1,414,135 results match your criteria Experimental Diabetes Research [Journal]


Imaging Description of Extragenital Müllerian Adenosarcoma: A Case Report.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Müllerian adenosarcoma is a very rare gynecological disease, comprising 5% of uterine sarcomas. Extragenital localizations are even rarer. We report a very interesting case of a 27-year-old woman complaining of pelvic pain, with a subsequent diagnosis of extragenital Müllerian adenosarcoma. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Xenotransplantation: Progress Along Paths Uncertain from Models to Application.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Translational Medicine and The Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

MAGE genes in the kidney: identification of MAGED2 as upregulated during kidney injury and in stressed tubular cells.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Nephrology, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Fundacion Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo-IRSIN, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Mutations in Melanoma Antigen-encoding Gene D2 (MAGED2) promote tubular dysfunction, suggesting that MAGE proteins may play a role in kidney pathophysiology. We have characterized the expression and regulation of MAGE genes in normal kidneys and during kidney disease.

Methods: The expression of MAGE genes and their encoded proteins was explored by systems biology multi-omics (kidney transcriptomics and proteomics) in healthy adult murine kidneys and following induction of experimental acute kidney injury (AKI) by a folic acid overdose. Read More

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December 2018

The Gly385(388)Arg Polymorphism of the FGFR4 Receptor regulates Hepatic Lipogenesis under healthy Diet.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Vascular Disease, Nephrology and Clinical Chemistry, University of Tübingen, Germany.

Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet. Read More

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December 2018
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Improvement in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin concentration after the switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI to raltegravir or dolutegravir in non-diabetic HIV-infected patients.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Infectious Diseases, 'Alma Mater Studiorum' University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, via Massarenti 11, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: An observational, prospective, cohort study was performed to assess changes in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin level after a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) to raltegravir or dolutegravir in HIV-infected adults on stable combination ART (cART).

Methods: Non-diabetic HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive cART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus one PI/r, who underwent a switch from the PI/r to raltegravir (group A) or dolutegravir (group B), were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of insulin, leptin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) index were evaluated during a 12 month follow-up. Read More

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December 2018

A coordinate-based meta-analysis comparing brain activation between ADHD and total sleep deprivation.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Study Objectives: Sleep disruption is common in attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in attention are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Structural insights into nucleotide and protein sequence of Ageritin: a novel prototype of fungal ribotoxin.

J Biochem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DISTABIF), University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta, Italy.

Here, we report the amino acid sequence of Ageritin, the first ribotoxin-like protein from basidiomycetes (Agrocybe aegerita). This protein consists of 135 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 14801.80 Da (experimental mass 14802. Read More

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December 2018
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In Vivo Imaging With Confirmation by Histopathology for Increased Rigor and Reproducibility in Translational Research: A Review of Examples, Options, and Resources.

ILAR J 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, Miller Research Building Molecular Imaging Service Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Preclinical noninvasive imaging can be an indispensable tool for studying animal models of disease. In vivo imaging to assess anatomical, functional, and molecular features requires verification by a comparison to the macroscopic and microscopic morphological features, since all noninvasive in vivo imaging methods have much lower resolution than standard histopathology. Comprehensive pathological evaluation of the animal model is underutilized; yet, many institutions have veterinary or human pathologists with necessary comparative pathology expertise. Read More

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December 2018

Immune system stimulation increases dietary threonine requirements for protein deposition in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.

Previous studies have reported an increase in the utilization of threonine (Thr) during immune system stimulation (ISS). However, increased utilization of an amino acid (AA) during ISS may not reflect an increased dietary requirement, as endogenous sources may supply AA to meet the need for enhanced utilization. The current study evaluated the impact of ISS on components of dietary Thr requirements, i. Read More

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December 2018

Haemodynamic stress-induced breaches of the arterial intima trigger inflammation and drive atherogenesis.

Eur Heart J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

INSERM U1148, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), DHU FIRE, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 46 rue Henri Huchard, Paris, France.

