3,497 results match your criteria Experimental Physiology[Journal]


MEDEX 2015: The key role of cardiac mechanics to maintain biventricular function at high altitude.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

U1042, INSERM, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? This study is the first investigating the effects of high-altitude trekking on biventricular mechanics including measurements of left ventricular (LV) subendocardial and subepicardial function. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide new evidence that an increased contractility and untwisting efficiency, a key element of diastolic function, probably play a key role to preserve cardiac function during high-altitude trekking. Persistent increased loading conditions during several weeks at high altitude may have a key role in the apparition of LV or RV dysfunctions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087350DOI Listing
February 2019

Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation rescue glomerular filtration barrier and epithelial cellular junctions in renovascular hypertension model.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Histology and Embryology Department, Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? To determine whether a single BMMC transplant into subcapsular region of kidney could improve cellular communication and adhesion, while restoring renal tissue cytoarchitecture and function during renovascular hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? It was possible to observe that BMMC transplantation can restore connexin 40 expression and also recover N- and E-cadherin levels within 15 days. It was observed for the first time that BMMC transplantation restores nephrin expression, a glomerular filtration barrier component, related to podocytes and glomerular basal membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087330DOI Listing
February 2019

CARDIAC-SPECIFIC OVEREXPRESSION OF CAVEOLIN-3 PRESERVES T-TUBULAR I DURING HEART FAILURE IN MICE.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Overexpression of caveolin-3 (Cav-3 OE) appears to protect the heart against many of the features of heart failure (HF) normally observed in vivo. The present study investigates the cellular basis of this protection. What is the main finding and its importance? Cav-3 OE has little effect in normal ventricular myocytes but reduces cellular hypertrophy and preserves t-tubular I but not local t-tubular Ca release, in HF induced by pressure-overload in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087304DOI Listing
February 2019

Validity and reliability of lower-limb pulse-wave velocity assessments using an oscillometric technique.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? There is growing interest on the effects of sedentarism on central and peripheral cardiovascular health. To permit further investigation, including in larger epidemiological studies, there is a need to identify arterial health assessment tools that are valid (accurate) and reliable (precise), yet practical. What is the main finding and its importance? Lower-limb vascular health (femoral-ankle pulse-wave velocity) can be determined in a supine position with accuracy and precision using an oscillometric-based device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087444DOI Listing
February 2019

Involvement of the Na,K-ATPase isoforms in control of cerebral perfusion.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Alle 4, bygn. 1160, Aarhus C, 8000, Denmark.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This review considers the role of the Na,K-ATPase in cerebrovascular function and how it might be changed in familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). The primary focus will be involvement of the Na,K-ATPase isoforms in regulation of cerebrovascular tone. What advances does it highlight? The review discusses three overall distinct mechanisms whereby the Na,K-ATPase might be capable of regulating cerebrovascular tone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087519DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota diversity associates with cardiorespiratory fitness in post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity persist after adjusting for the potential effects of %body fat and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to examine the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity while accounting for the underlying effects of %body fat and free-living AEE. Results from the present work suggest cardiorespiratory fitness, not physical activity, is a superior correlate of gut microbiota diversity among post-primary treatment, non-metastatic breast cancer survivors.

Abstract: Cancer treatment uniquely triggers multiple physiologic shifts detrimental to overall health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087404DOI Listing
February 2019

Myths and Methodologies: Resting metabolic rate prediction equations and the validity to assess energy deficiency in the athlete population.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Faculty of Health, Sport and Human Performance, University of Waikato, New Zealand.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? We review the issues with using predicted resting metabolic rate equations in athletic populations. What advances does it highlight? The use of dated predicted resting metabolic rate equations is not appropriate for athletic populations until more studies have been conducted among these unique populations.

Abstract: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of energy the body uses at rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087512DOI Listing
February 2019

Respiratory disturbances in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

¹Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, 05508-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Clinical reports have described and suggested respiratory central and peripheral abnormalities in PD patients; however, these reports have never addressed the occurrences of such abnormalities in an animal model before. PD mice has reduced NK1r-ir in the preBötC and Phox2b-expressing neurons in the RTN. PD mice has respiratory frequency and HCVR impairments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087507DOI Listing
February 2019

Exercise serum increases glut4 in human adipocytes.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Do circulating factors mediate exercise-induced effects on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression? What is the main finding and its importance? Serum (10%) obtained from human volunteers immediately after a single exercise bout increased GLUT4 protein levels in human adipocytes in culture. This result suggests that circulating factors may mediate exercise effects on adipose tissue GLUT4 and prompt further effort to identify the specific factor(s) and tissue(s) of origin.

