14,641 results match your criteria Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Experimentation cerebrale[Journal]


Transcranial alternating current stimulation over the prefrontal cortex enhances episodic memory recognition.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Faculty of Rehabilitation, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-Ku, Niigata, 950-3198, Japan.

It remains unknown whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) affects episodic memory and the effect of gamma oscillations delivered to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) on long-term memory retention has not been fully investigated. We examined whether tACS over the left PFC enhances recognition of episodic memory. The study enrolled 36 healthy young adult volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05543-wDOI Listing

Unique controlling mechanisms underlying walking with two handheld poles in contrast to those of conventional walking as revealed by split-belt locomotor adaptation.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Pole walking (PW), a form of locomotion in which a person holds a pole in each hand, enhances the involvement of alternating upper-limb movement. While this quadruped-like walking increases postural stability for bipedal conventional walking (CW), in terms of the neural controlling mechanisms underlying the two locomotion forms (PW and CW), the similarities and differences remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural control of PW and CW from the perspective of locomotor adaptation to a novel environment on a split-belt treadmill. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05541-yDOI Listing

Effect of coadministration of the GABA agonist baclofen and the 5-HT agonist Ro60-0175 on the expression of amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

FES Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. de los Barrios 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, 54090, Tlalnepantla de Baz, Edo de México, Mexico.

GABA and 5-HT agonists are effective in attenuating the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. However, they induce adverse side effects when used in high doses. The previous evidence has suggested that the 5HT receptor activation effect could be produced by an increased release of GABA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the consequent activation of GABAergic receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05540-zDOI Listing

Control strategies for rapid, visually guided adjustments of the foot during continuous walking.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY, 12180, USA.

When walking over stable, complex terrain, visual information about an upcoming foothold is primarily utilized during the preceding step to organize a nearly ballistic forward movement of the body. However, it is often necessary to respond to changes in the position of an intended foothold that occur around step initiation. Although humans are capable of rapidly adjusting foot trajectory mid-swing in response to a perturbation of target position, such movements may disrupt the efficiency and stability of the gait cycle. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05538-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05538-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation (CRIR), Montreal, QC, Canada.

To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05498-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05498-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The gap effect reduces both manual and saccadic inhibition of return (IOR).

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Psychology, Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow, Kopernika 26, 31-501, Krakow, Poland.

Inhibition of return (IOR) is the effect of slower responses to validly than invalidly cued targets. The discovery of IOR raised controversy as to whether it has two "flavors", i.e. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05537-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05537-8DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Descending inhibition selectively counteracts the capsaicin-induced facilitation of dorsal horn neurons activated by joint nociceptive afferents.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neurosciences, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico.

Previous studies from our laboratory showed that in the anesthetized cat, the intradermal injection of capsaicin in the hindpaw facilitated the intraspinal field potentials (IFPs) evoked by stimulation of the intermediate and high-threshold myelinated fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN). The capsaicin-induced facilitation was significantly reduced 3-4 h after the injection, despite the persistence of hindpaw inflammation. Although this effect was attributed to an incremented descending inhibition acting on the spinal pathways, it was not clear if it was set in operation once the capsaicin-induced effects exceeded a certain threshold, or if it was continuously operating to keep the increased neuronal activation within manageable limits. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05535-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05535-wDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Memory for non-painful auditory items is influenced by whether they are experienced in a context involving painful electrical stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

In this study, we sought to examine the effect of experimentally induced somatic pain on memory. Subjects heard a series of words and made categorization decisions in two different conditions. One condition included painful shocks administered just after presentation of some of the words; the other condition involved no shocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05534-xDOI Listing

Force perception at the shoulder after a unilateral suprascapular nerve block.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, 1240, Eugene, OR, 97403, USA.

There are two key sources of information that can be used to match forces-the centrally generated sense of effort and afferent signals from mechanical receptors located in peripheral tissues. There is currently no consensus on which source of information is more important for matching forces. The corollary discharge hypothesis argues that subjects match forces using the centrally generated sense of effort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05530-1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Improve tactile frequency discrimination in musicians.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

École d'orthophonie et d'audiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Music practice is a multisensory training that is of great interest to neuroscientists because of its implications for neural plasticity. Music-related modulation of sensory systems has been observed in neuroimaging data, and has been supported by results in behavioral tasks. Some studies have shown that musicians react faster than non-musicians to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05532-zDOI Listing

Neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and cognitive effects of 30 days of isolation.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Institute of Movement and Neurosciences, German Sport University, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933, Cologne, Germany.