Aims: Inflammatory mediators, including blood cells and their products, contribute critically to atherogenesis, but the igniting triggers of inflammation remain elusive. Atherosclerosis develops at sites of flow perturbation, where the enhanced haemodynamic stress could initiate the atherogenic inflammatory process due to the occurrence of mechanic injury. We investigated the role of haemodynamic stress-induced breaches, allowing the entry of blood cells in the arterial intima, in triggering inflammation-driven atherogenesis. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular point-of-care testing for influenza to improve early neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and outcomes in hospitalised adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Academic Unit of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

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December 2018

Antidiarrheal activity of α-terpineol in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 8;110:631-640. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Medicinal Plants Research Center (NPPM), Federal University of Piauí, 64.049-550, Teresina, PI, Brazil. Electronic address:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of infant death in the world accounting for high child mortality rate. It is also present in different pathophysiologies related to several etiological agents. The aim of this study is to investigate the antidiarrheal effect of α -Terpineol (α-TPN) in different diarrhea models in rodents. Read More

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December 2018

1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D regulates macrophage polarization and ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease by suppressing miR-125b.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 9;67:106-118. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Immunology, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China; Key Laboratory of Tumor Prevention and Treatment of Heilongjiang Province, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China; Institute of Neural Tissue Engineering, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang 157011, China. Electronic address:

Macrophages are highly plastic cells. Depending on stimulation, macrophages rapidly polarize to functionally distinct phenotypes that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 1,25‑Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) has immunomodulatory activity, and 1,25(OH)D deficiency is correlated with autoimmune diseases, especially IBD. Read More

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December 2018

Drp1 Controls Effective T Cell Immune-Surveillance by Regulating T Cell Migration, Proliferation, and cMyc-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3059-3073.e10

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; IRCCS, Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are key players in the regulation of T cell biology by dynamically responding to cell needs, but how these dynamics integrate in T cells is still poorly understood. We show here that the mitochondrial pro-fission protein Drp1 fosters migration and expansion of developing thymocytes both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that Drp1 sustains in vitro clonal expansion and cMyc-dependent metabolic reprogramming upon activation, also regulating effector T cell numbers in vivo. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Novel therapeutic approaches in primary hyperoxaluria.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2018 Dec 12:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Division of Pediatric Nephrology , University Childrens Hospital, Universitatsklinikum Bonn , Bonn , Germany.

Introduction: Currently, three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH I-III) are known, all based on different gene-mutations affecting the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver. Disease hallmark is an increased endogenous oxalate production and thus massively elevated urinary excretion of oxalate and other type-specific metabolites. Hyperoxaluria induces the formation of calcium-oxalate kidney stones and/or nephrocalcinosis. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of acidic and nonacidic reflux on the eustachian tube: An animal experiment.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Dec;97(12):E21-E27

MediENT Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, Halk Sokak no:50/1, Istanbul, Turkey.

We investigated the effects of pepsin/hydrochloric acid and bile acids on eustachian tube function and eustachian tube mucosa in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly assigned to groups of 10: one group received pepsin/hydrochloric acid (pepsin/HCl group), another received human bile (human bile group), a third received a mixture of pepsin/HCl and human bile (combination group), and the fourth received isotonic saline solution (control group). Test solutions were applied transnasally three times a day for 10 days. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The impact of Australian healthcare reforms on emergency department time-based process outcomes: An interrupted time series study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209043. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In 2011, the Australian government introduced national healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the timeliness and quality of hospital care. The healthcare reforms included, but were not limited to, emergency department (ED) time-based targets, financial incentives, and public performance reporting of hospital data. We sought to evaluate the impact of the national healthcare reforms on ED time-based process outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Improved multilineage human hematopoietic reconstitution and function in NSGS mice.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209034. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.

