Although the microscopic demonstration of the organisms in respiratory specimens is still the golden standard of its diagnosis, recent advances in the diagnostic tools have been changing the situation.

Areas Covered: Colonization of Pneumocystis is highly prevalent among the general population and could be associated with the transmission and development of PCP in immunocompromised individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2012.722080DOI Listing
January 2013
18 Reads

Biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 4;7(1):71-83. Epub 2012 Nov 4.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Division of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo 156-0057, Japan.

Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease leading to movement disorders, and is characterized neuropathologically by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, intracellular α-synuclein deposition and the formation of Lewy bodies. The difficulty of making a definitive diagnosis of PD itself, as opposed to other neurodegenerative diseases associated with parkinsonism, is a central issue in clinical PD research. However, recent advances in diagnostic methods, encompassing imaging techniques, genetic testing and measurement of biological markers may permit earlier diagnosis, and thus potentially improved management of PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2013.733694DOI Listing
January 2013
4 Reads

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α as prognostic marker.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 28;7(1):53-70. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie moléculaire, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Hôpital Nord, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a key player in the signaling pathway that mediates a complex and pleiotropic range of adaptive responses to hypoxia. It serves as cellular hypoxia sensor and plays a critical role in physiologic processes including glucose metabolism, iron metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, cell survival and apoptosis, but also, pathologic processes such as carcinogenesis, progression and metastasis of many cancers. With the recent advent of new molecular targeted therapies, there is a growing need of molecular understanding of physiology and physiopathology and increased demand of diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up markers. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1517/17530059.2012.71
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2012.719022DOI Listing
January 2013
8 Reads

Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

Expert Opin Med Diagn 2013 Jan 6;7(1):25-35. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

University of California, Division of Gastroenterology, San Diego, CA 92093, USA.

Introduction: Cross sectional imaging is important for initial evaluation of pancreatic cancer, whereas endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) will often help better visualize, differentiate and make final tissue diagnosis. It plays an important role in the multi-disciplinary evaluation and staging of pancreatic cancer as accurate staging has significant impact on treatment decisions.

Areas Covered: This review will cover the yield and utility of EUS and EUS FNA for diagnosis of pancreas cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17530059.2012.711313DOI Listing
January 2013
20 Reads