3,531 results match your criteria Experimental Physiology[Journal]


Revisiting the influence of individual factors on heat exchange during exercise in dry heat using direct calorimetry.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? To identify the greatest contributor(s) to the variation in whole-body heat exchange, as assessed using direct calorimetry, among young men and women with heterogeneous characteristics during exercise at increasing metabolic heat production rates in dry-heat. What is the main finding and its importance? The evaporative heat loss requirement, body morphology and aerobic fitness contributed greatest to the individual variation in evaporative and dry heat exchange, with the variance explained being exercise intensity-dependent. These findings provide a foundation to build our ability to explain the individual variation in heat exchange during exercise-heat stress. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/EP087666
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087666DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Acute exposure to glycated proteins reduces cardiomyocyte contractile capacity.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biomedical Research Institute (BIOMED), Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, 3500, Hasselt, Belgium.

New Findings: What is the central question of this research? Does acute exposure to HMW-AGEs alter cardiomyocyte contractile function? What is the main finding and its importance? Ventricular cardiomyocytes display reduced Ca influx, resulting in reduced contractile capacity after acute exposure to HMW-AGEs, independent of RAGE activation. Since HMW-AGEs are abundantly present in our Western diet, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms, in particular in patients displaying already altered cardiac function, should be given to such compounds.

Abstract: Background : Sustained elevated levels of high molecular weight advanced glycation end products (HMW-AGEs) are known to promote cardiac dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087127DOI Listing

Peripheral artery endothelial function responses to altered shear stress patterns in humans.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8S 4L8.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of altered shear stress pattern, with, or without, concurrent neurohumoral and metabolic activation, on the acute endothelial function response assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation? What is the main finding and its importance? Despite generating distinctive shear stress patterns (i.e., increases in anterograde only, anterograde only with neurohumoral and metabolic activation, and both anterograde and retrograde), similar acute improvements were observed in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation response with all conditions, indicating that anterograde and/or turbulent shear stress may be the essential element to induce acute increases in endothelial function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087597DOI Listing

Association of postprandial triglyceride responses with insulin resistance among rotational night shift healthcare workers.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Endocrinology, Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology & Metabolism, University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) & GTB Hospital, Delhi, India.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does long-term rotational night shift work among healthcare workers alter postprandial triglyceride metabolism, and are the postprandial triglyceride responses associated with insulin resistance? What is the main finding and its importance? Rotational night shift duties in healthcare workers might have a negative impact on postprandial triglyceride responses and insulin sensitivity. This is the first study in which postprandial triglyceride responses among shift workers exposed to long-term night shifts have been studied.

Abstract: Studies on the postprandial period demonstrate that in experimental conditions, abrupt or acute changes in sleep timing and work are followed by significantly altered postprandial glucose, insulin secretion and lipid tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087514DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The effect of minimally invasive surgical aortic valve replacement on postoperative pulmonary and skeletal muscle function.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

BIOMED- Biomedical Research Center, and REVAL - Rehabilitation Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? An increasing number of patients are in need of aortic valve replacement. It remains unresolved how surgical aortic valve replacement affects the cardiopulmonary and muscle function during exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? Early after the surgical replacement of the aortic valve a significant decline in pulmonary function was observed, which was followed by a decline in skeletal muscle function in the subsequent weeks of recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087407DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Cortical control of upper airway calibre: It's the thought that counts!

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087681DOI Listing

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in humans: Does sex matter?

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr;104(4):460-462

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087447DOI Listing

Heart rate variability dynamics during treatment for exertional heat strain when immediate response is not possible.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Human Environmental Physiological Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does a delay in cold water immersion treatment affect the cardiac autonomic control of exertionally heat-strained individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Cold water immersion is effective for treating exertionally heat-strained individuals even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay. However, that treatment delay leads to only partial/transient restoration of cardiac autonomic control. Therefore, we recommend that exertional heatstroke patients are continuously monitored for several hours even after core temperature has returned to normal values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087297DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The influence of acute hyperglycemia on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in the early and late follicular phases of the menstrual cycle.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Cardiovascular Stress Response Laboratory, School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of the study? This is the first study to examine the impact of acute hyperglycemia on endothelial function [flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)] in premenopausal women across the early and late follicular (EF and LF) phases of the menstrual cycle. What is the main finding and its importance? FMD was impaired 90 minutes following glucose ingestion with no significant difference between phases. This indicates that women are susceptible to acute hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in both the EF and LF phases of the menstrual cycle, despite potentially vasoprotective elevations in estradiol levels during the LF phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087536DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Peripheral localization of the epithelial sodium channel in the apical membrane of bronchial epithelial cells.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Pozzuoli, Italy.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the precise subcellular localization of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in human airway epithelium? What is the main finding and its importance? ENaC protein has an unexpected localization in the peripheral region of the apical membrane of bronchial epithelial cells, very close to tight junctions. This may be important for the mechanism of Na absorption ABSTRACT: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has a key role in absorbing fluid across the human airway epithelium. Altered activity of ENaC may perturb the process of mucociliary clearance, thus impairing the innate defence mechanisms against microbial agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087590DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Impact of sarcopenia on diaphragm muscle fatigue.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering.