Abstract: In this study we tested the hypothesis that circulating factors generated during exercise increase adipose tissue GLUT4 expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087495DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Gene expression variability in human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to acute resistance exercise.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does exercise, independent of random error and within-subject variability, contribute to the variability in gene expression responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? A reanalysis of publicly-available microarray data revealed that variability in observed gene expression responses for a subset of genes could be partially attributable to an effect of acute resistance exercise. These finding support the notion that individual responsiveness explains a portion of the variability in observed gene expression responses to acute resistance exercise.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use publicly available transcriptomic data to determine whether variability in gene expression responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise (AR) can be attributable to an effect AR per se. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087436DOI Listing
February 2019
2.669 Impact Factor

Effects of antiarrhythmics on the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart are critically determined by the applied cardiac pacing protocol.

Authors:
Oleg E Osadchii

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Are modifications in the restitution of ventricular action potential duration induced by antiarrhythmic drugs the same when assessed with premature extrastimulus application at variable coupling intervals (the standard stimulation protocol) and with steady state pacing at variable rates (the dynamic stimulation protocol)? What is the main finding and its importance? With class I and class III antiarrhythmics, the effects on electrical restitution determined with the standard stimulation protocol dissociate from those obtained during dynamic pacing. These findings indicate a limited value of the electrical restitution assessments based on extrasystolic stimulations alone, as performed in the clinical studies, in estimating the outcomes of antiarrhythmic drug therapies. ABSTRACT: A steep slope of the ventricular action potential duration (APD) to diastolic interval (DI) relationships (the electrical restitution) can precipitate tachyarrhythmia, whereas a flattened slope is antiarrhythmic. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087531
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087531DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

NADPH oxidases derived ROS: Dosis facit venenum.

Authors:
Katrin Schröder

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Institute for Cardiovascular Physiology, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? Within this review, the role of reactive oxygen species in cellular homeostasis, physiology and pathophysiology is discussed. What advances does it highlight? The review provides new concepts of how reactive oxygen species influence gene expression, energy consumption and other aspects in a cells life. Further a model is provided, how reactive oxygen species elicit specific oxidation of target molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087125DOI Listing
February 2019

Distinct dampening effects of progesterone on the activity of nucleus tractus solitarus neurons in rat pups.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Département de Pédiatrie, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of the study? Progesterone is considered as a respiratory stimulant drug, but its effect on medullary respiratory neurons are poorly documented. We investigated whether progesterone alters spontaneous activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). What is the main finding and its importance? In NTS neurons, progesterone decreases the action potential firing frequency in response to current injections and the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087461DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of inspiratory muscle strength and inspiratory resistance on neck inspiratory muscle activation during controlled inspirations.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Sports and Life Sciences, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? 'What factors influence the onset and magnitude of activation of the neck inspiratory muscles during inspiration?' What is the main finding and its importance? Recruitment of the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles during inspiration, measured by means of surface electromyography (EMG), was strongly correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). This result indicates that muscle recruitment depends on the capacity of an individual to generate inspiratory pressure. Surface measurements of neck inspiratory muscle EMG activity may compliment tests currently employed for the screening of respiratory-related disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087247DOI Listing
February 2019

Electroporated GLUT4-7myc-GFP detects in vivo glucose transporter 4 translocation in skeletal muscle without discernible changes in GFP-patterns.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Koebenhavn Oe, , Denmark.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Resolving the mechanism(s) leading to glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the muscle surface membrane has great therapeutic potential. However, the measurement of GLUT4 translocation is technically challenging. Here, we asked whether electroporation of GLUT4-7myc-GFP into skeletal muscle could be used as a tool to study GLUT4 translocation in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087545DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Brief periods of resistance training enhance insulin sensitivity in humans.

Authors:
Abram Katz

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087607DOI Listing
January 2019

The effect of short-duration resistance training on insulin sensitivity and muscle adaptations in overweight men.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the time course of muscular adaptations to short-duration resistance exercise training? What is the main finding and its importance? Short-duration resistance training results in early and progressive increases in muscle mass and function and an increase in insulin sensitivity.

Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of resistance exercise training, composed of one set of each exercise to voluntary failure, on insulin sensitivity and the time course of adaptations in muscle strength/mass. Ten overweight men (age 36 ± 8 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 89 ± 14 kg; body mass index 29 ± 3 kg m ) were recruited to the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087435DOI Listing
January 2019

Vascular responses to hypoxia are not impaired in obstructive sleep apnoea patients free of overt cardiovascular disease.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with nocturnal oxygen or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improve hypoxic vascular responses, which are reportedly impaired in OSA? What is the main finding and its importance? Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular hypoxic responses were not impaired in OSA patients free of overt cardiovascular disease and known risk factors, and were not altered by nocturnal oxygen or CPAP treatment. We conclude that this OSA patient phenotype has normal vascular responses to hypoxia and are unlikely to obtain long term cardiovascular benefits from nocturnal oxygen or CPAP therapy.

Abstract: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiovascular responses to hypoxia are reportedly impaired in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients and corrected by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); beneficial effects that are ascribed to correction of OSA-related intermittent hypoxia (IH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086845DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Elbow angle modulates corticospinal excitability to the resting biceps brachii at both spinal and supraspinal levels.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Corticospinal excitability to biceps brachii is known to modulate according to upper-limb posture. Here, cervicomedullary stimulation was used to investigate potential spinal contributions to elbow angle-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? At more extended elbow angles, biceps responses to cervicomedullary stimulation were decreased, whereas cortically evoked responses (normalized to cervicomedullary-evoked responses) were increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087472DOI Listing
January 2019

Pro-contractile role of chloride in arterial smooth muscle: Postnatal decline potentially governed by sympathetic nerves.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This symposium report discusses the previously unrecognized pro-contractile role of chloride ions in rat arteries at early stages of postnatal development. What advances does it highlight? It highlights the postnatal decline in the contribution of chloride ions to regulation of arterial contractile responses and potential trophic role of sympathetic nerves in these developmental alterations.

Abstract: Chloride ions are important for smooth muscle contraction in adult vasculature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087426DOI Listing
January 2019

Preteratment with β-glucan attenuates isoproterenol- induced myocardial injury in rats.

Authors:
Ebru Çetin

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Erciyes, 38039, Kayseri, Turkey.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The present study has been designed to assess whether pretreatment with β glucan could exert any protective action against ISO-induced myocardial injury in rats. What is the main finding and its importance? β-glucan pretreatment could reduce myocardial injury by restoring cardiac biomarkers, antioxidant status, apoptosis and histopathological changes. Therefore, β-glucan may have the potential to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of myocardial infarction. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP086739
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086739DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Cardiac output during exercise related to plasma atrial natriuretic peptide but not to central venous pressure in humans.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Anaesthesia, The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is cardiac output during exercise dependent on central venous pressure? What is the main finding and its importance? The increase in cardiac output during both rowing and running is related to preload to the heart as indicated by plasma atrial natriuretic peptide but unrelated to central venous pressure. The results indicate that in upright humans central venous pressure reflects the gravitational influence on central venous blood rather than preload to the heart.

Abstract: Aim This study evaluated the increase in cardiac output (CO) during exercise in relation to central venous pressure (CVP) and plasma arterial natriuretic peptide (ANP) as expressions of preload to the heart. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087522DOI Listing
January 2019

Hypoxic tachycardia is not a result of increased respiratory activity in healthy subjects.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Physiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

New Findings: What is the central question of this research? Does increased ventilation contribute to the increase in heart rate during transient exposure to hypoxia in humans? What is the main finding and its importance? Voluntary suppression of the ventilatory response to transient hypoxia does not affect the magnitude of the heart rate response to the stimulus. This indicates that hypoxic tachycardia is not secondary to hyperpnoea in humans. Better understanding of the physiology underlying the cardiovascular response to hypoxia might help in identification of new markers of elevated chemoreceptor activity, which has been proposed as a target in treatment of sympathetically mediated diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087233DOI Listing
January 2019