Genetic manipulation of NOD/SCID (NS) mice has yielded numerous sub-strains with specific traits useful for the study of human hematopoietic xenografts, each with unique characteristics. Here, we have compared the engraftment and output of umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD34+ cells in four immune-deficient strains: NS, NS with additional IL2RG knockout (NSG), NS with transgenic expression of human myeloid promoting cytokines SCF, GM-CSF, and IL-3 (NSS), and NS with both IL2RG knockout and transgenic cytokine expression (NSGS). Overall engraftment of human hematopoietic cells was highest in the IL2RG knockout strains (NSG and NSGS), while myeloid cell output was notably enhanced in the two strains with transgenic cytokine expression (NSS and NSGS). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Inferring symmetric and asymmetric interactions between animals and groups from positional data.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208202. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia.

Interactions between domestic and wild species has become a global problem of growing interest. Global Position Systems (GPS) allow collection of vast records of time series of animal spatial movement, but there is need for developing analytical methods to efficiently use this information to unravel species interactions. This study assesses different methods to infer interactions and their symmetry between individual animals, social groups or species. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of COS markers specific for Thinopyrum elongatum chromosomes preliminary revealed high level of macrosyntenic relationship between the wheat and Th. elongatum genomes.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208840. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, Hungary.

Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) D.R. Dewey has served as an important gene source for wheat breeding improvement for many years. Read More

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December 2018

Eye blinks are perceived as communicative signals in human face-to-face interaction.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208030. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

In face-to-face communication, recurring intervals of mutual gaze allow listeners to provide speakers with visual feedback (e.g. nodding). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

A new development of non-local image denoising using fixed-point iteration for non-convex ℓp sparse optimization.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208503. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL, United States of America.

We proposed a new efficient image denoising scheme, which mainly leads to four important contributions whose approaches are different from existing ones. The first is to show the equivalence between the group-based sparse representation and the Schatten-p norm minimization problem, so that the sparsity of the coefficients for each group can be measured by estimating the underlying singular values. The second is that we construct the proximal operator for sparse optimization in ℓp space with p ∈ (0, 1] by using fixed-point iteration and obtained a new solution of Schatten-p norm minimization problem, which is more rigorous and accurate than current available results. Read More

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December 2018

Desert plant bacteria reveal host influence and beneficial plant growth properties.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208223. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Desert Agriculture Initiative, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Deserts, such as those found in Saudi Arabia, are one of the most hostile places for plant growth. However, desert plants are able to impact their surrounding microbial community and select beneficial microbes that promote their growth under these extreme conditions. In this study, we examined the soil, rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities of four native desert plants Tribulus terrestris, Zygophyllum simplex, Panicum turgidum and Euphorbia granulata from the Southwest (Jizan region), two of which were also found in the Midwest (Al Wahbah area) of Saudi Arabia. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An integrated method for understanding the function of macro-lithic tools. Use wear, 3D and spatial analyses of an Early Upper Palaeolithic assemblage from North Eastern Italy.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207773. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Diet and Ancient Technology Laboratory (DANTE), Sapienza University, Rome, Lazio, Italy.

The article presents an original analysis which combines use-wear, 3D modelling and spatial analyses to experimental archaeology in order to investigate Early Upper Palaeolithic flint-knapping gestures and techniques involving the use of macro-lithic tools. In particular, the methodological framework proposed in this paper was applied to the study of Protoaurignacian and Aurignacian macro-tools from Fumane Cave (Verona, Italy). Combining spatial analysis and use wear investigation, both at low and high magnifications, permitted the identification and detailed description of the use-related traces affecting both the hammerstones and retouchers which, at Fumane Cave, were used at different stages during flint tool production. Read More