New Findings: Central questions of this study? 1) Is the residual force generated by the DIAm after repeated activation reduced with sarcopaenia? 2) Is the residual force generated after fatiguing activation sufficient to sustain ventilatory behaviours of DIAm in young and old rats?

Main Findings: Following DIAm fatigue, the residual specific force after 120 s of repeated stimulation was unaffected by ageing and is sufficient to accomplish ventilatory behaviours, but not expulsive manoeuvres (e.g. coughing). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087558DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Membrane raft-redox signaling contribute to endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling of thoracic aorta in angiotensin II-infused rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? We examined whether MRs-redox signaling pathway is involved in blood pressure increase, endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in AngII-induced hypertensive animal model. What is the main finding and its importance? MRs-redox signaling pathway was involved in endothelial dysfunction and medial remodeling in AngII-induced hypertension.

Abstract: Membrane rafts (MRs)-redox pathway is characterized by NADPH oxidase activation via the clustering of its subunits through lysosome fusion and the activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087335DOI Listing

New light for old enigmas in epithelial transport?

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Valdivia, Chile.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087739DOI Listing

Mechanical-ventilatory responses to peak and ventilation-matched upper- versus lower-body exercise in normal subjects.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Centre for Human Performance, Exercise and Rehabilitation, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? To what extent are the mechanical-ventilatory responses to upper-body exercise influenced by task-specific locomotor mechanics? What is the main finding and its importance? When compared with lower-body exercise performed at similar ventilations, upper-body exercise was characterized by tidal volume constraint, dynamic lung hyperinflation and an increased propensity towards neuromechanical uncoupling of the respiratory system. Importantly, these responses were independent of respiratory dysfunction and flow limitation. Thus, the mechanical ventilatory responses to upper-body exercise are attributable, in part, to task-specific locomotor mechanics (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087648DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-β promotes proliferation and invasion of cervical cancer cells by regulating the miR-144/ITGA6 axis.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Obstetrics, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism and biological roles of long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-β (lncRNA ATB) in the progression of cervical cancer. What is the main finding and its importance? Our study provided new insight into the cross-talk between lncRNA ATB, miR-144 and ITGA6, shedding light on the therapy for cervical cancer.

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism and biological roles of long non-coding RNA activated by transforming growth factor-β (lncRNA ATB) in the progression of cervical cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087656DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Is non-normalized chest wall electromyogram activity a reliable index of respiratory neural drive? On the surface - yes!

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 24. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork T12 K8AF, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087680DOI Listing

Modulative effect of new hydrazide derivative on wheat induced pulmonary inflammation in rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 24. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Institute of Chemistry, University of The Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Pulmonary inflammation is associated with asthma, wheat and thresher dust contributed to pulmonary inflammation when exposed/inhaled regularly as by bakers and farmers. Mechanisms through which wheat induced pulmonary inflammation and how the hydrazide derivative exerts its modulative anti-inflammatory effect have not been previously explored. What is the main finding and its importance? 10 mg/Kg of hydrazide derivative exhibited significant reduction in wheat induced pulmonary inflammation rat model mainly by down-regulating the inflammatory cell infiltration, pathological lesions in the lungs and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, COX-1, COX-2 and T-cell proliferation. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/EP087397
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087397DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

No heartbreak at high altitude; preserved cardiac function in chronic hypoxia.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 24. Epub 2019 Mar 24.

Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/EP087665
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087665DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

β -Adrenoceptors indirectly support impaired β -adrenoceptor responsiveness in the isolated type 2 diabetic rat heart.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Physiology - HeartOtago, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Are there specific contributions of β - and β -adrenoceptor subtypes to the impaired β-adrenoceptor responsiveness of the type 2 diabetic heart? What is the main finding and its importance? In hearts isolated from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat model of type 2 diabetes, we showed that the β -adrenoceptors are the main subtype to regulate heart rate, contraction and relaxation. Notably, the β -adrenoceptor subtype actions seem to support function in the diabetic heart indirectly.

Abstract: Impaired β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) responsiveness causes cardiac vulnerability in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the independent contributions of β - and β -AR subtypes to β-AR-associated cardiac dysfunction in diabetes are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087437DOI Listing

Regulation of GLUT4 translocation in an in vitro cell model using postprandial human serum ex vivo.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Food for Health Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

New Findings: What is the research question? This study used a new experimental model, in which culture medium is conditioned with human serum ex vivo, to investigate nutrient-mediated regulation of GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle cells in vitro. What is the main finding and importance? Human serum stimulated GLUT4 translocation, an effect differentially modulated by whether the culture medium was conditioned with serum from fasted subjects or with serum collected after feeding of intact or hydrolysed whey protein. Conditioning cell culture medium with human serum ex vivo represents a new approach to elucidate the effects of ingesting specific nutrients on skeletal muscle cell metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087356DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Circulatory responses at the onset of handgrip exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

NeuroV̇ASQ̇ - Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The initial circulatory response to isometric exercise in young healthy subjects is thought to be cholinergically mediated. Do patients with Parkinson's disease, a specific population known to present cholinergic dysfunction, present impairment in these initial circulatory responses? What is the main finding and its importance? The initial reduction in total peripheral resistance was absent in patients with Parkinson's disease and in older subjects, which augmented the pressor response at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise. Given that cholinergic mechanisms play an important role in the circulatory responses at the onset of isometric exercise in humans, our data suggest that cholinergic mechanisms might be compromised with ageing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087620DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
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Interval running training improves age-related skeletal muscle wasting and bone loss: Experiments with ovariectomized rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Schoolo of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Dukjin-dong, Dukjin-ku, Jeonju, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect and mechanism of interval running training on age-related muscle wasting and bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model? What is the main finding and its importance? Interval running training improved muscle growth and osteogenic differentiation by enhancing the expression of bone morphogenic proteins and sirtuins in ageing-induced ovariectomized rats. Therefore, the repetition of low and high intensities within a single exercise bout, such as interval running training, may be recommended as a practical intervention to prevent skeletal muscle wasting and bone loss in the elderly.

Abstract: Effective prophylactic strategies are needed for the suppression of age-related muscle wasting and bone loss after menopause. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087458DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Increased caveolin-1 expression enhances the receptor-operated Ca entry in the aorta of 2K1C hypertensive rats.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory of Fujian Province Universities on Ion Channel and Signal Transduction in Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P.R. China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? To examine and compare the contributions of Cav-1 to the contractile responses mediated by L-VDCC, SOCC and ROCC in two different types of arteries from 2K1C-treated hypertensive rats. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that caveolae density and Cav-1 expression were significantly up-regulated in the aorta of 2K1C-treated hypertensive rats, but not in the third-order branches of mesenteric arteries. We highlight that Cav-1 plays an important role in aortic constriction via enhancing ROCE in the hypertensive rat model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086924DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Pacemaker network properties determine intestinal motor pattern behaviour.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

McMaster University, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Connected Articles: Lammers, W. J., & Stephen, B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087465DOI Listing

Myths and Methodologies: How loud is the story told by the transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked silent period?

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? The origin, interpretation and methodological constraints of the silent period induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation are reviewed. What advances does it highlight? The silent period is generated by both cortical and spinal mechanisms. Therefore, it seems inappropriate to preface silent period with 'cortical' unless additional measures are taken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087557DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Peripheral and central respiratory system pathology in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease: A prodromal signature of clinical relevance?

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087653DOI Listing

Quantitative assessment of nocturnal neural respiratory drive in children with and without obstructive sleep apnoea using surface EMG.