The increasing demand of space flights requires a profound knowledge of the chronologic reactions of the human body to extreme conditions. Prior studies already have shown the adverse effects of long-term isolation on psycho-physiological well-being. The chronology of the effects and whether short-term isolation periods already lead to similar effects has not been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05531-0DOI Listing

The nociceptive withdrawal response of the tail in the spinalized rat employs a hybrid categorical-continuous spatial mapping strategy.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Biology, MSC 7801, James Madison University, 951 Carrier Drive, Harrisonburg, VA, 22807, USA.

Complexity in movement planning, arising from diverse temporal and spatial sources, places a computational burden on the central nervous system. However, the efficacy with which humans can perform natural, highly trained movements suggests that they have evolved effective behavioral strategies that simplify the computational burden. The specific aim of our research was to use three-dimensional high-speed video to determine whether the tail nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR) to noxious heat stimuli delivered at locations that varied both circumferentially and rostral-caudally on the tail depended on the location of the stimulus in spinalized rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05527-wDOI Listing

Bihemispheric anodal transcranial direct-current stimulation over temporal cortex enhances auditory selective spatial attention.

Authors:
Jörg Lewald

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Cognitive Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, Postfach 51-IB 6/61, 44780, Bochum, Germany.

The capacity to selectively focus on a particular speaker of interest in a complex acoustic environment with multiple persons speaking simultaneously-a so-called "cocktail-party" situation-is of decisive importance for human verbal communication. Here, the efficacy of single-dose transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in improving this ability was tested in young healthy adults (n = 24), using a spatial task that required the localization of a target word in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation. In a sham-controlled crossover design, offline bihemispheric double-monopolar anodal tDCS was applied for 30 min at 1 mA over auditory regions of temporal lobe, and the participant's performance was assessed prior to tDCS, immediately after tDCS, and 1 h after tDCS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05525-yDOI Listing

Microstimulation-induced inhibition of thalamic reticular nucleus in non-human primates.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada.

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) modulates activity in the thalamus and controls excitatory input from corticothalamic and thalamocortical glutamatergic projections. It is made up of GABAergic neurons which project topographically to the thalamus. The TRN also receives inhibitory projections from the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05526-xDOI Listing
March 2019
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The effect of experimental pain on short-interval intracortical inhibition with multi-locus transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, AALTO, P.O. Box 12200, 00076, Espoo, Finland.

Chronic neuropathic pain is known to alter the primary motor cortex (M1) function. Less is known about the normal, physiological effects of experimental neurogenic pain on M1. The objective of this study is to determine how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is altered in the M1 representation area of a muscle exposed to experimental pain compared to SICI of another muscle not exposed to pain. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05502-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05502-5DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The effect of sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia on single unit and local field potentials.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

NorthShore University HealthSystem, 1033 University Place, Suite 100, Evanston, IL, 60201, USA.

Volatile general anesthetics are used commonly in adults and children, yet their mechanisms of action are complex and the changes in single unit firing and synaptic activity that underlie the broad decreases in neuronal activity induced by these drugs have not been well characterized. Capturing such changes throughout the anesthesia process is important for comparing the effects of different anesthetics and gaining a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and their impact on different brain regions. Using chronically implanted electrodes in the rabbit somatosensory cortex, we compared the effects of two common general anesthetics, isoflurane, and sevoflurane, on cortical neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05528-9DOI Listing

Utricular function in vestibular neuritis: a pilot study of concordance/discordance between ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and ocular cycloposition.