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December 2018

Mediterranean herb extracts inhibit microbial growth of representative oral microorganisms and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207574. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In light of the growing antibiotic resistance, the usage of plant-derived antimicrobial agents could serve as an effective alternative treatment against oral infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Mediterranean herb extracts against representative oral microorganisms. The extraction procedures and the analysis of the obtained extracts were performed under established experimental conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Susceptibility and resilience to cyber threat: Findings from a scenario decision program to measure secure and insecure computing behavior.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207408. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Interest in the individual differences underlying end user computer security behavior has led to the development of a multidisciplinary field of research known as behavioral information security. An important gap in knowledge and the motivation for this research is the development of ways to measure secure and insecure cyber behavior for research and eventually practice. Here we report a study designed to develop a technique for assessing secure and insecure cyber behavior for broad research use. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide functional analyses of plant coiled-coil NLR-type pathogen receptors reveal essential roles of their N-terminal domain in oligomerization, networking, and immunity.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e2005821. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Molecular Plant Pathology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The ability to induce a defense response after pathogen attack is a critical feature of the immune system of any organism. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are key players in this process and perceive the occurrence of nonself-activities or foreign molecules. In plants, coevolution with a variety of pests and pathogens has resulted in repertoires of several hundred diverse NLRs in single individuals and many more in populations as a whole. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Screen for modulators of atonal homolog 1 gene expression using notch pathway-relevant gene transcription based cellular assays.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207140. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

R&D Alternative Discovery and Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.

Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is a basic helix-loop-helix 9 (bHLH) transcription factor acting downstream of Notch and is required for the differentiation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear and the specification of secretory cells during the intestinal crypt cell regeneration. Motivated by the observations that the upregulation of Atoh1 gene expression, through genetic manipulation or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Heterochromatin delays CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis but does not influence the outcome of mutagenic DNA repair.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e2005595. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Genome editing occurs in the context of chromatin, which is heterogeneous in structure and function across the genome. Chromatin heterogeneity is thought to affect genome editing efficiency, but this has been challenging to quantify due to the presence of confounding variables. Here, we develop a method that exploits the allele-specific chromatin status of imprinted genes in order to address this problem in cycling mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Antiemetic Drug Use in Children: What the Clinician Needs to Know.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clinical Pharmacology & Digestive Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Vomiting is not only unpleasant for both children and families, but can lead to frequent hospital admission. The persistent vomiting hampers oral intake and increases the risk of dehydration so the proper use of antiemetic drugs can be useful. The pharmacological treatment of vomiting in children remains a challenge for the pediatrician because several antiemetics are prescribed as "off-label", outside their authorized drug label. Read More

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December 2018

Surgery for Chronic Otitis Media Causes Greater Taste Disturbance Than Surgery for Otosclerosis.

Otol Neurotol 2019 Jan;40(1):e32-e39

Department of Otorhinolaryngology.

Objectives: Patients with otosclerosis more often complain about postoperative taste disturbance than patients with chronic otitis media, which seems paradoxical. We aim to investigate if and potentially why this seems to be the case, since the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is thought to be severely traumatized less frequently during surgery in the former than in the latter.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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January 2019

A Novel Research Method for Determining Sedative Exposure in Critically Ill Patients.

Nurs Res 2019 Jan/Feb;68(1):73-79

Mary Fran Tracy, PhD, RN, APRN, CNS, FAAN, is Associate Professor, University of Minnesota School of Nursing, and Nurse Scientist, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis. Linda Chlan, PhD, RN, ATSF, FAAN, is Associate Dean for Nursing Research and Professor of Nursing, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota. Kay Savik, MS, is Senior Statistician, University of Minnesota School of Nursing, Minneapolis. Debra J. Skaar, PharmD, FCCM, is Associate Professor of Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis. Craig Weinert, MD, MPH, is Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis.

Background: Although potent sedative and opioid drugs are some of the most commonly used medications to manage pain, anxiety, and discomfort in critically ill patients, conducting clinical trials where sedative and opioid medications are outcome variables within a longitudinal research design can be a methodological challenge.

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to provide in detail a conceptual discussion of the concept and analysis of sedative exposure: A novel research analysis method for aggregating sedative and opioid medication doses from disparate drug classes commonly administered to critically ill patients and used by our team in several clinical research studies.

