988 results match your criteria Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews [Journal]


Resistance Exercise-Induced Hypertrophy: A Potential Role for Rapamycin-Insensitive mTOR.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) exerts both rapamycin-sensitive and rapamycin-insensitive signaling events, and the rapamycin-sensitive components of mTOR signaling have been widely implicated in the pathway through which resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. This review explores the hypothesis that rapamycin-insensitive components of mTOR signaling also contribute to this highly important process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000189DOI Listing

Sex-Differences in the Pulmonary System Influence the Integrative Response to Exercise.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Feb 25. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Kinesiology, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Healthy women have proportionally smaller lungs and airways compared to height-matched men. These anatomical sex-based differences result in greater mechanical ventilatory constraints and may influence the integrative response to exercise. Our review will examine this hypothesis in healthy humans in the context of dynamic whole-body exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000188DOI Listing
February 2019

Considering Type 1 Diabetes as a Form of Accelerated Muscle Aging.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Pathology & Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton ON Canada.

Recent evidence reveals impairments to skeletal muscle health in adolescent/young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interestingly, the observed changes in T1D are not unlike aged muscle; particularly, the alterations to mitochondria. Thus, we put forth the novel hypothesis that T1D may be considered a condition of accelerated muscle aging and that, similar to aging, mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary contributor to this complication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000184DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Muscle Fiber Splitting is a Physiological Response to Extreme Loading in Animals.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Center for Muscle Biology.

Skeletal muscle fiber branching and splitting is typically associated with damage and regeneration and is considered pathological when observed during loading-induced hypertrophy. We hypothesize that fiber splitting is a non-pathological component of extreme loading and hypertrophy, which is primarily supported by evidence in animals, and propose that the mechanisms and consequences of fiber splitting deserve further exploration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000181DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Regulation of Body Temperature by Autonomic and Behavioral Thermoeffectors.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Center for Research and Education in Special Environments, Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Thermoregulation is accomplished via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses may influence decisions to behaviorally thermoregulate. For instance, in addition to changes in body temperature, skin wettedness and involuntary muscle contraction, which occur subsequent to sweating and shivering, likely modulate thermal behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000180DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis During Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Dept. of Kinesiology and.

An increase in ribosomal capacity is a hallmark of the hypertrophying muscle. We review evidence demonstrating that transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is necessary for the increase in ribosomal capacity, and this is critical for muscle growth in human and animal models of hypertrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000179DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Estrogens Are for More Than Just Reproductive Endocrinology.

Authors:
Robert S Bowen

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1)

Pilgram Marpeck School of STEM Truett McConnell University Cleveland, GA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000175DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

From the Editor.

Authors:

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000178DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Promoting Exercise Adherence Through Groups: A Self-Categorization Theory Perspective.

Authors:
Mark R Beauchamp

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):54-61

School of Kinesiology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The hypothesis presented in this paper is that adherence to exercise programs can be understood, and fostered through intervention, by considering how social identities form within group settings. This paper explains these processes from a self-categorization theory perspective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000177DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Statistical Considerations for Exercise Protocols Aimed at Measuring Trainability.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):37-45

Institute for Health and Sport (iHeS), Victoria University, Victoria, Australia.

The individual response to exercise training is of great interest with methods that have been proposed to measure this response reviewed in this paper. However, individual training response estimates may be biased by various sources of variability present in exercise studies, and in particular by within-subject variability. We propose the use of protocols that can separate trainability from within-subject variability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000176DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

The Importance of mTOR Trafficking for Human Skeletal Muscle Translational Control.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):46-53

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of muscle protein synthesis, and its activation has long been attributed to its translocation to the lysosome. Here, we present a novel model of mTOR activation in skeletal muscle where the translocation of mTOR and the lysosome toward the cell membrane is a key process in mTOR activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310455PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Syncing Exercise With Meals and Circadian Clocks.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):22-28

Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri - Columbia, Columbia, MO.

Circadian rhythms, meals, and exercise modulate energy metabolism. This review explores the novel hypothesis that there is an optimal time of day to exercise to improve 24 h glycemia and lipemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295221PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Athletes With Versus Without Leg Amputations: Different Biomechanics, Similar Running Economy.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):15-21

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Athletes with transtibial amputations use carbon-fiber prostheses to run. Compared with biological legs, these devices differ in structure and function, and consequently yield affected leg running biomechanics that are theoretically more economical than those of nonamputees. However, experimental data indicate that athletes with unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputations exhibit running economy values that are well within the range of nonamputee values. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000174DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Raising an Active and Healthy Generation: A Comprehensive Public Health Initiative.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):3-14

Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Physical activity (PA) provides important health benefits to youth, but most U.S. children and adolescents fail to meet federal PA guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000171DOI Listing
January 2019
18 Reads

Protein Metabolism in Active Youth: Not Just Little Adults.