Alterations in cardiovascular function in an experimental model of lung fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We have evaluated changes in cardiovascular physiology using echocardiography in an experimental model of lung fibrosis. What is the main finding and its importance? Remarkably, we report changes in cardiovascular function as early as day 7, concomitant with evidence of vascular remodelling. We also report that isolated pulmonary arteries were hypercontractile in response to a thromboxane A2 agonist. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087321
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087321DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Repeatability of exercise-induced changes in mRNA expression and technical considerations for qPCR analysis in human skeletal muscle.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Are individual changes in exercise-induced mRNA expression repeatable (i.e. representative of the true response to exercise rather than random error)? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise-induced changes in mRNA expression are not repeatable even under identical experimental conditions, thereby challenging the use of mRNA expression as a biomarker of adaptive potential and/or individual responsiveness to exercise. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087401
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087401DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Brown adipose tissue remodelling induced by corticosterone in male Wistar rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina Doris Rosenthal, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does glucocorticoid excess disrupt brown adipose tissue (BAT) phenotype and function? What is the main finding and its importance? Glucocorticoid excess induced an extensive remodelling of interscapular BAT, resulting in a white-like phenotype in association with metabolic disturbances. Glucocorticoids might be an important modulator of BAT physiology and BAT may have a role in pathophysiology of metabolic disturbances induced by glucocorticoid excess.

Abstract: In mammals, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is centrally involved in energy metabolism. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087332
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087332DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Cerebral and skeletal muscle feed artery vasoconstrictor responses in a mouse model with greater large elastic artery stiffness.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Greater large artery stiffness is associated with dysfunctional resistance artery vasodilatory responses, impaired memory and greater risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, it is unknown whether stiffer large arteries affect cerebral and skeletal muscle feed artery responses to vasoconstrictors. What is the main finding and its importance? In a mouse model with greater large artery stiffness (Eln ), we find an exacerbated vasoconstrictor response to angiotensin II in cerebral arteries, but not skeletal muscle feed arteries, thus implicating altered cerebral artery angiotensin II responsiveness in the poor brain outcomes associated with greater large artery stiffness. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087453
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087453DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Computational multivariate modelling of electrical activity of the porcine uterus during spontaneous and hormone-induced oestrus.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Large Animal Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Nowoursynowska 100, 02-797, Warsaw, Poland.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does oestrous cycle synchronization influence myoelectrical activity of porcine myometrium? What is the main finding and its importance? Exogenous hormones used to synchronize oestrus in pigs altered myoelectrical activity, which was effectively modelled. Higher-order multivariate statistic modelling provided evidence of similar activity in both types of oestrus, but a larger order of EMG signals during induced oestrus. Higher-order statistical analysis of the probabilistic model suggests the beginning of the early follicular phase and the mid-luteal phase to be most important in evaluation of the natural patterns of myoelectrical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087451DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Iodide as a surrogate tracer for epithelial chloride transport by the mouse large intestine in vitro.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The tracer Cl , currently used to measure transepithelial Cl fluxes, has become prohibitively expensive, threatening its future use. Iodide, previously validated alongside Cl as a tracer of Cl efflux by cells, has not been tested as a surrogate for Cl across epithelia. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that I can serve as an inexpensive replacement for measuring Cl transport across mouse large intestine, tracking Cl transport in response to cAMP stimulation (inducing Cl secretion) in the presence and absence of the main gastrointestinal Cl -HCO exchanger, DRA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087445DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Making sense of oxygen; quantum leaps with 'physics-iology'.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087546DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Biomarkers in elite sport: Where innovations in technology and application combine.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

English Institute of Sport, Bisham, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087556DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Ischaemic and hypoxic conditioning: potential for protection of vital organs.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 31. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology & Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, 76107, USA.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) and hypoxic preconditioning as novel therapeutic approaches for cardiac and neuroprotection. What advances does it highlight? There is improved understanding of mechanisms and signalling pathways associated with ischaemic and hypoxic preconditioning, and potential pitfalls with application of these therapies to clinical trials have been identified. Novel adaptations of preconditioning paradigms have also been developed, including intermittent hypoxia training, RIPC training and RIPC-exercise, extending their utility to chronic settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087122DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Sensitivity of the human ventilatory response to muscle metaboreflex activation during concurrent mild hypercapnia.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences , University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the relationship between the level of systemic hypercapnia and the magnitude of the additional hyperpnoea produced in response to a standardized level of muscle metaboreflex activation? What is the main finding and its importance? When a standardized activation of the muscle metaboreflex was combined with exposure to increasing levels of hypercapnia, the hyperpnoea this caused increased linearly. The concept of a synergistic interaction between the muscle metaboreflex and the central chemoreflex in humans is supported by this finding.