Authors:
Marcello Cherchi

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Ken and Ruth Davee Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Ave., Ward 12-140, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Vestibular neuritis (VN) can affect utricular afferents. Utricular function can be assessed by ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) whose abnormalities include weak or absent responses, and ocular cycloposition whose abnormalities include ocular torsion (OT). When studied independently in vestibular neuritis, oVEMPs are abnormal in 61-82% of cases, and OT is present in 72-80% of cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05529-8DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Dose of remote limb ischemic conditioning for enhancing learning in healthy young adults.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Program in Physical Therapy, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) is a technique in which tissues distant from the target organ are exposed to brief, sub-lethal bouts of ischemia. The effects of remotely applied ischemic conditioning are systemically transferred to the target organ, and typically manifested as protection from subsequent ischemic injury. Previous studies in our lab have found and confirmed that RLIC enhances learning and retention during motor training on a balance task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05519-wDOI Listing
March 2019
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Modeling the effects of medial olivocochlear efferent stimulation at the level of the inferior colliculus.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Various studies on medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents have implicated it in multiple roles in the auditory system (e.g., dynamic range adaptation, masking reduction, and selective attention). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05511-4DOI Listing

Contribution of corticospinal drive to ankle plantar flexor muscle activation during gait in adults with cerebral palsy.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Impaired plantar flexor muscle activation during push-off in late stance contributes importantly to reduced gait ability in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Here we used low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to suppress soleus EMG activity during push-off as an estimate of corticospinal drive in CP adults and neurologically intact (NI) adults. Ten CP adults (age 34 years, SD 14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05520-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Spinal reciprocal inhibition in the co-contraction of the lower leg depends on muscle activity ratio.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata-shi, Niigata, 950-3198, Japan.

The spinal reciprocal inhibition during co-contraction remains unclear. Reports on the reciprocal Ia and D1 inhibitions in the co-contraction are lacking, and a point about the muscle activity amount during co-contraction is unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of changes in the ratio of soleus (Sol) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activities in co-contraction on reciprocal Ia and D1 inhibitions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05523-0DOI Listing

Going offline: differences in the contributions of movement control processes when reaching in a typical versus novel environment.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University Private, Room 360, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.

Human movements are remarkably adaptive. We are capable of completing movements in a novel visuomotor environment with similar accuracy to those performed in a typical environment. In the current study, we examined if the control processes underlying movements under typical conditions were different from those underlying novel visuomotor conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05515-0DOI Listing

Short-latency afferent-induced facilitation and inhibition as predictors of thermally induced variations in corticomotor excitability.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth, Ottawa, ON, K1H 8M5, Canada.

Recently (Ansari et al., PeerJ 6:e6163, 2018a; Somatosens Mot Res 35:69-79, 2018b), we showed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that focal application of innocuous thermal stimuli to the distal hand produced variable responses in terms of motor-evoked potential (MEP) suppression or enhancement. Here, we sought to investigate possible causes of this variability by examining circuits mediating sensorimotor integration and intra-cortical inhibition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05522-1DOI Listing
March 2019
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Modulation of gait inter-limb coordination in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy after intensive upper extremity intervention.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 W 120th St., New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Motor function difficulties associated with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP) impact gait inter-limb coordination between the upper and lower extremities. Two motor learning based, upper extremity treatments, Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) and Hand Arm Bimanual Therapy (HABIT), have resulted in improvements in coordination and function between the arms in children with USCP. However, no study has investigated whether coordination between the upper and lower extremities improves after either intervention during a functional task, such as walking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05501-6DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Emergence of anticipatory actions in a novel task.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070, Würzburg, Germany.

Humans normally adapt earlier segments of multistep motor actions in such a way that the execution of later segments is facilitated. For example, the kinematics of grasping movements are adapted to the requirements of the intended subsequent object manipulations. Here we studied which factors foster adaptation of earlier action segments to later ones in a novel task for which no prior experience existed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05516-zDOI Listing

The effects of speed of execution on upper-limb kinematics in activities of daily living with respect to age.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Chair of Human Movement Science, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Georg-Brauchle-Ring 60/62, 80992, Munich, Germany.