Exp Physiol 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Respiratory Department, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Recent studies have suggested potential utility of non-normalized respiratory muscle EMG as an index of neural respiratory drive (NRD). Whether NRD measured using non-normalized surface EMG of the lateral chest wall overlying the diaphragm (sEMGcw) recorded during nocturnal clinical polysomnography can differentiate children with and without obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is not known. What is the main finding and its importance? Non-normalized sEMGcw was increased in children with OSA and an additional group of snoring children without OSA but subjectively increased respiratory effort compared with primary snorers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087441DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Postural respiratory-related cortical activation and rostral fluid shift in awake healthy humans.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM UMRS 1158 Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique, Paris, France.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Moving to supine induces upper airway modifications and a fluid shift to the neck, which represent inspiratory load that predisposes to upper airway collapse. Is there cortical participation in the response to the load induced by transition to a supine posture in awake healthy subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Moving to supine induces transient cortical activation in awake healthy subjects, with greater fluid shift, supporting possible cortical participation in the response to upper airway load induced by transition to a supine posture. Our findings open new perspectives in the understanding of the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087468DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Sexual dimorphism of liver endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility in prepubertal rats and the effect of sex steroid supplementation.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Laboratório de Adaptações Metabólicas, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica Leopoldo de Meis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is there sexual dimorphism in the occurrence of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress? What is the main finding and its importance? The transition from prepubertal to the adult age is associated with an increase in the unfolded protein response markers in the liver of male rats, which is probably due to an increase in serum testosterone levels.

Abstract: Male rodents present a higher predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance than females. These disorders have been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087518DOI Listing
February 2019

Superior mesenteric and renal flow patterns during intra-aortic counterpulsation.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Maastricht University Hospital, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Visceral ischaemia is one of the most feared complications during use of an intra-aortic balloon pump. Using an animal model, we measured the flows at the abdominal level directly and examined flow patterns to enable investigation of flow patterns during the use of the intra-aortic balloon pump. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that there is a significant balloon-related reduction in superior mesenteric flow in both early and mid-diastole. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086810DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Regular aerobic exercise-ameliorated troponin I carbonylation to mitigate aged rat soleus muscle functional recession.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Physical Fitness and Sports Rehabilitation, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan, 410012, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the biological role of carbonylation in muscle age-related functional decline and how might exercise affect the carbonylation process differently compared to habitual sedentary behaviour? What is the main finding and its importance? The carbonylation of troponin I (TNNI1), tropomyosin α-1 chain and α-actinin-1 demonstrated a relationship with muscle age-related functional decline. Exercise attenuated the decline by slowing the rate of carbonylation and promoting antioxidant reactions within the muscle. As exercise demonstrated the greatest effect on TNNI1, quantification of protein carbonyls in TNNI1 may be used as a potential biomarker of muscle age-related functional decline. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087564
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087564DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Therapeutic effect of oligomeric proanthocyanidin in cuprizone-induced demyelination.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

The Key Research Laboratory Study of Beneficial Qi as a Blood Circulation Stimulator in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Jinzhong, 030619, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Oligomeric proanthocyanidin has the capacity to alleviate abnormalities in neurological functioning. However, whether oligomeric proanthocyanidin can reduce the progression of demyelination or promote remyelination in demyelinating diseases remains unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Oligomeric proanthocyanidin can improve cuprizone-induced demyelination by inhibiting immune cell infiltration, reversing overactivated microglia, decreasing the inflammatory cytokines secreted by inflammatory cells and decreasing the production of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein -specific antibody in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087480DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

NOX5: Molecular biology and pathophysiology.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This review provides a comprehensive overview of Nox5 from basic biology to human disease and highlights unique features of this Nox isoform What advances does it highlight? Major advances in Nox5 biology relate to crystallization of the molecule and new insights into the pathophysiological role of Nox5. Recent discoveries have unravelled the crystal structure of Nox5, the first Nox isoform to be crystalized. This provides new opportunities to develop drugs or small molecules targeted to Nox5 in an isoform-specific manner, possibly for therapeutic use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP086204DOI Listing
February 2019

Evening high-intensity interval exercise does not disrupt sleep or alter energy intake despite changes in acylated ghrelin in middle-aged men.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 23. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

School of Exercise Science, Sport and Health, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What are the interactions between sleep and appetite following early evening high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE)? What is the main finding and its importance? HIIE can be performed in the early evening without subsequent sleep disruptions and may favourably alter appetite-related hormone concentrations. Nonetheless, perceived appetite and energy intake do not change with acute HIIE regardless of time of day.