Abstract: Ventilation increases during muscle metaboreflex activation when postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) traps metabolites in resting human muscle, but only in conditions of concurrent systemic hypercapnia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087224DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Paravascular spaces: entry to or exit from the brain?

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? In this symposium report, we review the glymphatic clearance from the brain. What advances does it highlight? Evaluation of the evidence indicates that cerebrospinal fluid flows along paravascular spaces at the surface of the brain. However, bulk flow along penetrating arteries into the brain, followed by exit along veins, requires further confirmation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087424DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Comparison of pulse contour, aortic Doppler ultrasound and bioelectrical impedance estimates of stroke volume during rapid changes in blood pressure.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Pulse contour analysis of the finger arterial pressure by Windkessel modelling is commonly used to estimate stroke volume continuously. But is it valid during dynamic changes in blood pressure? What is the main finding and its importance? Second-by-second analysis revealed that pulse contour analysis underestimated stroke volume by up to 25% after standing from a squat, and 16% after standing thigh-cuff release, when compared with aortic Doppler ultrasound estimates. These results reveal that pulse contour analysis of stroke volume should be interpreted with caution during rapid changes in physiological state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087240DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Dynamic heart rate response to multi-day unsupported ultra-endurance cycle racing: a case report.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 6;104(2):174-179. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

BHF Centre for Research Excellence, School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science, King's College London, London, UK.

New Findings: What is the main observation in this case? Ultra-endurance cycle racing is known to lead to suppressed heart rates as a product of time spent racing. This case report identifies a racer who experienced this phenomenon initially, but then uniquely experienced an overall increase in heart rate late in the race. What insight does it reveal? In this case, unique chronotropic disturbances to heart rate occurred as a result of the many extreme demands of ultra-endurance racing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087341DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Blood flow to limb muscles during submaximal dynamic exercise with resistive breathing: Use it or lose it?

Authors:
Ken D O'Halloran

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 4;104(2):165-167. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087483DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Foramen ovale blood flow and cardiac function after main pulmonary artery occlusion in fetal sheep.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13;104(2):189-198. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? At near-term gestation, foramen ovale blood flow accounts for a significant proportion of fetal left ventricular output. Can the foramen ovale increase its volume blood flow when right ventricular afterload is increased by main pulmonary artery occlusion? What is the main finding and its importance? Foramen ovale volume blood flow increased during main pulmonary artery occlusion. However, this increase was attributable to an increase in fetal heart rate, because left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087423DOI Listing
February 2019
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Decrement in resting and insulin-stimulated soleus muscle mitochondrial respiration is an early event in diet-induced obesity in mice.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Multicenter Graduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopólis, Santa Catrina, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What are the temporal responses of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial responsivity to insulin in soleus muscle fibres from mice during the development of obesity and insulin resistance? What is the main finding and its importance? Short- and long-term feeding with a high-fat diet markedly reduced soleus mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial responsivity to insulin before any change in glycogen synthesis. Muscle glycogen synthesis and whole-body insulin resistance were present after 14 and 28 days, respectively. Our findings highlight the plasticity of mitochondria during the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087317DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Ischaemia-induced muscle metabolic abnormalities are poorly alleviated by endurance training in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRMBM, Marseille, France.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of endurance training during an ischaemia-reperfusion protocol in a mouse model of sickle cell disease (SCD). What is the main finding and its importance? Endurance training did not reverse the metabolic defects induced by a simulated vaso-occlusive crisis in SCD mice, with regard to intramuscular acidosis, mitochondrial dysfunction or anatomical properties. Our results suggest that endurance training would reduce the number of vaso-occlusive crises rather than the complications related to vaso-occlusive crises. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087430
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087430DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Sex differences in the circulatory responses to an isocapnic cold pressor test.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Centre for Heart, Lung and Vascular Health, School of Health and Exercise Science, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Do sex differences exist in the cardiorespiratory responses to an isocapnic cold pressor test (CPT)? What is the main finding and its importance? During the CPT, there were no sex differences in the respiratory response; however, females demonstrated a reduced mean arterial pressure and reduced dilatation of the common carotid artery. Given that the CPT is predictive of future cardiovascular events, these data have clinical implications for improving the utility of the CPT to determine cardiovascular health risk. Sex differences should be taken into consideration when conducting and interpreting a CPT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087232DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The regulation of skeletal muscle fatigability and mitochondrial function by chronically elevated interleukin-6.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