Methods: Comparing the dose of each sedative and opioid administered to an individual patient (within a defined time interval) to all other patients in a research study receiving the same medications allows for ranking of dosages for each medication by quartiles. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Minimally Invasive Intervention in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, China.

Our aim was to explore the efficacy of minimally invasive intervention in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Seventy patients with ACI were randomized into either an experimental group or a control group. In addition to the regular treatment, patients in the control group also received intravenous thrombolysis with urokinase, while patients in the other group underwent percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty and stenting. Read More

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December 2018

ACSM PRE-PARTICIPATION HEALTH SCREENING GUIDELINES: A UK UNIVERSITY COHORT PERSPECTIVE.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Pre-participation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remains limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the ACSM pre-participation health screening guidelines on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students. Read More

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December 2018

Voluntary wheel running reveals sex specific nociceptive factors in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, neurodegenerative autoimmune disease associated with sensory and motor dysfunction. Although estimates vary, ∼50% of patients with MS experience pain during their disease. The mechanisms underlying the development of pain are not fully understood and no effective treatment for MS related pain is available. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of task-oriented electromyography-triggered electrical stimulation of the paretic wrist extensors on upper limb motor function early after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Int J Rehabil Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Health Science, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

The combined effect of task-oriented motor training and electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical stimulation (ES) has been examined in chronic stroke, but there are no published reports in patients with early stroke. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and long-term effects of task-oriented EMG-triggered ES on upper limb motor function in acute/subacute stroke. Twenty-seven patients with stroke within the first 3 months after stroke onset were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An Effective Simulator for Intraoral Facial Skeletal Contour Surgeries.

Ann Plast Surg 2019 Jan;82(1):99-103

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Background: In East Asia, intraoral facial skeletal contour surgeries (intraoral FSCSs), including reduction gonioplasty, reduction malarplasty, and genioplasty, have become increasingly popular. Nonetheless, intraoral FSCSs are technically difficult and have a steep learning curve. An effective simulator could be beneficial for intraoral FSCS training. Read More

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January 2019

Neutrophils in lupus nephritis.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Excellence in Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multiorgan autoimmune disease characterized by IgG-autoantibodies to nuclear antigens that can deposit in the kidney and trigger lupus nephritis. Neutrophils accumulate in the kidneys of patients with proliferative LUPUS NEPHRITIS and neutrophil products and a subset of granulocytes, called low-density granulocytes (LDG) may contribute to lupus nephritis pathogenesis. Here, we will discuss recent studies implicating neutrophils in the pathogenesis of human SLE nephritis and then examine studies that provide mechanistic insights into how these cells are recruited to the glomerulus following immune complex deposition and how their products may promote lupus nephritis. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms of disease: The endocrinology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

A Tahrani, University of Birmingham, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with serious co-morbidities with a negative impact on quality of life, life expectancy and health costs. As OSA is related to obesity and is associated with sleep disruption, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, it is not surprising that OSA has an impact on the secretion of multiple hormones and is implicated in the development of many endocrine conditions. On the other hand, many endocrine conditions that can affect obesity and/or upper airways anatomy and stability have been implicated in the development or worsening of OSA. Read More

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December 2018

Standards of Care for Hypoparathyroidism in Adults.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Clarke, Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA, Rochester, United States.

Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords "hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy". Only English language papers involving humans were included. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical activation of the ethylene signalling pathway promotes Fusarium graminearum resistance in detached wheat heads.

Phytopathology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Lethbridge, Department of Biological Sciences, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada ;

Plant signalling hormones, such as ethylene, have been shown to affect the host response to various pathogens. Often the resistance responses to necrotrophic fungi are mediated through synergistic interactions of ethylene (ET) with the jasmonate signalling pathway. On the other hand, ethylene is also an inducer of senescence and cell death, which could be beneficial for some invading necrotrophic pathogens. Read More

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December 2018

Is anterior guidance a key factor on planning implant treatment for free-end missing in the posterior mandible?