In this study, 26 young, 16 older adults ≤ 66a, and 22 older adults ≥ 67a were examined in a set of neuropsychological tests and the kinematics in two different activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed. Half of the participants performed the ADL in a natural speed, the other half as fast as possible. The performance in the Trail Making Task B revealed an increased slope after 67 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05507-0DOI Listing

c-Fos expression in the limbic thalamus following thermoregulatory and wake-sleep changes in the rat.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato, 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

A cellular degeneration of two thalamic nuclei belonging to the "limbic thalamus", i.e., the anteroventral (AV) and mediodorsal (MD) nuclei, has been shown in patients suffering from Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), a lethal prion disease characterized by autonomic activation and severe insomnia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05521-2DOI Listing
March 2019
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Gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs: an event-related potentials study.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 15;237(5):1347-1359. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Although gender differences in empathy have been well established through measuring subjective outcomes, some studies of the neural mechanisms of pain empathy have not found gender differences. This inconsistent evidence may be caused by different research methods or different paradigms. The present study adopted a different approach from the pain empathy paradigm to examine gender differences in empathic responses to others' economic payoffs using event-related potentials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05518-xDOI Listing

Postural coordination and control to the precision demands of light finger touch.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 15;237(5):1339-1346. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, USA.

We examine the proposition that information availability and postural facilitation-usually viewed as opposing views in postural control-are intertwined with the effects of one being related to the other. If that is the case, a single control parameter (precision demands) would capture the changes in postural control relating information and postural facilitation. Using the dynamical systems approach, we investigated whether, manipulating touch requirements as to increase precision demands, would induce quantitative and qualitative changes in postural dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05513-2DOI Listing

The use of motor imagery training to retain the performance improvement following physical practice in the elderly.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

UFR des Sciences du Sport, INSERM UMR1093, UFR STAPS, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21000, Dijon, France.

With physiological aging, appears a deterioration of the ability to retain motor skills newly acquired. In this study, we tested the beneficial role of motor imagery training to compensate this deterioration. We tested four groups: young control group (n = 10), elderly control group (n = 10), young mental-training group (n = 13) and elderly mental-training group (n = 13). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05514-1DOI Listing

Preparation to a quick whole-body action: control with referent body orientation and multi-muscle synergies.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 15;237(5):1361-1374. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Kinesiology, Rec.Hall-267, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

We examined the control of postural stability in preparation to a discrete, quick whole-body sway toward a target and back to the initial position. Several predictions were tested based on the theory of control with referent body orientation and the notion of multi-muscle synergies stabilizing center of pressure (COP) coordinate. Healthy, young adults performed fast, discrete whole-body motion forward-and-back and backward-and-back under visual feedback on the COP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05510-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475607PMC

Differential influence of habitual third-person vision of a body part on mental rotation of images of hands and feet.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 14;237(5):1325-1337. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, G.P.O. Box 2471, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.

Left/right judgement (LRJ) tasks involve determining the laterality of presented hand or feet images. Allocentric images (third-person perspective; 3PP) take longer to identify than egocentric images (first-person perspective; 1PP), supporting that implicit motor imagery (IMI)-mentally manoeuvring one's body to match the shown posture-is used. While numerous cognitive processes are involved during LRJs, it remains unclear whether features of the individual (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05512-3DOI Listing

New information on the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on n-back task performance.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 14;237(5):1315-1324. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

The School of Education, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

The n-back task is prototypical tool widely used to evaluate working memory (WM) abilities in healthy and clinical populations. Previous studies finding beneficial effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on n-back task performance were limited by the number of n-back "memory loads" utilized and the assessment of performance only immediately following stimulation. Our aims were to investigate both the immediate and lasting effects of six sessions of bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC on n-back performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05500-7DOI Listing

Movements following force-field adaptation are aligned with altered sense of limb position.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 12;237(5):1303-1313. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.

Previous work has shown that motor learning is associated with changes to both movements and to the somatosensory perception of limb position. In an earlier study that motivates the current work, it appeared that following washout trials, movements did not return to baseline but rather were aligned with associated changes to sensed limb position. Here, we provide a systematic test of this relationship, examining the idea that adaptation-related changes to sensed limb position and to the path of the limb are linked, not only after washout trials but at all stages of the adaptation process. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05509-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05509-yDOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Common cortical areas involved in both auditory and visual imageries for novel stimuli.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 11;237(5):1279-1287. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology and The Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5010, Atlanta, GA, 30302, USA.