College of Health Professions, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Interleukin-6 has been associated with muscle mass and metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions. A causal role for interleukin-6 in the induction of fatigue and disruption of mitochondrial function has not been determined. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that chronically elevated interleukin-6 increased skeletal muscle fatigability and disrupted mitochondrial content and function independent of changes in fibre type and mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087429DOI Listing
December 2018
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Urotensin II in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease following ⅚ nephrectomy in the rat.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Urotensin II is upregulated in patients in the later stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), particularly in individuals requiring dialysis. Could treatment with a urotensin II receptor antagonist slow progression of renal disease? What is the main finding and its importance? In the rat, expression of urotensin II and its receptor increased, extending into cortical structures as CKD progressed towards end-stage renal failure. Subchronic treatment with a urotensin receptor antagonist slowed but did not prevent progression of CKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087366DOI Listing
December 2018
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Smoking during pregnancy increases chemerin expression in neonatal tissue.

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 22;104(1):93-99. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is chemerin, an adipokine implicated in obesity, increased in neonates following in utero cigarette smoke exposure. What is the main finding and its importance? Chemerin mRNA expression was increased and chemerin DNA methylation was decreased in babies born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. These data provide a potential mechanism that may be mediating the increased obesity risk in individuals that are born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087307
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312488PMC
January 2019
2 Reads
2.669 Impact Factor

Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations are not related to differences in maximal oxygen uptake in endurance trained and untrained men.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 18;104(2):254-263. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

University of Lille, University of Artois, University of Littoral Côte, d'Opale, EA 7369 - URePSSS, Pluridisciplinary Research Unit, "Sport, Health and Society", F-59000, Lille, France.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is there an association of plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine, which is related to exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular diseases, with oxygen delivery and subsequently exercise capacity in healthy subjects in the absence of the potentially confounding influence of inflammation and oxidative stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations are not related to exercise capacity in healthy subjects, while O delivery in the working skeletal muscle during the maximal graded-exercise test is not associated with any of the l-arginine analogues. ADMA alone does not play a crucial role in local muscle perfusion and in maintaining exercise capacity.

Abstract: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis that could limit oxygen (O ) delivery in the working skeletal muscles by altering endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087398DOI Listing
February 2019
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Impairment of rat oesophageal muscle contractility associated with experimental non-erosive oesophageal mucosal damage.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 18;104(2):199-208. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is the responsiveness of isolated segments of the rat oesophagus to contractile or relaxant stimuli susceptible to acute luminal exposure of the oesophagus to an acid solution that contains pepsin and bile salt? What is the main finding and its importance? The study reveals that luminal acidity is an important factor that disrupts barrier function in the oesophagus to allow the diffusion of noxious agents, such as bile acid, that alter the contractile status of the oesophageal body, even in the absence of inflammation.

Abstract: We investigated whether the experimental simulation of duodenogastro-oesophageal reflux alters the contractile responsiveness of rat oesophageal strips. After 30 min of luminal exposure to a solution at acid pH that contained pepsin and taurodeoxycholic acid, isolated strips of the rat oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction were subjected to contractile or relaxing stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087244DOI Listing
February 2019
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Humans: A homeothermic animal that needs perturbation?

Authors:
Mike Tipton

Exp Physiol 2019 Jan 11;104(1):1-2. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Extreme Environments Laboratory, Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087450DOI Listing
January 2019
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Postprandial augmentation index is reduced in adults with prediabetes following continuous and interval exercise training.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 27;104(2):264-271. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We compared high-intensity interval versus continuous training on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in people with prediabetes. What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that exercise improves the augmentation index during the postprandial state, but not the fasted state, in adults with prediabetes. However, the fasted augmentation index improved in relationship to exercise dose, as assessed by kilocalories per session. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/EP087305
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087305DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Heat acclimation does not affect maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic conditions.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Controlled-hyperthermia heat-acclimation protocols induce an array of thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations that facilitate exercise in hot conditions. We investigated whether this ergogenic potential can be transferred to thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic exercise conditions. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that heat acclimation did not affect maximal cardiac output or maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087268DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Corrigendum.

Authors:

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec;103(12):1732

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087440DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read