Authors:
Daniel R Moore

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2019 01;47(1):29-36

Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Understanding how exercise and dietary protein alter the turnover and synthesis of body proteins in youth can provide guidelines for the optimal development of lean mass. This review hypothesizes that active youth obtain similar anabolic benefits from exercise and dietary protein as adults, but the requirement for amino acids to support growth renders them more sensitive to these nutrients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000170DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Response.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):272

Department of Nutrition Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000165DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

"Live High-Train Low" Paradigm: Moving the Debate Forward.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):271

Laboratory Sport, Expertise and Performance (EA 7370), Research Department, French Institute of Sport (INSEP), Paris, France Institute of Sport Sciences (ISSUL), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000164DOI Listing
October 2018

Peripheral Fatigue: Has Another "Threshold" Bitten the Dust?

Authors:
Mark Burnley

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):204

Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000169DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Priscilla M. Clarkson Undergraduate Travel Award.

Authors:

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):203

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000157DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Exercise and Bariatric Surgery: An Effective Therapeutic Strategy.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):262-270

Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Florida Hospital.

The long-term efficacy of bariatric surgery is not entirely clear, and weight regain and diabetes relapse are problems for some patients. Exercise is a feasible and clinically effective adjunct therapy for bariatric surgery patients. We hypothesize that exercise is also a critical factor for long-term weight loss maintenance and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147093PMC
October 2018
19 Reads

Dietary Nitrate Enhances the Contractile Properties of Human Skeletal Muscle.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):254-261

Medicine and.

Dietary nitrate, a source of nitric oxide (NO), improves the contractile properties of human muscle. We present the hypothesis that this is due to nitrosylation of the ryanodine receptor and increased NO signaling via the soluble guanyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G pathway, which together increase the free intracellular Ca concentration along with the Ca sensitivity of the myofilaments themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138552PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

The Renin-Angiotensin System and Skeletal Muscle.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):205-214

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the control of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Emerging evidence also reveals that hyperactivity of the RAS contributes to skeletal muscle wasting. This review discusses the key role that the RAS plays in skeletal muscle wasting due to congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and ventilator-induced diaphragmatic wasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000158DOI Listing
October 2018
18 Reads
4.260 Impact Factor

Resistance Exercise's Ability to Reverse Cancer-Induced Anabolic Resistance.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):247-253

Department of Exercise Science and.

Skeletal muscle has the dynamic capability to modulate protein turnover in response to anabolic stimuli, such as feeding and contraction. We propose that anabolic resistance, the suppressed ability to induce protein synthesis, is central to cancer-induced muscle wasting. Furthermore, we propose that resistance exercise training has the potential to attenuate or treat cancer-induced anabolic resistance through improvements in oxidative metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138526PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

Modulation of Energy Expenditure by Estrogens and Exercise in Women.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):232-239

Division of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Reducing estrogen in women results in decreases in energy expenditure, but the mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. We postulate that the loss of estrogens in women is associated with increased accumulation of bone marrow-derived adipocytes in white adipose tissue, decreased activity of brown adipose tissue, and reduced levels of physical activity. Regular exercise may counteract the effects of estrogen deficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138559PMC
October 2018
18 Reads

Modeling Overuse Injuries in Sport as a Mechanical Fatigue Phenomenon.

Authors:
W Brent Edwards

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):224-231

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology.

This paper postulates that overuse injury in sport is a biomechanical event resulting from the mechanical fatigue of biological tissue. A theoretical foundation and operational framework necessary to model overuse injury as a mechanical fatigue phenomenon is introduced. Adopting this framework may provide a more mechanistic understanding of overuse injury and inform training and preventive strategies to reduce their occurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000163DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Performance Fatigability Is Not Regulated to A Peripheral Critical Threshold.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):240-246

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.

The critical threshold hypothesis proposes that performance fatigability during high-intensity exercise is tightly regulated by negative-feedback signals from the active muscles. We propose that performance fatigability is simply dependent on the exercise mode and intensity; the consequent adjustments, in skeletal muscle and the other physiological systems that support exercise, interact to modulate fatigue and determine exercise tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000162DOI Listing
October 2018
11 Reads

Protective Effects of Exercise on Cognition and Brain Health in Older Adults.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 10;46(4):215-223

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology.