We examine cross-modality commonalities in visual and auditory imageries during fMRI scanning in a sample of healthy young adults. In a visual task combining viewed and imagined stimuli, 28 participants were asked to imagine novel scenes related to the other images, and in a similar auditory task combining heard and imagined stimuli, to imagine novel sentences spoken by individuals they had heard speaking previously. We identified a common set of regions in medial and lateral Brodmann area 6, as well as inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), partially supporting previous meta-analytic results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05492-4DOI Listing

Characteristics of motor unit recruitment in boys and men at maximal and submaximal force levels.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 11;237(5):1289-1302. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Clermont-Auvergne University, AME2P, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

The aim of this study was to compare voluntary activation (VA) and motor units (MU) recruitment patterns between boys and men at different contraction levels of the knee extensor muscles. We hypothesized that boys and men would display similar VA and MU recruitment patterns at low submaximal force levels, but that boys would display a lower utilization of their higher-threshold MU and a lower VA at near-maximal and maximal force levels than men. 11 prepubertal boys and 13 men were tested at the optimal knee angle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05508-zDOI Listing

Synchronising to a frequency while estimating time of vibro-tactile stimuli.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 9;237(5):1257-1266. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, FFCLRP, Dep. Psicologia. Laboratório de Processos Associativos, Controle temporal e Memória, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040901, Brazil.

It is well known that subjective time perception can be modified by the emotional experience related to a specific event, by pharmaceutical compounds or by sensory stimuli. As for the latter, visual and auditory stimuli have been widely studied compared to tactile ones. Two experiments were conducted using different vibratory frequencies to stimulate participants who were asked to reproduce stimulus duration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05504-3DOI Listing

Quadriceps muscle function following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: systemic differences in neural and morphological characteristics.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 9;237(5):1267-1278. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Biology Building 4, Room 015, 3107 Horsebarn Hill Rd, 4137 Unit, Storrs, CT, 06269-4137, USA.

Quadriceps muscle dysfunction is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Data considering the diversity of neural changes, in-concert with morphological adaptations of the quadriceps muscle, are lacking. We investigated bilateral differences in neural and morphological characteristics of the quadriceps muscle in ACLR participants (n = 11, month post-surgery: 69. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05499-xDOI Listing

Some binocular advantages for planning reach, but not grasp, components of prehension.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 8;237(5):1239-1255. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Applied Vision Research Centre, City, University of London, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK.

Proficient (fast, accurate, precise) hand actions for reaching-to-grasp 3D objects are known to benefit significantly from the use of binocular vision compared to one eye alone. We examined whether these binocular advantages derive from increased reliability in encoding the goal object's properties for feedforward planning of prehension movements or from enhanced feedback mediating their online control. Adult participants reached for, precision grasped and lifted cylindrical table-top objects (two sizes, 2 distances) using binocular vision or only their dominant/sighting eye or their non-dominant eye to program and fully execute their movements or using each of the three viewing conditions only to plan their reach-to-grasp during a 1 s preview, with vision occluded just before movement onset. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05503-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05503-4DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Effect of range of heading differences on human visual-inertial heading estimation.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 7;237(5):1227-1237. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 629, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Both visual and inertial cues are salient in heading determination. However, optic flow can ambiguously represent self-motion or environmental motion. It is unclear how visual and inertial heading cues are determined to have common cause and integrated vs perceived independently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05506-1DOI Listing

Fractal fluctuations in muscular activity contribute to judgments of length but not heaviness via dynamic touch.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 4;237(5):1213-1226. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

The applied muscular effort to wield, hold, or balance an object shapes the medium by which action-relevant perceptual judgments (e.g., heaviness, length, width, and shape) are derived. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05505-2DOI Listing

I just lost it! Fear and anger reduce the sense of agency: a study using intentional binding.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 2;237(5):1205-1212. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London (UCL), Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK.

Two recent studies have demonstrated that increases in arousal states lead to an increase people's sense of agency, i.e., the subjective experience of controlling one's own voluntary actions (Minohara et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-018-5461-6DOI Listing

Response suppression produces a switch-cost for spatially compatible saccades.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 26;237(5):1195-1203. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7, Canada.