J Oral Implantol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Kyushu Dental University Department of Oral Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Kyushu Dental University.

To perform safe implant treatment, the anatomical structure and bone quality at implant placement sites are evaluated based on a patient's CT data, but there is no definite method to determine placement sites and the appropriate number of implants. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the number and arrangement of implants on the stress distribution in 3-unit posterior fixed partial dentures for the posterior mandible by mechanical analysis using the finite element method. Three-dimensional finite element analysis models were constructed from the CT data of a patient with missing mandibular teeth (Nos. Read More

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December 2018

[Liver bud transplantation in rats].

Magy Seb 2018 Dec;71(4):163-169

Department of Organ Fabrication, Keio University School of Medicine 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Introduction: Research has made progress in organ fabrication using an extracellular matrix, cell sheets, or organoids. Human liver tissue has been constructed using a 3-dimensional (3D) bioprinter and showed evidence that an in vitro generated liver bud was reformed in a rodent liver model. This study describes the stages of development of rat fetal organs and liver structure and reviews recent progress in liver organoid transplantation. Read More

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December 2018

Slowed Sensory Reweighting and Postural Illusions in Older Adults: The Moving Platform Illusion.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychology, Queen's University Belfast, Belgium.

We investigated whether postural after-effects witnessed during transitions from a moving to stable support are accompanied by a delayed perception of platform stabilization in older adults, in two experiments. In Experiment 1, postural sway and muscle co-contraction were assessed in eleven healthy young, eleven healthy older and eleven fall-prone older adults during blind-folded stance on a fixed platform, followed by a sway-referenced platform then followed by a fixed platform again. The sway-referenced platform was more compliant for young adults to induce similar levels of postural sway in both age groups. Read More

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December 2018

Phase shifts in high beta and low gamma band local field potentials predict the focus of visual spatial attention.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine, United States.

The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-relevant behavior or cognitive processes, such as attention. We sought to determine whether LFP amplitude or phase modulations were predictive of the allocation of visual spatial attention. Read More

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December 2018
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Gaussian Process Surrogate Models for the CMA Evolution Strategy.

Evol Comput 2018 Dec 12:1-30. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Computer Science, Czech Academy of Sciences, Pod Vodárenskou věží 2, 182 07 Prague, Czech Republic

This article deals with Gaussian process surrogate models for the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy (CMA-ES)-several already existing and two by the authors recently proposed models are presented. The work discusses different variants of surrogate model exploitation and focuses on the benefits of employing the Gaussian process uncertainty prediction, especially during the selection of points for the evaluation with a surrogate model. The experimental part of the paper thoroughly compares and evaluates the five presented Gaussian process surrogate and six other state-of-the-art optimizers on the COCO benchmarks. Read More

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December 2018
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The Origin of Two-Dimensional Vertical Ferroelectricity in WTe Bilayer and Multilayer.

J Phys Chem Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

In a recent report (Nature 2018, 560, 336), room-temperature vertical ferroelectricity was experimentally shown in WTe2 bilayer, while its mechanism of ferroelectric switching without vertical ion displacements remains unclarified. In this work we reveal its origin by first-principles calculations that the polarization stems from uncompensated interlayer vertical charge transfer depending on in-plane translation, which can be switched upon interlayer sliding. The calculated results are consistent with experimental data, and similar switching mechanism can be applied to multilayer counterpart. Read More

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December 2018
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Direct Demonstration of DNA Compaction Mediated by Divalent Counterions.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

We unambiguously demonstrated DNA attraction and its regulation mediated by divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ by tethering a DNA single chain at various pH solutions. It is found that DNA is compacted when pH of solution containing these divalent counterions is lowered below 5. When pH of medium is about 4, DNA is in an unstable transition state, being able to switch reversely between compact and extensible states. Read More

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December 2018
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