Abstract: Despite exercise benefits for sleep and appetite, due to increased time restraints, many adults remain inactive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087455DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Medex 2015: The key role of cardiac mechanics to maintain biventricular function at high altitude.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

U1042, INSERM, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? This study is the first to investigate the effects of high-altitude trekking on biventricular mechanics, including measurements of left ventricular subendocardial and subepicardial function. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide new evidence that an increased contractility and untwisting efficiency, a key element of diastolic function, probably plays a key role in preservation of cardiac function during high-altitude trekking. Persistent increased loading conditions during several weeks at high altitude might have a key role in the appearance of left or right ventricular dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087350DOI Listing
February 2019

Bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation rescues the glomerular filtration barrier and epithelial cellular junctions in a renovascular hypertension model.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Histology and Embryology Department, Biology Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can a single bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplant into the subcapsular region of kidney improve cellular communication and adhesion, while restoring renal tissue cytoarchitecture and function during renovascular hypertension? What is the main finding and its importance? The BMMC transplantation restored connexin 40 expression and led to recovery of N- and E-cadherin levels within 15 days. It was observed, for the first time, that BMMC transplantation restores expression of nephrin, a component of the glomerular filtration barrier related to podocytes and the glomerular basal membrane.

Abstract: Stem cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for renal diseases owing to the regenerative potential of stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087330DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 preserves t-tubular I during heart failure in mice.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the cellular basis of the protection conferred on the heart by overexpression of caveolin-3 (Cav-3 OE) against many of the features of heart failure normally observed in vivo? What is the main finding and its importance? Cav-3 overexpression has little effect in normal ventricular myocytes but reduces cellular hypertrophy and preserves t-tubular I , but not local t-tubular Ca release, in heart failure induced by pressure overload in mice. Thus Cav-3 overexpression provides specific but limited protection following induction of heart failure, although other factors disrupt Ca release.

Abstract: Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) is an 18 kDa protein that has been implicated in t-tubule formation and function in cardiac ventricular myocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087304DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Validity and reliability of lower-limb pulse-wave velocity assessments using an oscillometric technique.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? There is growing interest in the effects of sedentarism on central and peripheral cardiovascular health. To permit further investigation, including larger epidemiological studies, there is a need to identify arterial health assessment tools that are valid (accurate) and reliable (precise), yet practical. What is the main finding and its importance? Lower-limb vascular health (femoral-ankle pulse-wave velocity) can be determined in a supine position with accuracy and precision using an oscillometrically based device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087444DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Involvement of the Na ,K -ATPase isoforms in control of cerebral perfusion.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? In this review, we consider the role of the Na ,K -ATPase in cerebrovascular function and how it might be changed in familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). The primary focus is involvement of the Na ,K -ATPase isoforms in regulation of cerebrovascular tone. What advances does it highlight? In this review, we discuss three overall distinct mechanisms whereby the Na ,K -ATPase might be capable of regulating cerebrovascular tone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087519DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota diversity is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 27;104(4):529-539. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity persist after adjusting for the potential effects of percentage body fat and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to examine the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity while accounting for the underlying effects of percentage body fat and free-living AEE. Results from the present work suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness, not physical activity, is a superior correlate of gut microbiota diversity among post-primary treatment, non-metastatic breast cancer survivors.

Abstract: Cancer treatment uniquely triggers multiple physiological shifts detrimental to overall health. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087404
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464368PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Resting metabolic rate prediction equations and the validity to assess energy deficiency in the athlete population.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 4;104(4):469-475. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Faculty of Health, Sport and Human Performance, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? We review the issues with using predicted resting metabolic rate equations in athletic populations. What advances does it highlight? The use of dated predicted resting metabolic rate equations is not appropriate for athletic populations until more studies have been conducted among these unique populations.

Abstract: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the amount of energy the body uses at rest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087512DOI Listing

Respiratory disturbances in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Clinical reports have described and suggested central and peripheral respiratory abnormalities in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients; however, these reports have never addressed the occurrence of these abnormalities in an animal model. What is the main finding and its importance? A mouse model of PD has reduced neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactivity in the pre-Bӧtzinger complex and Phox2b-expressing neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus. The PD mouse has impairments of respiratory frequency and the hypercapnic ventilatory response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087507DOI Listing
February 2019

Exercise serum increases GLUT4 in human adipocytes.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Do circulating factors mediate exercise-induced effects on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression? What is the main finding and its importance? Serum (10%) obtained from human volunteers immediately after a single exercise bout increased GLUT4 protein levels in human adipocytes in culture. This result suggests that circulating factors might mediate the effects of exercise on adipose tissue GLUT4 and prompts further effort to identify the specific factor(s) and tissue(s) of origin.