Executive function supports the rapid alternation between tasks for online reconfiguration of attentional and motor goals. The oculomotor literature has found that a prosaccade (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05497-zDOI Listing

Visual mismatch negativity and stimulus-specific adaptation: the role of stimulus complexity.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 26;237(5):1179-1194. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 286, Budapest, 1519, Hungary.

The present study investigated the function of the brain activity underlying the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) event-related potential (ERP) component. Snowflake patterns (complex stimuli) were presented as deviants and oblique bar patterns (simple stimuli) as standards, and vice versa in a passive oddball paradigm. Control (equiprobable) sequences of either complex shape patterns or oblique bar patterns with various orientations were also presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05494-2DOI Listing

Ecological validity of manual grasping movements in an everyday-like grocery shopping task.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 25;237(5):1169-1177. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Institute of Physiology and Anatomy, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933, Cologne, Germany.

In our earlier research, kinematic and kinetic parameters of grasping differed significantly when participants grasped the same object once in a traditional laboratory paradigm, and once as part of a captivating computer game. We attributed this finding to the fact that grasping movements in the laboratory were repetitive and meaningless, while those in the computer game were embedded in complex behavior and served a meaningful purpose. In that work, we argued that grasping in the computer game is more characteristic of everyday life behavior; however, this conclusion has been criticized on the grounds that a computer game is not a typical everyday activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05496-0DOI Listing

Electrocorticographic changes in field potentials following natural somatosensory percepts in humans.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 22;237(5):1155-1167. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California, 1200 N. State Street, Suite 3300, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Objective: Restoration of somatosensory deficits in humans requires a clear understanding of the neural representations of percepts. To characterize the cortical response to naturalistic somatosensation, we examined field potentials in the primary somatosensory cortex of humans.

Methods: Four patients with intractable epilepsy were implanted with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes over the hand area of S1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05495-1DOI Listing
May 2019
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Single finger movements in the aging hand: changes in finger independence, muscle activation patterns and tendon displacement in older adults.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 19;237(5):1141-1154. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

With aging, hand mobility and manual dexterity decline, even under healthy circumstances. To assess how aging affects finger movement control, we compared elderly and young subjects with respect to (1) finger movement independence, (2) neural control of extrinsic finger muscles and (3) finger tendon displacements during single finger flexion. In twelve healthy older (age 68-84) and nine young (age 22-29) subjects, finger kinematics were measured to assess finger movement enslaving and the range of independent finger movement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05487-1DOI Listing

Pre-crastination and procrastination effects occur in a reach-to-grasp task.

Exp Brain Res 2019 May 19;237(5):1129-1139. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Box 43011, Lubbock, TX, 79404, USA.

How do we decide which object to pick up when faced with two alternatives? Imagine one object is near, but needs to be carried a long distance, and the other object is far, but needs to be carried a short distance. You might predict that participants would favour the far object that needs to be carried a short distance. In other words, they would procrastinate and delay picking up an object to minimise physical effort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05493-3DOI Listing

The effects of acute exercise on visuomotor adaptation, learning, and inter-limb transfer.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 18;237(4):1109-1127. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Physical Therapy, Brain Behavior Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 212-2177, Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Pairing an acute bout of lower-limb cycling exercise with skilled motor practice enhances acquisition and learning. However, it is not known whether an acute bout of exercise enhances a specific form of motor learning, namely motor adaptation, and if subsequent inter-limb transfer of this adaptation is enhanced. Seventeen young healthy participants performed a bout of cycling exercise and rest, on separate days, prior to right-arm reaching movements to visual targets under 45° rotated feedback of arm position (acquisition), followed by an immediate test of inter-limb transfer with the untrained left arm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05491-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Bimodal-divided attention attenuates visually induced inhibition of return with audiovisual targets.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 15;237(4):1093-1107. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Okayama University, Okayama, 7008530, Japan.

Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the slower response to a target appearing at a previously attended location in a cue-target paradigm. It has been greatly explored in the visual or auditory modality. This study investigates differences between the IOR of audiovisual targets and the IOR of visual targets under conditions of modality-specific selective attention (Experiment 1) and divided-modalities attention (Experiment 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05488-0DOI Listing
April 2019
2.036 Impact Factor