Accelerated trajectories of cognitive decline in older adults may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD). Physical activity has potential modifying effects on these changes that could prevent or delay ADRD. This review explores the hypothesis that multiple, mutually complimentary, and interacting factors explain the positive association between exercise and the optimization of cognition in older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000161DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Performance Limitations in Heart Transplant Recipients.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):144-151

College of Nursing and Health Innovation and.

We hypothesize that the reduced peak aerobic power (peak V˙O2) after heart transplantation is due to impaired cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, and its improvement with short-term (≤1 yr) exercise training is primarily due to favorable skeletal muscle adaptations. Furthermore, the increased peak V˙O2 with long-term (>2 yr) training is primarily mediated by cardiac (sympathetic) reinnervation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000149DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

Concepts About V˙O2max and Trainability Are Context Dependent.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):138-143

Center for Physical Activity Research, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Some individuals show little or no increase in maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) in response to training programs consistent with public health guidelines. However, results from studies using more intense programs challenge the concept that some humans have limited trainability. We explore the implications of these divergent observations on the biology of trainability and propose a new set of twin studies to explore them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000150DOI Listing
July 2018
8 Reads

Exercise Nonresponders: Genetic Curse, Poor Compliance, or Improper Prescription?

Authors:
Hirofumi Tanaka

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):137

Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas, Austin, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000156DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Skeletal Muscle Function in the Oldest-Old: The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):188-194

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona.

Although skeletal muscle function is diminished with advanced age, single muscle fiber function seems to be preserved. Therefore, this review examines the hypothesis that the skeletal muscle fiber, per se, is not the predominant factor responsible for the reduction in force-generating capacity in the oldest-old, but, rather, is attributable to a combination of factors external to the muscle fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000155DOI Listing
July 2018
12 Reads

The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on the Muscle Stem Cell Response.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):180-187

Departments of Kinesiology and.

Satellite cells are indispensable for skeletal muscle repair and regeneration and are associated with muscle growth in humans. Aerobic exercise training results in improved skeletal muscle health also translating to an increase in satellite cell pool activation. We postulate that aerobic exercise improves satellite cell function in skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000153DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

Motor Learning Triggers Neuroplastic Processes While Awake and During Sleep.

Authors:
Nicole Wenderoth

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):152-159

Neural Control of Movement Lab, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Behavioral changes characteristic for motor learning result from synaptic plasticity within the sensorimotor system. This review summarizes how the central nervous system responds rapidly to motor activity while awake. It then discusses evidence for the hypothesis that sleep is essential for both stabilizing previously acquired motor memories and maintaining the brain's efficacy to undergo plastic changes to learn new skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000154DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Circulating microRNA as Emerging Biomarkers of Exercise.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):160-171

Department of Functional Biology (Physiology), University of Oviedo, Oviedo.

An interest has recently emerged in the role of circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) as posttranscriptional regulators, intercellular communicators and, especially, as potential biomarkers of the systemic response to acute exercise and training. We propose that, with the limited, heterogeneous, and mainly descriptive information currently available, c-miRNAs do not provide a reliable biomarker of exercise in healthy or diseased individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000148DOI Listing
July 2018
4 Reads

The Microvasculature and Skeletal Muscle Health in Aging.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):172-179

Baltimore Veterans Affairs Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center.

Aging and aging-related declines in physical activity are associated with physical and metabolic impairments. Skeletal muscle capillarization is reduced in sedentary older adults, may contribute to impairments in skeletal muscle, and is modifiable by exercise training. This article examines the hypothesis that preservation of skeletal muscle capillarization is essential to maintain metabolism, fitness, and function with aging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005745PMC
July 2018
11 Reads

Perspectives for Progress -- Performance Limitations in Heart Transplant Recipients.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

College of Nursing and Health Innovation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA.

We hypothesize that the reduced peak aerobic power (peak VO2) following heart transplantation (HT) is due to impaired cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, and its improvement with short-term (≤1 year) exercise training is primarily due to favorable skeletal muscle adaptations. Further, the increased peak VO2 with long-term (>2 years) training is primarily mediated by cardiac (sympathetic) reinnervation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000149DOI Listing
April 2018
2 Reads

Perspectives for Progress: Concepts About V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and Trainability Are Context Dependent.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Center for Physical Activity Research, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Some individuals show little or no increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in response to training programs consistent with public health guidelines. However, results from studies using more intense programs challenge the concept that some humans have limited trainability. We explore the implications of these divergent observations on the biology of trainability and propose a new set of twin studies to explore them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000150DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Potential Roles of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor During Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

Authors:
Kimberly A Huey

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 07;46(3):195-202

College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Drake University, Des Moines, IA.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) deletion in adult mouse muscle fibers contributes to impaired contractile and muscular adaptations to a hypertrophic stimulus suggesting a critical role in adult muscle growth. This review explores the hypothesis that VEGF is essential for adult muscle growth by impacting inflammatory processes, satellite-endothelial cell interactions, and contractile protein accumulation by functioning within known hypertrophic signaling pathways including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-Akt) and Wnt-ß-catenin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000152DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Children and Youth: A Call for Surveillance, But Now How Do We Do It?