Abstract: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that circulating factors generated during exercise increase adipose tissue GLUT4 expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087495DOI Listing
February 2019
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Gene expression variability in human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to acute resistance exercise.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Does exercise, independent of random error and within-subject variability, contribute to the variability in gene expression responses to an acute bout of resistance exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? A reanalysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that variability in observed gene expression responses for a subset of genes could be partially attributable to an effect of acute resistance exercise. These finding support the notion that individual responsiveness explains a portion of the variability in observed gene expression responses to acute resistance exercise.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use publicly available transcriptomic data to determine whether variability in gene expression responses to an acute bout of acute resistance exercise (ARE) can be attributable to an effect of ARE per se. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087436DOI Listing
February 2019
2.669 Impact Factor

Effects of antiarrhythmics on the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart are critically determined by the applied cardiac pacing protocol.

Authors:
Oleg E Osadchii

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 28;104(4):490-504. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Are modifications in the restitution of ventricular action potential duration induced by antiarrhythmic drugs the same when assessed with premature extrastimulus application at variable coupling intervals (the standard stimulation protocol) and with steady state pacing at variable rates (the dynamic stimulation protocol)? What is the main finding and its importance? With class I and class III antiarrhythmics, the effects on electrical restitution determined with the standard stimulation protocol dissociate from those obtained during dynamic pacing. These findings indicate a limited value of the electrical restitution assessments based on extrasystolic stimulations alone, as performed in the clinical studies, in estimating the outcomes of antiarrhythmic drug therapies.

Abstract: A steep slope of the ventricular action potential duration (APD) to diastolic interval (DI) relationships (the electrical restitution) can precipitate tachyarrhythmia, whereas a flattened slope is antiarrhythmic. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087531
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087531DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species: Dosis facit venenum.

Authors:
Katrin Schröder

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 7;104(4):447-452. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Institute for Cardiovascular Physiology, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.

New Findings: What is the topic of this review? Within this review, the role of reactive oxygen species in cellular homeostasis, physiology and pathophysiology is discussed. What advances does it highlight? The review provides new concepts of how reactive oxygen species influence gene expression, energy consumption and other aspects of the life of a cell. Furthermore, a model is provided to illustrate how reactive oxygen species elicit specific oxidation of target molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087125DOI Listing

Distinct dampening effects of progesterone on the activity of nucleus tractus solitarii neurons in rat pups.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 27;104(4):463-468. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Département de Pédiatrie, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

New Findings: What is the central question of the study? Progesterone is considered a respiratory stimulant drug, but its effect on medullary respiratory neurons are poorly documented. We investigated whether progesterone alters spontaneous activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). What is the main finding and its importance? In NTS neurons, progesterone decreases the action potential firing frequency in response to current injections and the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic currents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087461DOI Listing

Effects of inspiratory muscle strength and inspiratory resistance on neck inspiratory muscle activation during controlled inspirations.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 28;104(4):556-567. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Sports and Life Sciences, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What factors influence the onset and magnitude of activation of the neck inspiratory muscles during inspiration? What is the main finding and its importance? Recruitment of the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles during inspiration, measured by means of surface EMG, was strongly correlated with maximal inspiratory pressure. This result indicates that muscle recruitment depends on the capacity of an individual to generate inspiratory pressure. Surface measurements of neck inspiratory muscle EMG activity might complement tests currently used for the screening of respiratory-related disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087247DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Electroporated GLUT4-7myc-GFP detects in vivo glucose transporter 4 translocation in skeletal muscle without discernible changes in GFP patterns.

Exp Physiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Section of Molecular Physiology, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Resolving the mechanism(s) leading to glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the muscle surface membrane has great therapeutic potential. However, the measurement of GLUT4 translocation is technically challenging. Here, we asked whether electroporation of GLUT4-7myc-GFP into skeletal muscle could be used as a tool to study GLUT4 translocation in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087545DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Brief periods of resistance training enhance insulin sensitivity in humans.

Authors:
Abram Katz

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 21;104(4):458-459. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087607DOI Listing