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):65

Tufts University Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856616PMC
April 2018
5 Reads

Using Drosophila to Understand Biochemical and Behavioral Responses to Exercise.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):112-120

Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

The development of endurance exercise paradigms in Drosophila has facilitated study of genetic factors that control individual response to exercise. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that activation of octopaminergic neurons is alone sufficient to confer exercise adaptations to sedentary flies. These results suggest that adrenergic activity is both necessary and sufficient to promote endurance exercise adaptations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856617PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

The Nuclear Receptor Nor-1 Is a Pleiotropic Regulator of Exercise-Induced Adaptations.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):97-104

Hepatic Fibrosis Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Queensland.

Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated after exercise, and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000143DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

The Hippo Signaling Pathway in the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Mass and Function.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):92-96

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute.

The Hippo signaling pathway regulates the activity of the proteins Yes-associated protein (Yap) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (Taz) to control tissue growth in many different cell types. Previously, we demonstrated that Yap is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesize that alterations in Yap and Taz activity modulate the anabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to resistance exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319272PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" Altitude Training on Exercise Performance.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):129-136

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000144DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

Promotion of Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis Through Health Care Providers.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):105-111

Participation in exercise yields meaningful benefits among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet this population engages in low rates of health-promoting physical activity. The disconnect between evidence of benefits and rates of participation requires consideration of new opportunities for changing this health behavior. The current article hypothesizes that the patient-provider interaction offers a fertile opportunity for promoting exercise behavior in MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000140DOI Listing
April 2018
5 Reads

Potential Role of MicroRNA in the Anabolic Capacity of Skeletal Muscle With Aging.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):86-91

Nutrition, Exercise, Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA.

Age-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia, may be the result of diminished response to anabolic stimulation. This review will explore the hypothesis that alterations in the expression of microRNA with aging contributes to reduced muscle plasticity resulting in impaired skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise-induced anabolic stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856619PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Making a Case for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Surveillance Among Children and Youth.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):66-75

Healthy Active Living and Obesity (HALO) Research Group, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

We review the evidence that supports cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as an important indicator of current and future health among school-aged children and youth, independent of physical activity levels. We discuss the merit of CRF measurement for population health surveillance and propose the development of CRF guidelines to help support regional, national, and international surveillance efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000138DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Biomechanical Response to Osteoarthritis Pain Treatment May Impair Long-Term Efficacy.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):121-128

Departments of Kinesiology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Pain has an important physiologic role and acts with or stimulates motor system adaptations to protect tissue from threats of damage. Although clinically beneficial, removing the protective pain response may have negative consequence in osteoarthritis, a mechanically mediated disease. We hypothesize motor system adaptations to joint pain and its treatment may impact osteoarthritis progression, thereby limiting efficacy of pain therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000141DOI Listing
April 2018
4 Reads

Identifying Novel Signaling Pathways: An Exercise Scientists Guide to Phosphoproteomics.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 04;46(2):76-85

We propose that phosphoproteomic-based studies will radically advance our knowledge about exercise-regulated signaling events. However, these studies use cutting-edge technologies that can be difficult for nonspecialists to understand. Hence, this review is intended to help nonspecialists 1) understand the fundamental technologies behind phosphoproteomic analysis and 2) use various bioinformatic tools that can be used to interrogate phosphoproteomic datasets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261359PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Exercise and the Tumor Microenvironment: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 01;46(1):56-64

Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, University of Florida.

An imbalance in oxygen delivery to demand in solid tumors results in local areas of hypoxia leading to poor prognosis for the patient. We hypothesize that aerobic exercise increases tumor blood flow, recruits previously nonperfused tumor blood vessels, and thereby augments blood-tumor O2 transport and diminishes tumor hypoxia. When combined with conventional anticancer treatments, aerobic exercise can significantly improve the outcomes for several types of cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000137DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads

From the Editor.

Authors:
Roger M Enoka

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2018 01;46(1)

Editor-in-Chief.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000136DOI Listing
January 2018
13 Reads